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California Slate Library 



CALIFORNIA 

State Library 
166996 

Call Wo. GV* 2.0 ». rf— SO 






s 



CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY. 

co-^oniuiFM-j-Q 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

A book may be kept for three weeks and renewed 
for two weeks longer. 

A fine of five cents a day will be charged on over- 
due books. 



APR 1 5 1914 



AUG { | I*,* 

OCT I «* 
OCT 3 itn¥ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/brickbuilder21unse 



Competition Program — Brick Bungalow — Page 28 




THE 



STATE 








IAN 




ARCHIIECVRAL 

MONTHLY 






UD 



U<«««{ VOL.2. 





JANUARY 




MKG5S53 no.. 



l 



i; 



PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



TRADE MARK 




The Most Artistic and 

Permanent Building 
Material in the World 

There is only one " Tapestry " Brick. It 
is made exclusively by Fiske & Co. Inc. 
Our trade mark " Tapestry " is branded 
on each brick. It stands for the highest 
product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
ence. It protects you against substitution. 

"Tapestry" Brick has been used by lead- 
ing architects on residences, churches, 
libraries, hospitals, club houses, schools, 
fraternal buildings, and high grade 

apartments. 

ISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 

BRICKSi-ED IN 1064 

BOSTON. 25 Arch St. NEW YORK. Arena Bldg. 




NEW YORK BALTIMORE 

I I 70 Broadway American Building 

WASHINGTON 

Home Life Building 

O. W. KETCHAM 

Master Builders Exchange 
PHILADELPHIA 



Front Brick Enameled Brlok 

Hollow Tile Fireproof Ing 

Roofing Tile 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

Works i Crum Lynne, Pa. 
Iwwt'i Index, page* 116-117 



GENUINE NEW ENGLAND "HARVARD" BRICK 



FRONT BRICKS ENAMELED 

ARTISTIC FACE BRICKS 
VITRIFIED HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCKS 

Carter. Black & Ayers 

CENTURIAN BUILDING 

1182 Broadway 
NEW YORK 



PFOTENHAUER-NESBIT GO. 

St. James Building, Broadway, Cor. 26th St., New York 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

In Red, Buff, Cray, Mottled, White, Etc. 

Enameled Brick, Roofing Tiles, Paving Clinkers, Etc. 
Cenuine "KITTANNINC" Brick 
Cenuine "HARVARD» Brick 



SOMEBODY said of one 
of our New York build- 
ings, "Yes, it's a good job, 
but the Atlantic Company 
had to remake a good many 
pieces." 

Thank you. 

We did remake a few of 
the more difficult pieces and 
we did it on our own initia- 
tive. It wasn't because the 
pieces wouldn't do, but be- 
cause they wouldn't do for 
Atlantic Terra Cotta. 

We are human enough 
to like a compliment. 

Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company 

1170 Broadway, N. Y. 
Booklet on request. 



4 



The AMERICAN TERRA GOTTA 
AND CERAMIC COMPANY 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

CHICAGO - ILLINOIS 



GRUEBY FAIENCE & TILE CO, 

K AND FIRST STS„ BOSTON, MASS. 



Durable Architectural 
faience 

for 
Exteriors and Interiors 



CORRESPONDENCE INVITED 



The Hartford Faience Co. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



NEW YORK 

114 fUTHM lUILDIHa 



BOSTON 

OLD SOUTH BUILDING 



ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 

(All Colors) 

FAIENCE MANTELS 
FAIENCE TILE AND BRICK 

Write for our new catalogue. 



ROOKWOOD 

Architectural Faience 

MAT GLAZES IN ALL COLORS 
ABSOLUTELY PERMANENT 
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR 

THE ROOKWOOD POTTERY CO. 

' CINCINNATI, OHIO 
New York Office - - I Madison Avenue 



rick, Terra Cotta & Trie Co. 

M. E. GREGORY, PROPRIETOR 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 

Works and Main Office: CORNING, N. Y. 

NEW TOR* - E.N. THOMAS, 1121 Braidwt; 

ACENCIES 
All the Principal CI 



Conkling-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Co* 

Manufacturers of 

Architectural Terra Cotta 

Worka, PHILADELPHIA 



OFFICES 
BulMeri' Exchange, PHILADELPHIA 

JJ33 Broadway, NEW YORK 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

An Illustrated Architectural Monthly 

Devoted to the Art, Science, and Business of Building 



Index — Volume XXI 



JANUARY- DECEMBER, 1912 



Published by 
ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



BOSTON 




NEW YORK 



INDEX TO PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

ACCORDING TO SUBJECTS. 



Plates numbered 1-16 in the January issue ; February, 
August, 99-112; September, 113-126; 



17-28; March, 29-42; April, 43-56; May, 57-70; June, 71-84; July, 85-98; 
October, 127-140; November, 141-154; December, 1.S5-168. 



Y. Boring, W. A. . 
Spencer & Powers . 
Shaw, Howard 

Carpenter, J. E. R. . 

Chambers, Walter B. 

W aid, D. Everett 



Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul 
Lowell, Guy . . . . 

Lawrence, Warrington 

Perkins, Charles Bruen . 



Title and Location 
Apartments. 

Brooklyn, N 

Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, 111. 

New York City. 

New York City. 

New York City. 
Bank. 

Bar Harbor, Me 
Boat House. 

Boston, Mass. 
Borough Hall. 

Roselle, X. J. 
Bungalow. 

Bar Harbor, Me 
Chapel. 

Widener Memorial, Philadelphia, I'a. Trumbauer, Horace 
Churches. 

St. Patrick's, Brockton; Mass. Greco, Charles R. . 

Holy Trinity, New York City. Ludlow & Peabody 

St. Joseph, Babylon, L. I. Reiley & Steinback 

Sacred Heart, Taunton, Mass. Sullivan, Matthew . 
Clubs. 

City, Chicago, 111. Pond & Pond . . • ■ • 

Bohemian, San Francisco, Cal. Rixford, Luring P. and Kelham, 

George W. 

Colleges. 

Bevier Memorial, Rochester, N. V. Bragdon, Claude 

Medical and Chirurgical, Baltimore, Md. Ellicott & Emmart 

Rice Institute, Houston, Tex. Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 
Cottage. 

Danvers, Mass. Brown, Frank C 

Fire House. 
Garden City, L. I. Ford, Butler & Oliver . 

Garages. 

Concord, Mass. Purdon, James 

Lake Forest, 111. Shaw, Howard 

South Orange, N. J. Atterbury, Grosvenor 
Gate Lodge. 

Mt. Kisco, N. Y. Delano & Aldnch . 



Plate No. 



Hospital. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Bliss & Faville 



• 7, 8 

.61, 62 

. 154 

56 

29 

30 

26 

82 

9 

. 153 

. 128 

105 lo7 
. 74-76 
148-150 
. 90-93 

. 57-59 

23-25 

6 

1 1 18 
165-168 

144 

127 

98 
79 
45 

14 

. s.s S9 



Title and Location Architect Plate No. 

Hotels. 
Copley-Plaza, Boston, Mass. Hardenbergh, H. J. . . . 129-132 
McAlpin, New York City. Andrews, F. M. & Co. . . . 151, 152 
Vanderbilt, New York City. Warren & Wetmore .... 35, M-, 
Houses. 1. Country and Suburban. J. City. 3. Seaside and Mountain. 

1. Charles St., Baltimore. Md. Sill, Howard L19 

1. University Parkway, Baltimore, Md. Sill, Howard 12". 121 

1. Bretenahl, Ohio. McKim, Mead & White 1,5 

.1. Brookline, Mass. Brown, Frank C. 42 

1. Brookline, Mass. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge .... 138 
1. Scaleby, Clarke County, Va. Sill. 1 1, .ward .... 113 lis 

1. Cleveland, Ohio. Dyer, I,. Milton 80, M 

1. Cleveland, Ohio. Meade, Frank B 16 

1. Cleveland, Ohio. Dercum & Beer 136 

1. Concord, Mass. Purdon, James 96-98 

1. Garden City, L. I. Embury II, Aymar 17 

1. Glencoe, 111. Shaw, Howard 77 

1. Glen Cove, L. I. Piatt, Charles A 13 

1. Jenkintown, Pa. Cope & Stewardson 10, 11 

Embury II, A\ mar Ill 

Schmidt, Garden & Martin <>i 

Shaw, Howard 6". 70 

Shaw, Howard ! 

Sheplej . R man & Coolidge 

Lake Minnetonka, Minn Shaw, Howard 6' 

Lenox, Mass. Delano & Aldrich . . .21 

Merryman Court, Md. Sill, Howard 125. 

Morristown, X. 1. Macomb, Henrj A 102 

Mt. Kisco, N. Y. Delano & Aldrich l 

New Haven, Conn. Delano & Aldrich i 

1. Roland Park, Md. Sill, Howard 122 

1. Sherborn, Mass. Bigelow & Wadswo 94. 95 

Short Hills, N. J. Emburj II, Aymar 

Somerset Road, Roland Park, Md. Sill, Howard .... 

South Orange, N. I. Atterbury, Grosvenor I 

Topsfield. Mass. Page & Frolhingham . . . . 99. nm 

President's, Columl iity. McKim, Mead & White . li 

St. Louis, Mo. Mauran, Ru rowell 46, 47 

St. Louis. Mo. Cope & Stewardson 137 

Beverly Farms, Mass. Parker, Thomas & Rice K 

Prides Crossing, Mass. Wales. Geo, ' .... .3^ 

Learned Societies. 
American Academj ol Arts and Sciences, Boston, Mass. Pa 

othingham 134, 



1, Kensington, L. I . 
1. Lake Forest, III. 

Lake Forest, 111. 

Lake Forest, 111. 

Lake Forest, III. 



INDEX TO PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — Continued. 



Title and Location Architect 1 

Library*. 
Enoch Pratt Free, Forest Park, Baltimore, Md. Ellicott & Emmart 

Look date Houses. 

Boston, Mass. Lowell, Guy 

Boston, Mass. Lowell, Guy. ........ 

News Build P iblishing I. 

Birmingham, Ala. Welton, Wm. Leslie 

Dayton, Ohio. Pretzinger, Albert 

Kansas City. Mo. Hunt, Jarvis 

Physician's, Galesburg, 111. Spencer & Powers 

Diamond Rubber Co., Boston, Mass. Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul . 
Peerless Car Co. Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul . 

Chelsea, Mass. Taylor, James Knox 

Rectory. 

Manchester-by-the-Sea. Sullivan, Matthew 

Restaurant. 
Newark, X. J. Hughes & Backoff 



71 



27 

82 
84 

28 
53 

73 

63 
54 
55 

133 

4S 
41 



Title and Location Architect 
Schools. 
Artesia, Cal. Withey & Davis 

St. Rose's. Chelsea, Mass. Sullivan, Matthew .... 
Commercial and Manual Training, Newark, X. J. Guilbert, E. F. 

Stables. 

Beverly Farms, Mass. Parker, Thomas & Rice 

Boston, Mass. Lowell, Guy ..... 

Jenkintown, Pa. Cope & Slewardson 

Mt. Kisco, N. Y. Delano & Aldrich .... 

Topsfield, Mass. Page & Frothingham 
Store Building. 

Higbee, Cleveland, Ohio. Garfield, Abram .... 

Studio. 

Ver Meer, New York City. Bossange, E. R., and Butler cV Rodman 
Tea House. 

Lenox, Mass. Delano & Aldrich ...... 

Theatre. 

Little, New York Citv. Ingalls, H. C, and Hoffman, F. Burrall, | 

y. m. c. a. 

West Side, Cleveland, Ohio. Skeel, Albert .... 



Plate No. 

109, 110 
103, 104 
111, 112 

40 
S3 
11 
14 
101 

60 

. 31,32 

21 

r. 49-52 

139, 140 



INDEX TO ARTICLES AND EDITORIALS. 



Pages numbered 1 -'8 in the January issue; February, 29-60; March, 61-83; April, 89-116; May, 117-144; June, 145-172; [ulv, 
173-iOii; August, 201-228 ; September, 229-256 ; < >etober, 257-282 ; November, 283-30S ; December, 309-334. 



Page 

A. 1. A. Forty-sixth Annual Convention Report ..... 304 

Amalgamation of American Schools in Rome ..... Ill 

America's Great Fire Waste 140 

Apartment Hotel in Berlin 140 

Architects, How They Work — II. D. Everett Waid .... 7 

Architects, How They Work— II (Cont.). D. Everett Waid . . 35 

Australian Capital, Design for 167 

Boston Architects and Builders 22 

Brick Manor Houses of France, Le Moulin, Herbault, La Raviniere. 

Sidney Piske Kimball 295 

Brick versus Wood . . llo 

dow Competition for Hollow Tile. Report of Jury . . . 219 

Campanile, The New .......... 195 

Chimneys, The Design of High 57 

Citv Planning in Seattle 85 

Clay Products Exposition 83 

Commemorative Monuments. Six Parts. Illustrations from sixty-six 
Photographs of Historical Examples. H. Van B. Magonigle 

75. 103, 135, 155. 187, -'16 

Competition Awards — a Store and Loft Building .... 21 

Competition foi Court House, New York City ..... 169 

Competition, Missouri State Capitol 169 

Competition, The Bungalow ......... 55 

Competitions, To Abolish 21 

Complete Angler, The. Five Parts. Illustrations from Drawings by 
the Author and Photographs of Examples of Historical Architec- 
ture. Hubert G. Ripley 3,31,63,91,119 

Convention of the Pennsylvania State Association of Architects . . 170 
Distinguished Architecture as a Precedent. Four Parts. Illustrations 

from Photographs. C. Howard Walker .... 79,99,131,245 
Duplex Apartments. Their Development! Three Parts. Illustra- 
tions from Plans and Photographs. E. Harris Janes. . 159, 183, 203 

Emmet Building, The. Editorial 525 

English Brickbuilders. Ernest Newton, A.R.A., R. Randal Phillips . 147 

Equitable Building Fire. I J . 11. Bevier 51 

Feden lilding. Editorial 162 

Filene Building. Editorial 247 

Filtration of Swimming Pools ......... 159 

i osses and Building Paw ......... Ill 

Forest Hills Gardens . .......... 317 

Plans, Recent American. I Fairs and Expositions. Alfred 

Morton Githens 2S7 

Group-Plans, Recent American. II — Monumental. Alfred Morton 

Githens ............. 283 



Group-Plans, Recent American. Ill — Collegiate. Alfred Morton 

Githens .......... 

Heating and Ventilation of Schools — I. Charles L. Hubbard 
Heating and Ventilation of Schools — II. Charles I.. Hubbard . 
Heating and Ventilation System for School Building. Charles L 

1 lubbard ...... 

Heating and Ventilation System, Specifications for School Building 

Charles P. Hubbard ......... 

Hilliard Building, New York City. Editorial .... 

Hotel Vanderbilt, Delia Robbia Room. Samuel Howe 

Hotel Vanderbilt, New York City. Editorial ..... 

Hotel Emerson, Baltimore. Editorial . .... 

Hospital Planning, Notes on— I. s. s. Goldwater, M.D. . 
Hospital Planning, Notes on — II. S. S. Goldwater, M.D. . 
Insurance Exchange Building, Chicago. Editorial 
Legal Hints for Architects — VII. Wm. L. Bowman . . » 
Legal I lints for Architects — VIII. Wm. L. Bowman . 
Licensing Architects .......... 

i . Ti i Beautify ......... 

Los Angeles Trust and Savings Bank. Editorial .... 

Management in the Architect's Office, Scientific. William O. Ludlow 
McLachlen Building, The, Washington, D. C. Editorial 
Mesopotamia. Discoveries in ...... . 

Nantucket. Hubert G. Ripley ...... 

New York Post-G radr.ate Medical School and Hospital . 
Palace of Versailles. France ....... 

Pantheon, Paris, Works of Art ...... 

Portland Plan, The Greater 

Rice Institute, Houston, Tex. Editorial . . . 
School of Architecture at Columbia University, The New 

ioI, Commercial High and Manual Training, Newark, 

Fditorial ........... 

School, The Giils' High. San Francisco, Cal. Editorial 
Sill, Howard. The Work of. J. Fenimore Russell . 
Stairways, Modern Domestic. I — Aristocratic. Thomas II. Ellet 
Stairways. Modern Domestic. II — Modest. Thomas II. Ellett . 
Stairways, Modern Domestic. HI — Unusual Thomas II. i.llett 
ising Architect Resigns ........ 

Tarsney Act, Proposal to Repeal ....... 

Tarsncv Act. Repeal of ......... 

Terra Cotta for Exterior Walls ....... 

Twenty-six Ston Hotel, New York City . ..... 

University, Johns Hopkins ........ 



N. J 



Page 

313 

11 
67 

95 

125 

39 

43 

71 

191 

175 

207 

106 

15 

52 

169 

86 

127 

15S 

299 

lit i 

309 

22 

85 

K6 

306 

321 

305 

212 
273 
239 
251 
261 

170 
168 

224 

196 

112 

57 



SUBJECT INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER PRESS. 



numbered 1 Jn in the lanuarv issue; February, 2'» 60; March. 61 88 ; April, 81 116; Maw 117 144; lime. 14 ; 172; July, 
173-200; August, 201 22s; September, 229-256 ; 157 282; November, 283 308; December, 309-334, 



Title and Location Architect 

ts. 

Rubush & IIu' 1 
\V. . 
' I C - A. . 

Lucas, Herl 

1 & Steinam .... 

& Go 
>-r & W'rigl • . 



Page Title and I.< Architect Page 

Arcade. 
164 Mever, Minneapolis, Minn. Kenyon, William M. .... 98 

185 Banks. 
1S6 Third National, Atlanta, Ga. Morgan & Dillon, Brown. A. Ten Evck, 

171 . W. T 

184 Trust & Savings, Los Angeles, Cal. Parkii 127-13i> 

86 New Brunswick, N. I 

204 Building, McLachlen, Washington, D. C. De Sibour, 1. II. 

29" 
Batl lb 
Hoboken, N. I. Ware, lames E 24 



SUBJECT INDEX TO ILLUSTRATION IN LETTER PRESS — Continued. 



38 



Batehelder, R. J. 



Title and Location Architect 

Bungalow. 

The Brickbiilder Competition 
Capitol Group. 

State of Washington, Olympia. Wilder & White 
Cathedrals. 

Sixth Century, Athens . 

St. Sophia, Constantinople 

Ely, England . 

Capello Palatina, Palermo 

St. Mark's, Venice 
Churches. 

S. Tropline, Aries, France ..... 

St. Barbara's, Brooklyn, N. Y. Helmle & lluberty 

St. Etienne, Caen, France ..... 

St. Gereon, Cologne, Germany .... 

S. Gilles, France ....... 

St. Swithins, London, England .... 

S. Ambrogio, Milan, Italy 

St. Antonio, Padua, Italy 

First Baptist, Pittsburgh, Pa. Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 

Sacred Heart, Taunton, Mass. Sullivan, Matthew . 

Christian Science, Stamford, Conn. Dennison & Hirons . 
Colosseum. 

Detail, Rome .......... 

Courtyard. 

Cleveland, Ohio. Garfield, Abram ..... 
Erectheon. 

North Porch, Athens 

Restoration of, Athens, Buhlmann ..... 
Fairs and Expositions. 

Pan-American, Buffalo, N. Y. Carrere & Hastings . 

Tennessee State Fair, Nashville, Tenn. Ludlow & Peabody 

Panama, San Diego, Cal. Cram, Goodhue &• Ferguson . 

Alaska-Yukon, Seattle, Wash. Howard & Galloway 

New York State, Syracuse, N. Y. Green & Wicks 
Fountain. 

Cleveland, Ohio. Garfield, Abram 
Gateway. 

Golden, Spalato 

Greek Orders. 

Details 

Gymnasium. 

Morristown, N. J. 
Hospitals. 

Boston Insane, Austin Farms, Mass. Wheelwright & 

Eastern Maine, Bangor, Me. Stevens & Stevens 

Coney Island, Brooklyn, N. Y. Helmle & Huberty 

Seaside, Coney Island, N. Y. Casey, Edward Pierce 

Gary, Gary, Ind. Harvey, George L. 

Thomas, Peabody, Mass. Stevens, Edward F. 

Wesson Maternity, Springfield, Mass. Kendall, Taylor & Co. 

Barnard Free Skin & Cancer, St. Louis, Mo. Mauran, Russell 
Crowell ........... 

Garfield, Memorial Ward, Washington, D. C. Wood, Donn 
Deming 

Homeopathic & Maternity, Yonkers, N. Y. Kendall, Taylor & C 

Hotels. 

Emerson, Baltimore, Md. Sperry, Joseph Evans. 
Yanderbilt ( Delia Robbia Room), New York City. Warren & 

Wetmore 

Vanderbilt, New York City. Warren & Wetmore 

Houses. 

Atlanta, Ga. Dougherty, E. E 

Birmingham, Ala. Weston, W. C. . . . 

Chicago, 111. Zimmerman, W. C. . . . 

Convent, N. J. Griffin, Percy 

Ewhurst, Surrey, Eng. Newton, Ernest, A.R.A. 

Greenwich, Conn. Pclton, H. C. ... 

Hampshire, England. Newton, Ernest, A.R.A. 

Haslemere, Surrey, Eng. Newton, Ernest, A.R.A. 

Indianapolis. Ind.' Foltz & Parker 

Jersey, England. Newton, Etmest, A.R.A. 

Katonah, Conn. (Entrance.) Piatt, Charles A. 

New London, Conn. (Entrance.) Piatt, Charles A. 

Rochester, N. Y. Stern, Leon . 

St. Joseph, Mo. Boschen, Walter 

St. Louis, Mo. Cope cv Stewardson 

St. Paul, Minn 

Summit, X.J. Hill & Stout 

Surrey, England. Newton, Ernest, A. R. A. 

Vetii, Pompeii ...... 



Smith, Jr., Oscar 



Haven 



243 
306 
245 
245 
243 
147, 148 
244 
245 
198 
195 
196 



Page 

83 

288 

131 
133 
245 
132 
131 



Architect 



100 
139 

79 
81 

258 
259 
260 
257 
259 

167 

102 

80 

226 



17* 



270 

271, 272 

210 

. 269 

179, 182 

. 181 

180 

& 

. 211 



1S1 
180 



191-194 



43-46 
71-74 

279 
141 

87 

58- 
152 

ss 
52, 154 
15ii 
17o 
149 
161 
161 

23 
170 
279 

24 
279 
1 53 

99 



Newton, Ernest, A.R.A. 

Newton, Ernest, A.R.A. 

Newton, Ernest A.R.A. 



Page 

149 

149 

, 154 



II 



& Co. 



Jarvis . 



Title and Location 
Houses — Continued '. 

Winchester, England. 

Winchfield, England. 

Wokingham, England. Newton, Ernest A.R.A. 
Manor I louses. 

Herbault, France ........... 296 

La Raviniere, France .......... 298 

Le Moulin, France ... 295, 297 

Memorials. 

Robert Fulton. Magonigle, H. Van B 2S4, 2S7 

Perry, Put-In-Bay. Ereedlander & Seymour .... 2S4, 2S..S 
Mercantile Buildings. 

Brown Brothers, Chicago, 111. Hill & Woltersdorff .... 166 

Jelke Company, Chicago, 111. Huehl & Schmid ..... 166 

Steinway Half, Chicago, 111. Davis, Z. C 166 

Southern Oil Company, Chicago, 111. Alschuler, Alfred S. . . 166 

New York City. Schwartz & Gross 58 

Municipal Buildings. 

Springfield, Mass. Pell & Corbett 286 

Xaval Training Station. 

North Chicago, 111. Hunt, Jarvis is 2" 

Nurses' Home. 

Bellevue Hospital, New York. Parish & Schroeder . 
Office Buildings. 

New England Telephone & Telegraph Company, Boston, Mass 
Peabody 6i Stearns ...... 

Federal Life, Chicago, 111. Marshall &- Fox 

Insurance Exchange, Chicago, 111. Burnham, D. 

Keifer Land Co., Detroit, .Mich. Marr, Richard I 

Southern Pacific Railroad, Houston, Tex. Hunt, 

Firemen's Insurance, Newark, N. J. 

Leon Fellman, New Orleans, La. Weil, Emile . 

Croisic, New York City. Browne & Almiroty 

Fire Companies, New York City. Burnham, D. II. & Co 

Hilliard, New York City. Howells & Stokes 

Johns-Manville, New York City. Allen, Augustus N 

New York City. Rouse & Goldstone . 

Woolworth, New York City. Gilbert, Cass 

Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha, Neb. Hunt, Jarvis 

Selling, Portland, Ore. Doyle & Patterson 

Woodward, Washington, I). C. Harding & Upman 
Offices of 

York & Sawyer, New York City. York & Sawyer 

Charles A. Piatt, New York City. Piatt, Charles A. 

Carrere & Hastings, New York City. Carrere & Hastings 

Grosvenor Atterbury, New York City. Atterbury, Grosvenor 

1. II. Ereedlander, New York City. Freedlander, J. II. . 

Delano & Aldrich, New York City. Delano & Aldrich 

H. Van Buren Magonigle, New York City. Magonigle, H. Van B. 

Trowbridge & Livingston, New York City. Trowbridge & Living 
ston ...... 

Palace. 

Diocletian, Peristylium, Spaltra . 
Parthenon. 

Restoration of, Athens. Shiersch, E. 

Place de la Concorde, Paris . 
Post Offices. 

Norwich, Conn. Taylor, James Knox 

St. Louis, Mo. Taylor, James Knox . 
Railway Station. 

I lastings-on-Hudson, New York. Reed & Stem 
Rome. 

Restoration of Ancient. Buhlmann & Wagner . 
Schools. 

St. Cecilia, Brooklyn, N. Y. Poole, II. & Co. . 

City Normal, Cleveland, Ohio. Barnum, Frank S. 

Riverside, Indianapolis, Ind. Brubaker & Stein 

Commercial and Manual Training High, Newark, N.J. Guill 

Public, New Orleans, La. Christy. E. A. . 

Barnard, Riverdale, X. Y. Mann & MacNeille . 

Girls' High, San Francisco, Cal. City Architects 
Society Building. 

Hispanic, The. Huntington, Charles P. 
Stable. 

Greenwich, Conn. Ware. James E, & Son . 
Stores. 

Department, Filene's, Boston, Mass. Burnham, D. II. i\ Co. 

Village, Glen Ridge, N. J. Boring & Tilton 
Theater. 

St. Louis. Mo. Wuest, Gustav P. 



22h 



196 

162-165 

106 109 

171 

169 

227 

168 

122 

1 in 

39-42 

168 

197 

170 

59 

85 

199 



9 

10 
55 
37 
36 

38 

101 

SI 
155 

23 

115 

87 

79 

227 

so 

280 

3-215 
167 
303 

247 :^> 
87 



INDEX TO PLATE AND PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ACCORDING TO Al'THOR. 



Architect Home Address 

Albro & Lindeberg, New York City 
Allen, Augustus N., New York City 
Andrews, F. M. & Co., New York City 
Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul, Boston, Mass 
Atterbury, Grosvenor, New York City 
Barney & Colt, New York City. 

turn, Frank S., Cleveland. Ohio 
low & Wadsworth, Boston, Mass. . 



Plate 


Page 




262, 294 




I 68 


. 151, 152 




26. 54. 55 




43 15, 155-164 


10 




325 328 




86 



94, 95 



i l 

Iiliss cV Faville, San Francisco, Cal, 
Boi ii'.;, Win. A.. New York I 
Boring <V Tilton, New York City . 
Boschen, Walter, St. [oseph, Mo 
Bossange, E. K., New York, N. Y. 
Bragdon, Claude. Rochester, N. Y. 
Brown, Frank Chouteau, Boston, Mas 
294 Brown, A. Ten Eyck, Atlanta 



7. s 



6 

12,141 



166996 






87 

17o 






[NDEX TO PLATE AND PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS — Continued. 



ArcliH Home Address 

ie cV Almiroty, New York City 

am, C. W. New York City . 
Burnham, D. H. & Co., Chicago, 111. . 
Butler & Rodman, New York City 

iter. J. E. R., Now York City 
Carrere & Hastings, New York City 

1 P., New York City 
Chambers, Walter P.. New York City . 

iv, E. A., New Orleans, La. 
Cope & Stewardson, Philadelphia, Pa. . 
Cram, G Ihue & Ferguson, Boston, Mass 

. /.. C, Chicago, 111. 
Delano & Aldrich, New York City 
Dennison & Hirons, New York City 

in & Peer, Cleveland. Ohio . 

De Sibour, J. IP. Washington, D. C . 

terty, E. P., Atlanta, Ga. 
Doyle & Patterson, Portland, Ore. 

J. Milton, Cleveland, Ohio . 
Ellicott & Emmart, Baltimore, Md. 
Embury II, Aymar, New \'ork City 
Foltz & Parker, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Ford, Butler & Oliver, New York City . 
Freedlander & Seymour, New \'ork City 

Garfield, Abram, Cleveland, Ohio 

i , Cass, New York City 
Greco, Charles R., Boston, Mas- 
Green & Wicks, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Griffin, Percy, New York City 
Guilbert, E. F., Newark, N. J. 
Hardenbergh, H. J., New York City . 
Harding & Upman, Washington, D. C. 
Harvey, George, Chicago, 111. 
Helmle & Hubertv, Brooklyn, N. Y. . 
Hill & Stout, New York City 
Hill & Woltersdorff, Chicago, 111. 
Hoffman, P. P., New York City . 
Howard & Galloway, Seattle. Wash. 
1 [owells & Stokes, New York City 
Hughes & Backoff, Newark, N. J. 
I hint, Jarvis, Chicago, 111. 

Huntington, Charles P., New York City 
Ingalls, Harry C, New York City 
Kelham, Geo. \\\, San Francisco, Cal. 
Kendall, Taylor & Co., Boston, Mass. . 
Kenvon, Wm. M., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Lawlor & Haase, New York City . 
Lawrence, Warrington G., New York City 
Lowell, Guy, Boston, Mass. . 
Lucas, Herbert, New York City 

w & Peabody, New York City 
Macomb, Henry A., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mann & MacNeiile, New York City 
Magonigle, II. Van P.. New York City 
Marr, Richard H., Detroit, Mich. 





Plate 




Page 

112 


Architect Home Address 

Marshall & Fox, Chicago, 111. 


Plate 


l'll^e 

162-165 








185 


Mauran, Russell & Crowell, St. Louis, Mo. . 


46, 47 


211 






in- Hi'! 


140 


McKim, Mead & White, New York City 


4, 5, 145-147 






31. 32 






Meade, Prank B., Cleveland, Ohio 


16 






56 






Newton, Ernest, A.R.A., England 




147-154 






9, 


258 


Page & Frothingham, Boston, Mass. . . 99-H 










269 


Parish & Sehroeder, New York City 




286 




29 




204 

167 


Parker, Thomas & Rice, Boston, Mass. 
Parkinson & Bergstrom, Los Angeles, Cal. . 


! 37-4D 


127-130 


1", 1 


1, 15, 157 




279 


Peabody & Stearns, Boston, Mass. 




196 




165-168 


198 


166 


Pell & Corbett, New York City 

Pelton. IP C, New York City 




286 
58 


'. 12 


-14, 1 


37, 


2i>5 


Perkins, Charles Bruen, Boston, Mass. 


155 










196 


Piatt, Charles A., New York City 


1-3 


8, 161, 184, 




136 










1*6, 263, 






299-31 






264, 267 








279 


Pond & Pond, Chicago, 111 


57-59 










85 


Pollard & Steinam. New York City 




184 




so. Si 






Pope, John Russell, New York City 




266. :y$ 




27, ins 






Pretzinger, Albert, Dayton, Ohio 


'. 53 




1 


7, 141-143 




170 


Purdon, James, Boston, Mass. 
Reed & Stem, New York City 


96-98 


S7 




127 






Reiley & Steinback, New York City 


! 148-150 








35, 284, 


2S5 


Rixford, Loring P., San Francisco, Cal. 


23-25 








139, 


167 

170 


Rossiter & Wright, New York City 
Rouse &- Goldstone, New York City 




204 
86, 197 




P'5-107 




259 

58 


Publish & Hunter, Indianapolis, Ind. . 
Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Chicago, 111. 
Schwartz & Cmss. New York City 


64 


169 

58 




111, 112 


213 


-215 


Shaw, Howard, Chicago, 111. 


67-70, 77-79 






129-152 




199 


Shepley, Rutan & Cooiidge, Chicago, 111. 
Sill, Howard, Baltimore. Md. 


65, 66, 138 


113-126_ 






17s. 179, 


182 


Skeel. Albeit. Cleveland, Ohio 


. 139, 140 








21", 


306 
279 
166 


Smith, Jr.. Oscar, Morris town, N. J. . 
Spencer & Powers, Chicago, 111. 
Sperry, Joseph Evans, Baltimore. Md. 


! 61-63 


226 
191-194 




49-52 




257 


Stern, Leon, Rochester, N. Y. 
Stevens, Ed. I-"., Boston. Mass. 




23 

LSI 






39-4 


Sullivan, Matthew, Boston, Mass. . . 48, 


90-93, 103, 104 


195 




41 






Taylor, James Knox. Washington, 1 ), C. 


133 


23, 113 




71-75 


is 


20, 


Trowbridge & Livingston, New York City . 




38 






59, 


169 
305 


Trumbauer, Horace. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Waid, D. Everett, New York City 


! 128 
30 






49-52 






Wales, George C, Boston, Mass . 


33, 34 






25-25 






Ware. James E , New York City . 




24. 169 








ISO 


Warren & Wetmore, New York City 


! 35, 36 


43-46, 71-74 








98 


Weil, Emile, New Orleans, La. 




168 








2i>4 


Welton, Wm. Leslie, Birmingham, Ala. 


28 


141 




9 






Weston, Wm. C, Birmingham, Ala. 




141 




82 84 




171 


Wilder & White, New York City . 
Withey & Davis, Los Angeles, Cal. 


". 109, 110 


288 




74-76 




25<) 


Wood. Donn & Deniing, Washington, D. C. 




1S1 




102 




303 


Wuest, Gustav P., St. Louis, Mo. 
York & Sawyer. New York City 




225 

7 






36, 284, 


2s 7 
171 


Zimmerman, W. C, Chicago, ill. 




87 



FRONTISPIECES— FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

MEXICAN DOMES. 



Title 

Nuestra Sra. de la Soledad, Puebla, Mexico 
Church Del Carmen. Sail Luis Potosi, Mexico 
Church of Nuestra Sra. Del Carmen, Celaya, Mexico 
Hospital at Guadalajara, Mexico . . . . . 
Church of San Francisco, Acatepec, Mexico 
Detail, Church of San Francisco, Acatepec, Mexico . 



Month Title 

January Belfry Detail, Church of San Francisco, Acatepec 

February Church of San Francisco, Acatepec, Detail of Tower 

March Dome over Church at San Angel, Mexico 
April Virgin Del Carmen. San Luis Potosi, Mexico 

May Church, Virgin Los Remedios, Cholula, Mexico 

June Capilla Del Pocito, Guadalupe, Mexico 



Month 

July 

August 
September 
October 
November 
1 >ecember 



T "_ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



JANUARY 1912 



Number 1 



PUBLISHED BY 



ROGERS & MANSON 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Boston, Massachusetts 



Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS OS. MANSON 



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Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

WILLIAM A. BORING; CLAUDE BRAGDON; COPE & STEWARDSON; DELANO & ALDRIC 
WARRINGTON G. LAWRENCE; McKIM, MEAD & WHITE; CHARLES A. PLATT. 

LETTERPRESS 

TACK 

NUESTRA SRA. DE LA SOLEDAD, PUEBLA, MEXICO Frontispiece 

THE COMPLETE ANGLER OR COMPETITIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN Hubert G. Ripley 3 

HOW ARCHITECTS WORK. — II. OFFICES OF NOTED ARCHITECTS D. Everett Waid 

HEATING AND VENTILATION OF SCHOOLS. -I Charles L. Hubbard 11 

LEGAL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS. - PART VII William /.. Bowman 15 

NAVAL TRAINING STATION, CHICAGO, JARVIS HUNT, ARCHITECT 18 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 

COMPETITION FOR DESIGN OF A CHILDREN'S ROOM 

COMPETITION, THE LE BRUN TRAVELING SCHOLARSHIP 

COMPETITION PROGRAM FOR A BRICK BUNGALOW 




r '" 



v~^" 



^M 




TH E 

COMPLETE ANGLER 
OR 

COMPETITIONS 

ANCIENTAND MODERN 

Of A CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYJIJ OF THEIR ORIGIN AND 
4 DEVELOPMENT: WITH HELPFUL HINTJ TO EARNEST JEEKER5- 




BY HUBERT G. RIPLEY. 
I. 

JOSEPH WORCESTER, LL.D., after telling the world many things 
concerning- a great variety of subjects, found time to define the word 
competition. He says in substance as follows : 
COM-PE-TI-TION (Kom-pe-tish'un), n. [L. con, with, and peto, petihts, 
to strive after; Sp. competicion Fr. competition]. The act of competing; 
a common striving for the same object; rivalry ; emulation; contest. 

Amidst the variety of competitions with which the world abounds, it is a difficult matter to 
guard against pride and self-consequence. — Gilpin. 

Syn. — Competition is the act of seeking the same object that another is seeking ; emulation 
expresses the disposition of mind in a favorite object of pursuit ; rivalry, the feeling of a rival. 
Competition and emulation have honor for their basis ; rivalry, selfish gratification. Competi- 
tion for a prize ; emulation to excel ; selfish rivalry. 

We do not know precisely from just whom Mr. Worcester got this defi- 
nition. He gives a list of scientific works used in the preparation of his 
chef d'oeuvre, which includes Henry Herbert's " Hints to Horse-Keepers " 
and Edward Forbes' " History of British Star-Fishes and other animals of 
the Class Echinodermata, " but no mention is made in his list of any work 
on Architecture or the Fine Arts. Notwithstanding this there is food for 
thought in this definition and it is worthy of careful study. It shows the 
attitude of the world at large, which is almost always a " safe and sane " 
attitude. 

Competitions are the cauchemar of the busy and successful architect and 
the joy and " hoeret lateri lethalis arundo " of the ambitious one. Without 
them many of our younger set would still be Struggling to keep their heads 
above the bouillabaisse, and without them, too, the " faiblesse " of some of 
our most celebrated would not be otherwise autoptical. 

Nature has taken this means since the beginning of time to rectify, 
separate, and adjust in her crucible that which is worthy from that which 
is unworthy. As we know that an organic tissue can reconstitute itself 
only by the means that nature has employed to construct it; so the only 



\VfmM 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



progress we can hope for in the Supreme Art (whose 
hand-maidens we all are) is to build up from that which 
has been torn down, using the same articulate and res 
dejecta in various and sundry ways as employed by the 
archencephala of Hierosycaminos. 

That may sound somewhat complicated, but if you will 
study it over carefully you will find that it reads just as 
well backwards as forwards. Let us then roll up our 
sleeves and get a toe hold on the subject afresh. 

As Anatole France says, "What are the means,. what 
are the processes of nature? She knows neither the hand 
nor the utensil; she is subtil, she is spirituelle ; she 
employs in her most powerful and massive construction 
particles of matter infinitely thin, the atom, the protylc. 
From impalpable mist she 
makes rocks, metals, plants, 
animals, men. 1 low ? By 
attraction, gravitation, trans- 
piration, penetration, imbibi- 
tion, endosmose, capillarity, 
affinity, sympathy. She forms 
not a grain of sand in a differ- 
ent manner than she forms 
the milky way ; the harmony 
of the spheres reigns in the 
one as in the other ; they both 
exist only by the movement 
of the particles that compose 
them, and which is their 
musical sold, ' amoureuse et 
toujours agite"e.' There is no 
difference in structure between 
the grain of dust which dances 
in a ray of sunlight and the 
stars of the heavens, and the 
least of these -rains is as ad- 
mirable as Sirius, for the 
marvel in all bodies of the 
universe is the infinitely small 
particles which animate them." 
( See footnote. ) 

It follows then that there is 
nothing new in competitions ; 
they have always existed and 
always will exist. There is a 
romance about them, a charm, 
an ignis fatUUS, a fetich, an 
odylic force; a searching of 
the imponderable after the im- 
palpable. 

The ambitious architect 
wants them for they bring him 

fame, glory, and shekels; the draftsman wants them for 
they give him opportunity, overtime, and a chance to eat 
a good dinner on the boss ; the client wants them for they 
give him something for nothing (or almost nothing). 
The patriarchs and doyens of the profession say that com- 
petitions are not good for the client and are demoralizing 

Footnote. — This is something we have long wanted to say, but before 
we had got around to saying it we found that somebody else had got ahead 
of us, and as long as they said it so clearly and concisely we prefer to let it 
go at that and give credit where credit is due, although we would eventu- 
ally have said it anyway, though perhaps in a little different manner.— 
El). 




FIG. I. 

" Tlie Hand of Destiny," from the painting by E. F. Maher. 
This sketch illustrates the state of mind of the average 
architect upon entering a competition. He knows he is fully 
armed and well equipped for the contest, and all around him 
sees illimitable and bewildering possibilities, plasmic, atomic, 
(edematous. 



to the architect, lowering of the professional standing, 
cheapening of the status, etc., and such like. Perhaps they 
are right in a way, but as architects have no professional 
standing and their status is considerably quo, that point 
will hardly hold. We slyly suspect that the wheezy old 
fellows of ponderous manners and millions of dollars of 
work in their offices would much prefer to have nice great 
big fat jobs handed to them on silver platters, garnished 
with smilax, watercress, and maraschino cherries, slices 
of lemon omitted. 

The desirability or non-desirability of competitions need 
not be dwelt upon at length here ; many folios contain 
many words on the subject in many publications, and some 
of these words and phrases can not only be read backwards 

as well as forwards, but from 
right to left, upside down, 
and in a mirror. The main 
point is that competitions are 
in our midst, and like every- 
thing else in life we may com- 
bine duty and pleasure in 
following them up to their 
logical or illogical conclu- 
sions. 

There are two points of view 
in a competition, the point of 
view of the winner and the 
point of view of those who also 
submitted drawings. These 
view-points are almost always 
diametrically opposed. Cases 
where they are not diametri- 
cally opposed are as rare as a 
really good cocktail outside 
of Boston. Those who do not 
pull down the plums should 
remember that we cannot all 
be llornbostels and Magoni 
gles, but we can, to a greater 
or less degree, make the pace 
a bit more accelerated, and 
contribute in a negative way to 
a higher potentiality. 

With few notable excep- 
tions, how do the competition 
drawings of ten, fifteen, or 
twenty years ago compare with 
what is being turned out to- 
day? Answer. They don't 
begin to compare with them in 
any way, shape, or manner. 
Why, some recent competition 
drawings are so overwhelmingly beautiful, exquisite, and 
utterly charming, that they make you want to break down 
and cry like a child. Then too (still with a few notable 
exceptions) the quality of the architecture is so greatly 
superior that nowadays we begin to feel that some of it 
is almost the real thing. This happy state of affairs is 
directly traceable to competitions which have done so 
much to develop and bring out the best that there is in 
contemporary work. It is doubtful if any other method 
would have done as much, for, however imperfect may 
be the system, the animating principle behind all this 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



is the same that operates from the imponderable to the 
impalpable, to the imperceptible. 

It is not necessary either to spend too much time or 
effort over the regulation of competitions. They will 
regulate themselves all in due season. In each country, 
or section of the country, the operation and practice of 
competitions is just about as civilized as the community in 
which it operates; and to make it more so — beyond a 
reasonable point — would work more harm than good. 
What we need is not a restriction in the number or size of 
competitions, but an extension of the system that will 
embrace all classes and kinds of work from the insignificant 
to the most important, from the trivial to the permanent 
and solid monuments that shall portray the progress of the 
human race. In this way, under 
proper conditions that would adjust 
themselves, each class of work, each 
building' operation whether large or 
small, would receive the trained con- 
sideration of the one who was best 
fitted to attend to it. Incidentally 
some felicitous ones would have to sit 
up and take notice, and the really 
deserving would get their chance in 
proportion as they proved their fit- 
ness. Not that the really worthy do 
not set that chance as it is, sooner or 
later. Nature takes care of it all in 
due season, and while the millennium 
is not exactly at hand, things aren't 
so worse at that. 

The true welding of sensitiveness 
to power in any art demands concen- 
trated cunctative cogitation, there- 
fore let us retrace our steps and look 
upon the historical aspects of com- 
petitions ; what they were in the past 
and how under happier times they 
played their part in the development 
of style, harmony, rhythm, and 
balance. 

One of the earliest contests of 
which we have any record is men- 
tioned in the missing portion of the 
Rosetta Stone. 

It seems that / 1 2irs:iJ^X.^ a cele- 
brated architect who flourished dur- 
ing the reign of Thotmes or Thout- 
mosis VI., Dynasty XVIII., and who 
built the charming little bungalow 
for Queen Ilatasu so familiar to the 
architectural student, is mentioned as 
having received second money in 
the competition for a Speos to Ptah. 

ftaS-Sln^./t ■ beat him out on account of the beauty and 
rendering of his Coptos sculptures, Of course this may 
have been accounted for by the fact that fnmrz=-. /(■ • 
had engaged, for this competition only, the services ol 
Ptisch, the most celebrated draftsman of his day, and who 
excelled in paradigrammatics. Strange, is it not, how 




FIG. II. 

Our next illustration graphically portrays an 
every-day scene in Ancient Egypt, a workman 
busily engaged on chiseling one of the cele- 
brated monuments of antiquity. In the pre- 
liminary roughing out, skilled artisans from 
the land of Amami and Ouaouit were em 
ployed, then the finishing touches were given 
by the hand of a Khamdis or a Mehitouoskhit. 



Sesostris or Rhamses II. was a great patron of the arts 
and had constantly working for him a whole phalanx of 
architects who made the splendor and glory of his capital 
city the renown of the ancient world. 

Thebes 

With mighty stores of wealth, a hundred gates 
Each pouring forth two hundred architects with cars 
And horses." -(Iliad, IX., 381. 

Most of his, or rather his architects', great works have 
survived more than thirty -two centuries and still command 
the admiration and awe of the beholder. This certainly 
ties the can on Memphis, Babylon, Nineveh, or even 
Imperial Rome itself. 

The architect of those days had no 
Paris training and had to dig it all 
out himself. No Lctarouilly, Buhl- 
man, Caesar Daly, or Frank Cousins 
to refer to for books or photographs ; 
even tracing paper was very scarce 
and expensive and the original set 
of working drawings was usually 
chiseled on slabs of porphyry. Many 
of these slabs may be seen to-day, 
but unfortunately all traces of the 
original drawings have completely 
disappeared, gnawed off by the re- 
lentless tooth of time. 

From fragmentary inscriptions here 
and there, however, we may learn a 
few of the customs and habits of 
these old and mighty architects. For 
instance, it was the universal practice 
to make all drawings on uniform 
size sheets or rather slabs of stone ; 
the stone being porphyry for the 
more important buildings , though the 
jackalls of the profession used tufa 
largely for cheap tenement work. 
The stones were about the size of a 

double-elephant drawing board, only 
thicker, and it took "some" office 
boy to carry out a set of drawings to 
the job or to the contractor. To keep 
in good physical condition the old 
Egyptians used to go in bathing all 
winter long no matter how cold the 
water was. They had to, to preserve 
their strength to lug home drawings 
to work on at night. 

I lad we time to spare we could 
relate many interesting incidents eon 
cerning the architects of those days 
which would show clearly that the 
practice of our art to-day differs very little from the cus- 
toms and manners of the inhabitants of I licrosycaminos 
and Dodakaskoinos, but as space is limited we shall have 
to turn reluctantly from this fascinating pursuit ami stick 
closely to our subject matter. 

Conditions in Ch.iMca and Babylonia were not dissimilar 



up-to-date some of them old fellers was, and how we might to those that obtained contemporaneously in Egypt. The 
never have known of this but for the missing portion of Chaldean architects were not sm elassical as the Egyptian ; 
the Rosetta Stone ? their style was more florid and their ethics were not as 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



severe as those of their Nile brethren. For instance, they mentary extracts of a program for a competition from an 

often did work for less than six per cent., and did not important building which seems to refer to the Temple ol 

hesitate to take a contractor's cigar now and then, or let Osiris at Edfou, though we are more strongly inclined to at- 

the builder pay for the drinks and lunches when inspecting tribute it to an earlier temple erected in honor of 1 lathor at 

work together. Both the Egyptians and the Chaldeans Ebsamboul. Champollion, MM.HuyotandGau, andCadal- 

were great boys for inscriptions and were not afraid to vene bear us out in this, while Major Felix, Mr. Wilkinson, 

cover ui) rnosl any old blank wall space with letters and and S. Cherubini lean strongly to the former hypothesis, 
hieroglyphics. It should be explained, though, that the Quoi qu'il en soit, after a recital of the general conditions 

contractor himself usually submitted drawings for the and an alphabetical list of the members of the building 

inscriptions to the architects for approval before executing, committee, which is strongly reminiscent of modern condi- 



The Chaldean and Babylonian architects used to make 
their seale drawings and full size details on tablets of clay 
and then have them fired. By this method they could 
work faster than the Egyptians and tor this reason their 
detail suffered through overelaboration and profuseness. 

The Egyptian architect used to like to get some good 
Chaldean or Babylonian draftsman in his office to set 
the pace for the native-born chaps, thinking that the 
greater facility of the Akkadian would tone up the "esprit 
de corps" of the establishment, but experiments along 

this line were rarely successful. On the other hand, the 
Chaldeans and Babylonian architects had no use for the 
Egyptian draftsmen, and seldom paid them more than 
ten drachme a semester. 

It is only within recent years that the giant strides made 
in all branches of science, and particularly in archeology, 
have revealed to us a fuller and richer understanding of 



tions, we find this clause : 

"Should it be found on examination that the successful 
architect has exceeded in his designs the cubage computed 
as mentioned in paragraph 53, his drawings will be thrown 
out and the job awarded to the next successful architect." 

So far as is known this clause was never mentioned in 
competitions before this time. It was necessary to take 
this step to restrain architects from the practice of indica- 
ting in their competition drawings a much larger and 
expensive construction than could be built for the appro- 
priation, all the while knowing that when the working 
drawings came to be made a simpler and less elaborate 
design would be drafted. 

It previously had been the custom to award the capital 
prize in a competition to the best design irrespective of 
eost and having in view only the esthetic aspects of the 
building; and this custom was still followed during the 



the incunabula of art, in broadening our knowledge and time of the Ptolemies until the professional advisor, warned 

allowing us to visualize actual conditions of the past. To by disastrous experiences in the past, had a careful cubage 

Germany and particularly to German archeologists the of all the designs submitted, made by a disinterested 

world owes a debt that ean never be paid. Among some contractor of irreproachable probity who handed in his 

of the most famous ( 'lerman archeologists may be mentioned report in writing on a roll of papyrus to the chairman of the 

Wincklemann, Bunsen, Walstein, Wiebeking and main- building committee. The drawings were then carefully 



others whose names are extremely difficult for stenog- 
raphers to write without making mistakes ; and the 
works they have given us should be read by all earnest 
seekers, not neces- 
sarily t<> the exclu- 
sion of the contem- 
porary architectu- 
ral periodicals, but 
as a pastime and 
relief from the 
heavier ami more 

ponderous themes 
w i t h w h i e h t h e 
columns of the pro- 
fessional press are 
loaded chuck up to 
the muzzle. 

From the "Theo- 
retiseh - practisehe 
bugerliche Bau- 
k u n d e , d u r e h 
Geschichte und 
Beschreibunde du 
merkwurdigsten 
Baudenkmahle und 
ihre genanen Ab- 
belddungen berei- 
e hert " w e h a v e 
fortunately pre- 
served to us frasr- 



gone over a second time and any sets that showed an ex- 
cess amount of material, or that evidently could not be 



built within the sum named, were 




PIG. ill. 
Restoration of one of the missing sphinxes in the grand avenue leading to t lie Atnenopheium 
of Thebes. In this, as in the preceding drawing, Mr. Maher has forcibly presented the calm 
and majestic qualities of the spirit of those times, the emblem oi intelligence, or the union 
of wisdom and force. 



declared ineligible to 

an award of the 
prize or of any 
premium." 

From the prece- 
ding we learn that 
the idea of competi- 
tions has theweight 
and sanetii >n i if cen- 
turies of custom be- 
hind it, and how 
important a part it 
has played in the 
development of 
architecture. In 
fact, the origin of 
architectural com- 
petitions is lost in 
the night of time ; 
one finds traces of 
it in the most re- 
mote epochs of an- 
tiquity; evenbefore 

that time the etis- 
tom was firmly es- 
tablished in the 
very beginnings 

of the human race. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

How Architects Work. 

1). EVERETT WAII). 

II. — OFFICES OF NOTED ARCHITECTS. 



THE offices of York and Sawyer occupy an entire 
dumb-bell floor near the great new Public Library, 
and just sufficiently removed from Fifth Avenue to secure 
quiet freedom from the hum of the street traffic on that 
crowded thoroughfare. They are in the top of a high build- 
ing, one of their own planning, which is the more desirable 
in that it is the habitation of a club. The interior sky- 
lighted reception room is the one room with pretentious 
decoration. There a painter has carried into execution 
some ideas of the architects as to Italian decoration. The 
beams of the ceiling and the frieze are ornamented above 
walls toned to harmonize with the general color scheme 
of the office. 

As the visitor passes through the anteroom he finds 
himself in a busy general office 
flooded with daylight, and the 
cheerful effect is made more 
sunny by means of the light oak 
trim and walls covered with 
natural burlap to match. The 
same effect is carried throughout 
the suite, from the attractive 
library alcove end of the general 
office, together with Mr. York's 
and Mr. Sawyer's private rooms 
lighted with south windows, to 
the small drafting room. A 
separate drafting room is desir- 
able in every large office as a 
convenient isolation for a com- 
petition or other special rush 
work in which a group of men 
can work together guarded from 
interruption. The main draft- 
ing room is typical of other good 
drafting rooms with excellent 
north light. Each of the three 
assistant executives has an at- 
tractive private office, the loca- 
tion of which on the plan indi- 
cates well his respective relation 
to the administrative work of the 
office. It may be noted that the 

bookkeeping and stenographic work is done in the central 
portion of the general office where card and correspondence 
filing cabinets are compactly arranged. 

Next we come to the office of Charles A. Piatt, which is 
pervaded with the same quiet feeling of good taste that char- 




OFFICES OF YORK AND SAWYER, 
.SO EAST 41.ST STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



an interior-scheme of decoration and furnishing. The other 
massive old Italian piece, seen in the photograph at the 
end of the room, with sculptured bronzed heads for drawer 
pulls, has a plate rack extending the full length against 
the wall — a convenient support for standing photographs 
or sketches. In this spacious reception room there is also 
a print cabinet in winch are kept mounted rendered draw- 
ings for ready reference. A concealed lavatory in one 
cornel' of the room is balanced with a blind cabinet in 
which are stored plates and photographs. From the lobby 
one passes through the library, which is a working library. 
The table, which is a reminder of the one in the reception 
room, is only two feet wide and perhaps four feet high, and 
invites one standing to consult the waiting books and 

return to his drawing board. 
Mr. Piatt's private office is a 
sanctum of the real sort. There 
is a drawing table extending full 
length of the room with drawers 
beneath containing all the per- 
sonal treasures which the artist 
wishes to preserve from the 
clutches of the filing fiend. At 
one end of this tableis the design- 
er's board with soft north light 
at his left. Under one window 
stands a flat top business desk, 
and five feet away on the wall 
is a dictophone which enables 
him to talk to his assistants or 
dictate letters without the bother 
of a receiver at one's ear. a bac 
teriological transmitter at one's 
mouth, or the delay of summon- 
ing a stenographer from distant 
regions. Next to the desk stands 
the couch (shown in reception 
room when plan was made) 
which comfortably invites the 
client to sit in private conference 
and beg for the privilege of 
obeying the behests of this gentle 
and apparently pliable architect. 
But not until you go into the populous drafting room and 
past the orderly files of drawings and into the busy execu 
tive section do you realize that things are doing and that 
the dreams of the artist are taking shape in a most business 
like way. In this executive office are engineers, specify a 



acterizes the work of this artist and commands the praise of tion and correspondence writers, superintendents, and a 

room for consultation with contractors if they need to be 
invited to pass the alcove table where drawings are issued. 
Conveniently between this table and the drafting room are 
what appear to be a lot of Chicago clothes driers. Pull 
out one section and you find it to be merely- a big galvanized 
sheet iron drawer set on edge, with some hinged bars in 



his brother architects. Prom the elevators we step into the 
"lobby" shown in the photograph. Here is a bit of old 
Pompeian decoration hung on the wall, and some odd pieces 
of furniture which " belong " in an unostentatious way. In 
the reception room two pricelessold cabinets form the princi- 
pal part of the furniture. P>ehind the doors of one are 



samples of fine stuffs which may be brought forth at the the top on which arc hung the drawings in sets- as many 
right moment to illustrate to a client the architect's idea of in a section as their bulk will permit. The several sets 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



swing out of the section as if they were hung on the face 

of a door from its top edge, and as each set is bound 
between half-round clamp strips and hooked over its bar, 
any set can be consulted in place or removed without 
removing the others. The only uniformity in size of 
drawings required by this method of filing is that the 



hangers, hats are placed on the shelf above the respective 

coats, and thus is formed a very simple, neat, and space- 
savin.^ wardrobe. 

It may he noted that the head draftsman has a private 
alcove in the corner of the drafting room opposite Mr. 
Piatt's room, and a large wall space adjacent with a 





LOBBY. 



OFFICES OF CHARLES A. PLATT, 11 E. 24TII STREET, NEW VORK CITY 



RECEPTION ROOM. 




greatest dimension of a 
sheet one way shall he 
36 inches. In the other 
dimension it may he 
6 inches, 60 inches, or 
any length. In such a 
scheme drawings are 
tiled flat, as compactly 
as one may choose to 
pack them, and one 
drawing may Ik- with- 
drawn or inserted with- 
out crumpling another. 
In Mr. Piatt's office 
even full size details are 
kept within the 36 by 60 
inch dimension, and 
details are made on bond 
paper which is strong 
enough for office usage 
and permits blue print- 
ing. 

Even though this 
vertical drawer file holds 
drawings readily acces- 
sible, .vet sets of current 
work drawings hang on 

swinging bracketed rods, located on a column or wall 
close to the drafting tables and are thus easily referred to 
in place, or any set maybe lifted off and consulted on a 
table when desired. This device is so simple and inex- 
pensive that it will deserve illustration later. 

One of the features of this drafting room worthy of 
mention is a _ ; foot shelf 7 feet high on the partition next 
the library. Ceiling hooks under the shelf support coat 



thumb- tacked surface 
(compo hoard covered 
with cloth and tinted 
cream color like the 
other walls ) is kept clear 
for display of full size 
details which thus can 
be studied from the full 
length of the drafting 
room . 

The disposition of 
samples of building 
materials is a vexatious 
problem in every office. 
In Mr. Piatt's office they 
are neatly arranged on 
the walls of the library 
in the alcove passage 
next to his room. Slabs 
of marble and even 
bricks rest on shelves in 
vertical pigeonholes, 
formed with thin wood 
partitions set at 45 with 
the wall. Bach exposes 
enough of its edge and 
side for identification 
and can he drawn forth for a full view. 

The headquarters of Carrere & Hastings is an interest- 
ing Study, not simply because it is one of the largest archi- 
tectural offices in the world, but because, being newly 
planned after long experience in building up and organiz- 
ing a successful professional business, the plan is an 
expression of the relation of the parts of the organization 
and the method of administration. The visitor may be 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



surprised on being told that the filing room is the central 
feature around which the whole office is planned. This is 
true evidently because this room contains the instruments 
of service through which 
the architects accomplish 
their work. It is the focal 
point for the receiving, dis- 
tributing', and recording of 
designs, specifications, and 
orders. In theory every 
drawing, specification, 
order, and letter must pass 
through this room before 
it can leave the office. Con- 
versely, ever)- shop draw- 
ing, every sample submit- 
ted for approval, and every 
document returned must 
pass through this room 
before it reaches the archi- 
tect or any department 




and superintendents or other executives to meet him there 
in conference. If he is a client he is shown into the im- 
pressively large reception room which is approached from 

the opposite end with equal 
convenience by a partner 
or any member of the office 
force; or the client can be 
ushered with facility to any 
private office for individual 
conference. Mr. Hastings 
is in immediate proximity 
to the reception room and 
the drafting room, and the 
working library is his 
studio, liven if lie has 
visitors in conference a 
draftsman is at liberty to 
walk in, select a book, and 
return to the drafting 
room. The bookkeeping 
and financial center of the 



FILING AXD PACKAGE ROOM. 




of his organiza- 
tion. Upon ef- 
fective carrying 
out of this theory 
depends in large 
measure the 
smooth working 
of the office ad- 
ministration and 
the prompt is- 
suance of infor- 
mation upon 
which depends 
the prompt exe- 
cution of clients' 
work . 

Referring to 
the plan we may 
note first how 

conveniently a caller is eared for as soon as he enters the 
door of the general office. If he is a contractor he finds 
close at hand a table on which drawings may be spread. 



office is where it 
should be, be- 
tween the mem- 
bers of the firm 
and yet not vis- 
ible from the 
outer off i e e . 
Mr. Brainerd, 
the business and 
e n g i n e e r i n g 
head of the firm, 
is in convenient 
touch with Mr. 
Hastings and 
the business 
office and is at 
the same time 
in the midst of 
his executive as- 
sistants. It may be remarked here that the management 
of the office is based on the idea that each individual should 

be entrusted with the charge of certain well-defined work 



IO 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



and then held responsible for results ami that no automatic 
system can take the place of brains. When we find our- 
selves in the immense drafting: room we may note that the 
two long detail tables in the middle of the room have 
drawers under, containing sketches, etc., tor reference, or 
drawings in progress. Standing racks are ranged along 
between the columns, supporting drawings needed for 
reference by draftsmen at work. 

We need scarcely refer to other interesting arrangements 
of the office shown clearly by the plan, such as the fine 
sample room which is avail- 
able on occasion for con- 
tractor's use. But before 
leaving the tile room we 
may remark that this room 
is closed to all except the 
most efficient young lady 
in charge and her assistant. 
Tlie latter has a mailing 
desk near the window and 
a machine for writing u 
records. All drawings re- 
ceived from the drafting 
room are entered on card 
lists, and if a drawing is 
handed out to any one in 
the drafting room its tag 
with a debit entry lies in a 
tray until that 
identical drawing 
is returned and re- 
placed in the file. 
Scale drawings 

are kept in the 
metal " clothes 
drier " racks at 
the end of the 
loom, and full size 
details are, folded 
and tiled edgewise 
in drawers in the 
manner of corre- 
spondence vertical 
files. Miscella- 

neous mounted 
drawings, photo- 
graphs, etc., are 
placed in ordinary 
Hat drawers and 
their location re- 
corded by card in- 
dex. The issuance 

and receiving of drawings, samples, etc., is recorded on 
thin card slips written once in duplicate and without any 
transcriptions, and also without requiring receipts. 




- SrconD • ru30C • Plah- 
OFFICES of GROSVENOR ATTERBURY 



.\ number of architects in New York have bought or 
leased old residences which by the shifting of business dis- 
tricts are favorably located. A good example of this type 
of office is that of Grosvenor Atterbury. Every nook of 
this house, which is sandwiched between business build- 
ings and yet has good light both front and rear, appears 
to be busily utilized, from a contractor's room in the base- 
ment to a photographic dark room in the top story. The 
inquisitive visitor enters the business office and is im- 
pressed with the artistic atmosphere. Before inviting him 

upstairs to his private 
office, Mr. Atterbury calls 
attention to a card index 
saying that a " white card 
indicates that a drawing 
has been issued, and a 
yellow card that the receipt 
has not yet come back " — 
etc. Mr. Atterbury is 
famous for his model tene- 
ments and towns and other 
achievements, and in the 
profession he is famous 
also for his business sys- 
tem. With his permission 
we will reproduce later 
some of his interesting 
irinted blanks. In the 
meantime the plan 
herewith shows 
clearly the various 
features of this 
five-tiered office . 
Note one long 
dumbwaiter for 

drawings, another 
for small packages 
and messages ; the 
separate drafting 

rooms : the pic- 
turesque sample 
roo m balco n y 

around the well 
above the business 
office : and the 
tracing room in 
the top st o r y 
where a portion of 
the blue printing 
is done. Mr. At- 
terbury charges 
clients for all blue 
prints at the regular printers' rate. One interesting 
feature of Mr. Atterbury's office is the presence of half a 
dozen skilled and efficient women draftsmen. 



-TViird- ruooc-Pu*.ri- 



-rOORTK-rujOE-PLjVI- 



20 W. 43d STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



ARCHITECTURE is not only an art, and the Ion- and 
thorough training necessary for the attainment of 
even a modest proficiency in its practice classes it not only 
as an artistic profession but as a scientific profession 
requiring a breadth of knowledge probably greater than is 
required in any other profession. The future health and 



well-being of the Nation is, to a great extent, in his hands. 
Social progress is his care, and in the public interest, even 
if not in his own. the architect in whose hands the remedy 
lies should be surrounded by an artistic atmosphere which 
will eventually lead to the progress of art or the evolution 
of a National style of architecture. — Todd. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1 



The Heating and Ventilation of Schools. — I 



CHARLES I-. HUBB VRD. 



MODERN school buildings are commonly heated and applies more especially to grammar schools, a basis of K) 

ventilated in one of three ways, depending - upon their cubic feet per pupil per minute will be assumed in pro 

size and the funds available for this part of the equipment, tioning the various parts of the apparatus. A standard 

Building's of four to eight rooms may be heated quite satis- class room usually accommodates a maximum of 50 pupils, 



r 



COLD-A]R_ 
ROOM 



uNnmwji, 



TO/LET VENL 



m 



M 



c 



factorily by means of furnaces when it 
is desired to keep the expense as low as 
possible. Indirect steam, with gravity 
circulation of air, is also used for build- 
ings of this size and also in buildings 
Up to twelve class rooms or more. Its 
principal advantages over furnace heat 
ing are : first, a single boiler or pair of 
boilers set in battery and a single coal 
room, while with furnace heating the 
best practice makes use of a separate 
furnace for each pair of class rooms, and 
as these are more or less widely sepa- 
rated, it complicates the storage of coal 
and handling of ashes as well as the 
work of firing ; second, furnace heating 
usually makes it necessary to employ 
stack heaters to produce a sufficient 
draft in the vent flues, which still further 
complicates the work of the janitor in 
charge of the building. 

With indirect steam the fires, storage 
of coal, and removal of ashes are grouped at a single point, 
which reduces the amount of work necessary to care for 
them and also adds to the cleanliness of the building. 
When the cost does not prohibit, it is advisable to use the 
fan system in buildings of eight rooms and over, as the 
results are so much more uniform, both as to air supply 
and temperature. 
When the cost of 
operation is taken 
into account the ex- 
pense of a fan system 
is not so very much 
more than the indi- 
rect gravity. The 
radiation is more effi- 
cient, due to t h e 
greater velocity of 
the air over it, hence 
less is required ; 
again, vent-flue heat- 
ers are not required, 
which both lessens 
the first cost and the 
amount of fuel for 
operating. 

The present article 
will deal with build- 
ings of eight rooms 
and less, employing furnaces or indirect steam heat. 

The Massachusetts law calls for a minimum air supply 
of 30 cubic feet per pupil per minute, while it is customary 
in high schools to provide a ventilating apparatus capable 
of supplying 50 cubic feet. In the present article, which 



~n — r-r 

" ii 



x> 



-EO%UACE 
'EU^VACE 



_TQ/LETELUE 
HEATER, 

-turalace: 

SA10XE STACK. 
^EURALACE 
-yiOAE.<JTA(X 

3 I I 




FIG. I 



MA 



CLASS ROOM 

HP 



CORRJBOR. 



Dffl 
DD 



O 



y~xA 



j^U 






CLAZ5 ROOM 



EELE MATE. 



corr/eior 



TO/LET VEMT 

CLASS ZPOA1 

/J A —\ 



o 



y 

--AAETLE PLATE 



DD 

nro-^ 



CLASS ZOOM 



which calls for an air supply of 50 x 1-0 
= 2,()i)o cubic feel of air per minute. 

In proportioning the size of the warm- 
air supply Hues it is customary to as 
sume an average velocity of 300 feel per 
minute to the first floor rooms, and 350 
feet per minute to the second floor. 
This in round numbers calls for Hue 
areas of 7 square feet and 6 square feet 
respectively. The vent Hues may be 
made the reverse of this, that is, 6 
square feet from the first-floor room and 
7 square feet from the second. The 
reason for this variation in Hue area is 
because with a given difference in tem- 
perature between the external air and 
that in the Hue, the velocity of How will 
increase with the height of Hue. 

The area of the cold-air inlet may be 
made the same as the total of the warm- 
air Hues connecting with the furnace 
or heating stack, and means provided 
for throttling the air supply in windy weather. The above 
data applies to both furnace and indirect steam heating, 
and can be used in either case equally well. In the case of 
a furnace-heated building the next step is to compute the 
required grate area for both heating and ventilation. In 
doing this it is customary to provide a separate furnace for 

each twm lass rooms. 
The heat 1( >SS from a 
standard comer class 
room, Raving the 
usual proportion of 
glass, and of average 
construction, may be 
taken as 30,000 heat 
units per hour for 
northerly rooms, and 
20,000 for southerly 
rooms. The Heat re 
quired for warming 
the air for ventila- 
tion may be found by 
multiplj m:: the air 
supply per hour by 
l .3, when its temper- 
ature is to be raised 
from o to 70 . This 
calls for 2,000 X 60 

X 1.3 1 56, "i 

in round numbers 160,000 heal units per hour, makinj 
total ol 160,000 i 50,000 - 190,000 heat units for north 

rooms, and 160,000 * -"», 180,000 for southerly rooms. 

A good furnace of large size should burn economically 7 
pounds of coal per square font of grate per hour, and each 



t=i 1=1 l=i 

I: 



HA ^ 
CLASS ROOM 



h: 



CORJZLEJOR. 



+.HA 

CLASS ROOM 



^ 



V . 



CLASS JZOOM 



MA 



a 



fc=j i=i 



o 



OD 



EELE ELATE 
I t 

corrjjjor. 



j 



i — 

EATELE ELATE 



CLASS ROOM 
—TO/LET VENT 
_»// A 



k=j \=4 



FIG 



III. 



I 



A. 



I 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



pound of coal gives off approximately 13,000 heat units, of air chambers, and shows the galvanized iron connections 

which about 8,000 are absorbed by the passing air and do between the top of the furnace casing and the bottoms of 

190,000 the brick uptake flues, which start at the level of the first 

usefulwork. Under these conditions, - „ o„™ = 3.5 square ,. , pt ,, , . . ., ., 

7 X 8U00 floor. 1 he flues are spread apart before entering the lur- 

feet of grate surface are required for each northerly class nace casing so that the cold air admitted by the mixing 

dampers will pass up the back of the flues 

and thus be delivered at the tops of the 




180,000 

room, and - ; ^^ = 3.2 square feet tor 

each southerly room. On this basis it is 

customary to use a furnace having from 

7 to 8 square feet of grate surface for each 

pair of northerly rooms, and 6 to 7 square 

feet for each pair of southerly rooms. 

Corridors, coat rooms, teachers' rooms, 

etc., may be heated either by a separate 

furnace, or better, by enlarging the class 

room furnaces on a basis of 1.5 square 

feet of grate surface for each 10,000 cubic 

feet of space to be heated. Although the 

usual form of cylindrical house-heating 

furnace may be adapted to schoolhpuse 

work, it is more common to use a furnace 

with an extended heating surface and especially adapted to 

this class of work. Furnaces of this type are often of the 

general form of a locomotive boiler and are enclosed in a 

brick setting. 

The small stoves, or stack heaters, 
placed in the vent flues from the class 
rooms, should each contain a grate area 
of at least one square foot. 

Figs. I to VI inclusive show a typical 
furnace layout for an eight-room school 
building which contains some points of 
interest as symplifying a system of this 
kind. The first and second floor plans. 
Figs. II and III, show the general ar- 
rangement of the flues, which are con- 
structed of brick on account of their close 
proximity to the furnaces and smoke 
stacks. The supply flties discharge the 
warm air into the rooms near the outside 
walls, which is desirable both from a heating and ventila- 
ting Standpoint. The flues leading to the first floor are 
insulated from the outside wall by an air space, as shown. 
The vent flues are located near the corri- 
dor walls, an arrangement which gives a 
good circulation to the air supplied for ven- 
tilation and also assists in heat distribu- 
tion. The corridors are provided with dis- 
charge ventilation, as shown ; fresh air 
being obtained partly by leakage and 
through the frequent opening of outside 
doors, and partly through hot-air registers 
not shown in the cut. The flues are so 
grouped that the furnaces ma\ be placed 
in two batteries as shown on the basement 
plan, Fig. I ; thus reducing the labor of 
rtrinc, and cleaning. Each battery of fur- 
naces is enclosed in a cold-air room with a 

large inlet at the rear, as indicated by the pig. VI. 

arrows. From here it flows into the fur- 
nace casing at the floor through special openings provided 
for this purpose. This is made clearer in Fig. IV, which 
represents a longitudinal section through one of the cold- 





registers, a condition which is always de- 
sirable for reasons stated in a previous 
article. The outside air enters through a 
large opening at the rear and passes be- 
neath the furnaces through openings near 
the floor, as indicated. 

A cross-section through a cold-air room 
and pair of furnaces is shown in Fig. V, 
and illustrates the passage of the air from 
the main supply chamber into the spaces 
surrounding the furnace, also the connec- 
tions between the furnace casings and the 
brick flues. 

With this arrangement the left-hand fur- 
nace supplies the two first-floor rooms on that side of the 
building, and the ri.u'ht-hand furnace the two upper rooms. 
The other side of the building is symmetrical with this, and 
the arrangement practically the same. 

No method is shown fen - warming the 
corridors. This may be done by carry- 
ing over pipes from the two nearer 
furnaces, enlarging the grate areas corre- 
spondingly, or a separate furnace may 
be tised. 

Temperature regulation is obtained by 
the use of mixing dampers at the bases 
of the flues as shown in Pi.^'s. IV and V. 
Special attention is called to the method 
of heating the vent flues without employ- 
ing additional stack heaters for this pur- 
pose. This consists in providing a sepa- 
rate steel smoke stack for each furnace, 
as indicated in Figs. 1 , 1 1 , and III. These 
stacks are carried up in a brick vent flue which serves two 
class rooms. Sound is prevented from passing from one 
room to the other by the use of heavy galvanized iron baffle 
plates, or deflectors, shown in plan in Figs. 
II and III, and in elevation in Fig. VI, 
which is a vertical section through a pair 
of vent flues and shows the two smoke 
stacks supported at their centers. The 
main toilet vents are heated by special 
stack heaters as shown in Fig. 1, ami in 
section in Fig. V. The dtiets leading from 
the fixtures arc of brick or cement and are 
carried beneath the basement floor as indi- 
cated. If a special furnace were used for 
warming the corridors its smoke stack 
might be used for heating a main toilet 
vent centrally located, with which both of 
the basement toilets could be connected. 
The layout shown is simply one of many 
which may be used to good advantage, but 
it serves to bring out some of the important points to be 
kept in mind when designing a system of this kind, viz., 
grouping the hot-air flues so the furnaces may be operated 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



13 



in batteries, and the utilization of steel smoke stacks for 
heating vent flues, thus avoiding the multiplication of tires, 
so far as possible. 

In the ease of indirect steam heating 1 , the sizes of lines 
and the quantity of air may be taken the same as for fur- 
nace heating, also the amount of heat to be supplied per 
elass room. 

Indirect cast-iron radiators, commonly 
known as " school pin," and rated at 12 
to 15 square feet of heating surface per 
section, are well adapted to this pur- 
pose. Heaters of this type may be 
counted upon to give off at least 650 to 
700 heat units per square foot of sur- 

190,000 
face per hour, which calls for 




TO/L£TJiE/y_T_ 



650 
northerly class 



WA1NZY STACK. 
~fd/LET'Vf:NT 



rooms, and 



280 square feet for 
and 



300 square feet foi 
180,000 
650 
southerly rooms, for both heatin 
ventilating. 

Sometimes the indirect stacks are 
only made large enough to heat the air 
for ventilation in zero weather, and the 
heat loss by transmission through walls 
and windows is provided for by placing 
direct radiation in the rooms. When 
this is done the higher efficiency (700) 
may be used in computing the size of 
stacks, because the final temperature of the air will be less 
(70°) and the flow of heat from the radiating surface to the 
air will be greater. Under this condition each room should 

160,000 
700 

direct radiating surface may be based on an efficiency of 250 
heat units per square foot of surface per hour if circulation 
coils are used, which 




FIG. VII 



havi 



= 230 square feet of indirect surface. The 



calls for 



30,000 



250 

120 square feet in 
northerly rooms, and 
20,000 



/JA 



CLASS ROOM? 



1=1 Y=\ 



-Ji A 



_ CLASS ROOM 



80 square 
southerly 



:oi 



-TO/LET V 



250 
feet in 

rooms. This corre- 
sponds very nearly 
to six and four lines 
respectively of l%- 
inch pipe around the 
two outside walls be- 
neath the windows. 

With this combina- 
tion of direct and in- 
direct surface it will 
be possible to both 
heat and ventilate 
the building with the 
indirect surface when 

the outside temperature is above 30 degrees or so, using room 
the direct coils simply for quick warming in the morning, radiation, is shown in Figs. Y 1 1 . VIII, and IX. In this 
and in the coldest weather as may be required. The direct case the flues are of galvanized iron, except the mam toili 
surface may also be used when heat only is required with- vent, which is of brick. This material n 
out ventilation. construction and requires no basement support, 




FIG. VIII. 



The indirect stacks should be divided into three sepa- 
rately valved sections and provided with mixing dampers. 
When both heating and ventilation is dime by the stacks 
the doors of the corridors and the cold-air rooms should be 
so arranged that air may be circulated within tl e building 
for quick warming and also when ventilation is not required. 
The main halls or corridors arc com- 
monly heated by means of foot warmers. 
sii railed, which are indirect stacks simi- 
lar to those used for the class rooms, 
placed beneath floor registers. Two 
foot-warmers, containing about 150 
square feet of surfaceeach, will usually 
be sufficient for warming both lower and 
upper corridors, the heated air passing 
up the stairways to the latter. If there 
is a good deal of exposed window sur 
face at the ends of the corridors, direct 
surface may be added, in the ratio of 1 
square foot to each 5 square feet of 
.class. 

Foot-warmers should be arranged to 
take their air supply either from out of 
doors or from the basement, by turning 
a switch damper. Small rooms heated 
entirely by direct surface may have cast- 
iron radiators proportioned in the ratio 
of 1 square foot of surface for each 3 
square feet of glass, and the same for 
each 8 square feet of wall. This is for southerly rooms and 
should be increased thirty per cent for a northerly expo- 
sure. If cast-iron sectional boilers are used there should 
be 1 square foot of grate surface for each 80 feet of indi 
rect radiation ; each square foot of direct surface being 
counted as 0.5 of a foot of indirect, which gives a consider 
able margin of safety. When tubular boilers arc used. 

there should be 1 
horse-power u >r eai h 
45 square feet of in- 
direct radiation. 
counting direct sur- 
f a c e a s a 1 r c a d y 
stated. 

The vent fluesfrom 
class rooms should 
each be provided 
with an 1 'i ten fi >rm of 
aspirating coil eon 
taining front 30 to K) 
square feet of heat 
ing surface. These 
coils should be 1 ilaced 
just above the vent 
openings from the 
rooms, with shut 1 if! 
and air valves in the 
basement. A typical 

layout for an eight 




FIG. IX. 



school, heated and ventilated by indirect steam 



beinj 



H 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



/i CATER 



3 



{ 



carried by the floor construction at the different stories. 
Flues of tin's material take up less room than brick and 
have a smooth interior. When steam is used the tempera- 
ture at the staeks is lower than around the furnaces, hence 
less care is required in connection with the fireproofing 
in wooden building's. Although brick chambers and lines 
have some advantages in connection with furnace heat- 
ing, this construction is not at all necessarj . provided suit- 
able precautions are taken against fire in the install 
of sheet-iron Hues and connections. 

Tlie basement plan. Fig. VII, shows 
two cold-air chambers, each connecting 
with four supply flues and containing 
four indirect staeks. A section through 
one of these is illustrated in Fig. X. 
and shows two of the staeks with their 
connecting Hues. The stacks are stis 
pended from the ceiling a distance 
slightly greater than the width of the 
Hue and provided with mixing dampers, 
as shown. With the arrangement indi- 
cated, the cold air passes up the backs 
of the Hues and so into the rooms at the 
tops of the registers. The flues are ex- 
tended a couple of feet or so below the 

bottoms of the stacks so as to insure a supply of cold air 
at outside temperature. If the flues start on a line with 
the stacks, the air in mild weather is likely t<> become i on- 
siderably healed by blowing across the bottoms of the 
heaters before entering the Hues, thus making it difficult, 
at times, to maintain a sufficiently low temperature in the 
rooms. The fresh outside air enters through two inlet 
windows, as shown. The efficiency of the system would 
be somewhat improved by connecting the two air chambers 
by a duct having an area equal to at least three of the hot- 
air up takes. This duct could be carried 
underground with the present location of 
the boiler, or an overhead duct could be 
used by changing the position of the 
smoke connections or carrying the duct 
at one side of the center, as indicated by 
dotted lines. If a connecting duet were 
used it would be necessary to place air- 
cheeks over the inlet windows to prevent 
the cold air from blowing entirely through 
the building. If the basement ceiling is 
of tire proof construction, or of wire lath 
and plaster, no special lining will be 
needed above the heating stacks; other- 
wise, the ceilings of the hot air chambers should be 
tinned or covered with light galvanized iron. 

Figs. VIII and IX show the general positions of the 
Hues on the different floors. As the first story supply 
Hues next the outside wall do not extend more than S feet 
above the floor there is ample room to offset the second- 
story Hues to a location near the outer wall, thus giving 
for closet room on the upper floor, as seen in 
IX. When carrying up Hues in this way they should 
be kept a distance of 4 to 6 inches from the outer wall, 
and it is well to protect the exposed side with some 
form of insulating material. The corridors are heated 
by means of foot-warmers (not shown) and vented into 
a special duct as indicated. 



HA.f-LUtS 



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NEATER. 



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/MET INLET 

COLD-A/JZ. CNAM5EZ 



FIG. X 





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MAIN 
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PIG. M 



A brick Hue is provided for general toilet ventilation 
near the center of the building, and heated by the boiler 
smoke stack, which is carried up inside it. This utilizes 
the waste heat from the stack and takes the place of a 
special aspirating coil. The two main basement toilets are 
connected with this Hue by means of under-round ducts 
shown in dotted lines in Fig. VII. 

The vent Hues, as arranged, would probably be brought 
into a common chamber in the attic provided with an 
outboard shaft, having an area about 0.7 
that of the combined areas of all the Hues 
connecting with it. A damper should 
be provided in this outboard shaft with 
means for Operating from the basement. 
The toilet vent, however, should be car- 
ried up separately past the damper, and 
end at a point on a level with the top 
of the main flue. Probably the best 
arrangement in the present case would 
be that shown in Fig. XI. with the brick 
vent Hue at the center and a galvanized 
iron or copper Hue on each side. Men- 
tion has already been made of the main 
outboard Hue for toilet ventilation and 
the different methods of heating it to 
produce the desired velocity of flow through it, especially 
in mild weather. ( >f equal importance with this flue itself 
are the methods of connecting the fixtures with it. One 
of the best arrangements, everything taken into considera- 
tion, is to provide a closed chamber at the rear of the 
fixtures, from 12 to 15 inches in depth and as high as the 
marble or slate partitions between the closets will allow. 
This space provides room for the soil pipe and its connec- 
tion with the fixtures as well as a ventilating chamber, 
and therefore serves a double purpose. The local vent 
from each fixture, both closets and 
urinals, is connected by a neat copper 
pipe with the chamber, and a duct, either 
underground or overhead, having an 
area equal to the total sectional area of 
all the local vents connecting with it is 
carried from the chamber to the main 
uptake flue. This space need not neces- 
sarily be air-tight, as all leakage is 
inward when the line is in operation. 
Sometimes a register, about Kt by M 
inches, is provided in the far end of the 
chamber to provide a certain amount of 
general ventilation for the room in addi- 
tion to that through the fixtures. This register, however, 
should be provided with valves so it may be closed if 
desired, as it is best, so far as possible, to throw the greater 
pari <>f the discharge from the room through the fixtures, 
in order to carry off all odors before they have a chance 
to enter the air of the room. Toilet rooms should not 
have an air supply other than that which is drawn in 
by the slight vacuum <]\w to the aspirating effect of the 
vent Hue. 

This is usually provided for by means of grilles or 
louvres in the lower panels of the door, or by a space, 
6 or 8 inches in height, under the door, made by shorten 
ing it. In mild weather this may be provided for by 
( ipening the windows. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 21, NO. 1. PLATE 1. 




THE BRIC KBU I LDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 2. 




THE MANOR HOUSE. GLEN COVE. LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Charles a. Platt, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 3. 






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THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 4. 





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HOUSE AT BRETENAHL, OHIO 
McKim, Mead & White, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. p LATE 5 . 




X 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21 NO. i. PLATE 6. 




BEV1ER MEMORIAL BUILDING OF THE MECHANICS INSTITUTE. ROCH ESTER, N. Y. 

Claude Bragdon, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 7. 




APARTMENT HOUSE, BROOKLYN. N. Y. 
William A. Boring, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 1. p LATE 8 




APARTMENT HOUSE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
William A. Boring, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 9. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 1. PLATE 10. 




HOUSE AT JENKINTOWN, PA. 
Cope & Stewaroson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 11. 




HOUSE AND STABLE 
AT 

JENKINTOWN, PA. 
Cope & Stewaroson, architects. 



' 



DETAIL OF ENTRANCE TO HOUSE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 1. PLATE 12. 




HOUSE AT MT. KISCO, N. Y. 

built of terra-cotta hollow tile blocks with stucco finish. 

Delano & Aldrich, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 13. 





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THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 1. PLATE 14. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Legal Hints for Architects. — Part VII. 



*5 



WILLIAM L. BOWMAN. C.E., LL.B. 



Contract Clauses. Our previous considerations of various 
contract clauses, using the ordinary uniform contract as a 
basis for suggestions, have brought us to the questions 
involving additional drawings and explanations, full-sized 

details, models, etc., which are not directly specified in the 
contract. The usual clause reads "that such additional 
drawings and explanations as may be necessary to detail 
and illustrate the work to be done are to be furnished by 
said architect, and they agree to conform to and abide by 
the same so far as they may be consistent with the purpose 
and inte-nt of the original drawings and specifications," 
etc. No argument seems necessary to show that this par- 
ticular clause does not permit or authorize the architect to 
change his scale plans, but how many architects to-day are 
there who do not in some way make such changes? While 
it must be admitted that often such changes are minor or 
of no serious consequence, yet since we must all be gov- 
erned to some extent by the general principles of what we 
do, even such changes should, as far as possible, be avoided. 
Some architects have attempted to take an illegal advan- 
tage by means of this clause, or of one of similar import. 
In one instance the architect added to his working details 
certain written provisions forbidding the assignment of the 
contract and fixing a date of completion of the work beyond 
which time the contractor would be liable to liquidated 
damages or to a deduction for non-completion on time. It 
was of course held that such provisions were not a neces- 
sary part of working details, and hence they were not bind- 
ing upon the contractor. An important and interesting 
case involving this point will now be taken up in detail, 
and to save time and repetition many of the other points of 
interest therein will be mentioned. 

The scale drawings of a modern city store used and fur- 
nished by a certain architect for bidding purposes showed 
an outline of designs for elevator screens and stair balus- 
trades for the first story only. They showed that there 
were to be at certain indicated points ornamental features 
such as leaf work, but did not show the character, quality, 
or extent of such work, and the specifications did not help 
the drawings in this respect. The architect afterwards 
claimed that the bidders were shown certain photographs 
of fine ornamental iron work made in Europe and a certain 
specimen of grill work by a well-known manufacturer, but 
the contractor who was low bidder at $88,634 (the next bid 
being $135,000) denied that he had ever seen said photo 
graphs or sample work until after he had signed the con- 
tract. Then they were presented to him by the architect 
for signature. After some discussion of the matter with 
the architect the contractor immediately wrote a letter sta- 
ting that in his estimate he had allowed $4,800 for stair 
balustrades and $15,000 for elevator screens, and that he 
was willing to spend that amount for such details as the 
architect should choose and that before proceeding he 
wanted a clear understanding as to the value of the work 
to be done. The owner thereafter signed the contract not 
knowing of this difference between the contractor and the 
architect. This contract provided as follows upon the 
material points to lie mentioned herein : that the contra* tor 



admits that the drawings and specifications are sufficient 
for their intended purpose, and covenants and agrees to 

follow same, and furnish all materials of the quality and 
kind set forth in the specifications and execute all work 
Strictly in accordance with the drawings, using for data 
and dimensions the figures marked on each drawing in 
preference to what the drawing may scale, and to be gov- 
erned in each case by the detail drawing in preference to 
what the general drawing may show for the same part of 
the work : and the contractor hereby expressly waives all 
claim or demand to any allowance for extra work or mate- 
rials that may be furnished, unless in each ease such extra 
work or materials shall have been furnished upon a written 
order signed by the architect; that in ease the parties 
hereto cannot agree as to the true value of extra or 
deducted work or the amount of extra time, or in case they 
disagree as to the true meaning of any covenant or agree- 
ment herein, the decision of the architect shall in each case 
be final and binding ; should any dispute arise respecting 
the true construction or meaning of the drawings or speci- 
fications the same shall be decided by the architect and his 
decision shall be final and conclusive. Thereafter the con- 
tractor started his work, and against his protest and claims 
for extra work he was furnished detailed drawings by the 
architect which required him to spend about three times 
his estimate for the two items in dispute. The ornamental 

features of the full-sized details were not as elaborate as 
the photographs, but required leaves, buds, fruits, vines, 
and various artistic figures which were not indicated by 
the scale drawings, and some of them necessitated hand 
work by skilled ironworkers. 

When the entire ornamental work was completed, a fur- 
ther question arose as to how much time of delay there had 
been on the part of the contractor. The contractor claimed 
that the chief cause of the delay was the architect himself, 
in his failure to furnish the detail drawings. Assuming to 
act under the contract provisions above given the architect 
decided in favor of the owner and then issued a final cer- 
tificate. In said certificate but in alum]) sum the architect 
allowed the owner $3,900 for delay and disallowed the con 
tractor anything for the odd $40,000 which the elevator 
screens and balustrades cost him over his estimate on the 
scale drawings. The owner paid the amount of said certi- 
ficate and the parties then went to eourt, the contractor 
suing for extra work and to get rid of the penalty imposed 
for delay. In the lower court the master before whom the 
ease was tried, decided in favor of the Owner OH the '/round 
that the decision of the architect was a bar to the relief 
sought by the contractor. This decision was upheld on the 
first appeal but reversed upon the next. The last court held 
that the award of the arehiteet in reference to the elevator 
screens and the Stairway balustrades and the dam. 

occasioned by delay must be disregarded entirely because 
the arehiteet exceeded his authority under the contract in 
deciding those questions, and hence his certificate had no 
binding effect on the court. The contractor was then per- 
mitted to recover lor the difference between the vain 
the Stairway balustrades as placed in the building and the 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



$4,800 he had allowed in his estimate, also the difference 
between the value of the elevator screens as placed in the 
building by the contractor and the $15,000 which he had 

allowed in his estimate; and the lower court was directed 
to take up the question of fact as to who was responsible 
for the delay with a view of determining whether or not 
the contractor was liable for such damages. 

The opinion of the chief justice who wrote for the court 
in this decision is particularly clear and concise in its 
statements so that it would seem fitting to quote somewhat 
at length therefrom, particularly as there is a vein of good 
practical advice to architects therein. "It is plain that 
the scale drawings were too indefinite to enable the con- 
tractor to determine what was required, and that the con- 
tract as originally drawn was in that respect ambiguous 
and uncertain. Had the photographs or specimen of grille 
work been made a part of the contract by reference or 
otherwise, the ambiguity would have been removed," etc. 

Defendants in error (the owners) also argue that it is 
almost impossible to make the scale drawings and specifi- 
cations show the details of the work or even indicate fully 
its character and value, but that they always need to he, 
and are, supplemented, and that they may be supplemented 
by enlarged sketches on the margin of the scale drawings, 
or by reference to known and existing specimens of similar 
work, or by reference to photographs of such work. This 
reasoning is sound, but where specimens of photographs are 
relied upon to supplement the scale drawings they should 
be identified as a part of the contract or as illustrative 
thereof, so that there could be no question that they were 
used to supplement the scale drawings, In this ease there 
was no such marginal sketch and no such specimen or 
photograph was so identified. In this condition of the 
record it is contended that the scale drawings may be 
supplemented by the general Standing of the architect and 
the usual character of his work, the richness or simplicity 
of the building ami the purposes for which it is designed. 

If the argument last mentioned is entitled to any consid- 
eration at all, it may be observed that in this case detail 
drawings were furnished after the contract was entered 
into, from which plaintiff in error was able to ascertain, 
without any difficult}' whatever, precisely what the archi- 
tect wanted. There is no legal reason why such detail draw- 
ings should not have accompanied the contract in the first 
instance and made it certain^ without leaving the parties to 
determine their rights by so doubtful a measure as that 
afforded by the general Standing of the architect and the 
usual character of his work, or by the richness or simplicity 
of the building and the purposes for which it was designed. 

It is contended by the defendants in error (the owners) 
that the scale drawings themselves are not definite and 
certain, and that under the contract the architect has the 
power to determine the true construction and meaning 
thereof; and. further, that the architect did determine the 
meaning of the scale drawings and furnished the detail 
drawings in accordance with such determination, ami that 
the ambiguity in the contract is thereby cured. In that 
view of the matter the contract was not only ambiguous, 
but it was blank and meant nothing so far as it was evi- 
denced by the scale drawings. The difficulty about this 
itention is, that with the scale drawings in the condition 
they were when the original draft of the contract was 
signed by S. (the contractor) no one could tell what was 



required, and if that was to be ascertained some months 
later by the architect, and he had the power to require 
screens and balustrades that would be of the value of 
$20,000, or that might exceed $50,000 in value, without 
any increase or decrease in the contract price for all the 
ironwork, which was $88,643, there was no meeting of the 
minds of the parties and the contract was void. 

It is argued that tinder the provisions of the contract 
set out in the foregoing statement the architect's award is 
conclusive. It is manifest that the architect, in making 
his award, exceeded his jurisdiction by regarding that as 
a part of the contract which was not a part of the contract 
and in giving F. (the owner) the benefit thereof, and that 
he excluded from consideration, as not being a part of the 
contract, that which should have been regarded and treated 
as a part thereof. In other words, the rights of the parties 
which he attempted to adjudicate were not the rights which 
were submitted to him for arbitration. His finding was in 
reference, in part, to matters not submitted to him and 
disregarded other matters which were submitted to him. 
He departed from the authority conferred upon him by the 
contract, and his award being an entirety is therefore not 
binding and is wholly ineffectual." 

This ease exemplifies two serious difficulties which the 
architect can easily remedy if he but remember them : 
first, the leaving of anything in his plans or specifications 
that is not plain, concise, and obvious to all, or anything 
open to several interpretations; and second, a failure to 
know that his powers as an arbitrator are not the same 
under every contract ; and that he must act only in accord- 
ance with the direct and explicit authority granted by the 
particular contract. I have already suggested in a pre- 
vious article how tin.' first difficult)' could be overcome, and 

to that should be added the suggestion from the learned 
writer of the opinion just cited, that the important and 

costly detailed drawings be prepared before the contract is 

signed, so that they may be identified in said contract by 
direct reference. The second difficulty will be discussed 
later when we come to the consideration of those various 
clauses whereby the architect acts as an arbitrator. 

One other point worthy of note in this case, although 
the opinion does not mention it, is that the detailed drawing 
must have been held a sufficient ordering in writing of 
extra work to satisfy the contract clause in that regard. 

In still another case where the contract provision was 
that no additional work should be done without a written 
order of the architect, it was similarly held that the detailed 
plan furnished the contractor by the architect showing the 
additional work satisfied the contract so that the owner 
had to pay for such additional work. These decisions 
furnish another good reason why the architect should be 
especially careful that his detail drawings do not require 
more than the scale drawings and specifications, otherwise 
he may make the owner liable for unexpected extra work. 

Many of the municipal contracts have a pet clause some 
what as follows ; " The various drawings, etc.. are intended 
to cover a complete and perfect job in every respect. Any- 
thing omitted in this specification and shown on the draw- 
ing or vice versa is to be done by the contractor without 
extra charge or expense." However, it has been held that 
such a clause did not authorize the architect to change his 
plans or drawings. 

On the other hand there have been questions arise as to 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



17 



what an owner or architect is required to furnish where 
it provides by the contract that the owner shall furnish 
"all detail drawings." One of the cases where such a 
question has been answered judicially was under a con 
tract for the modern steel work for a skyscraper. It 
was decided that the owner was required to furnish a 
plan showing the position of each column, beam, girder, 
etc., but not what are known as "shop-drawings and 
punching sheets." 

Ownership of Plans and Specifications. We have now 
come to one of the especially interesting clauses for the 
architect, namely, " It is further understood and agreed by 
the parties hereto that any and all drawings and specifica- 
tions prepared for the purposes of this contract by the said 
architect are and remain his property," etc. My personal 
searches have failed to discover any legal determination as 
to how far this particular clause now in such common use 
affects the ownership of plans and specifications as between 
the employer or owner and the architect. Let us see from 
a view of the reported cases what effect such a clause would 
probably have, remembering in the first instance that the 
architect is not a party to that agreement. In an early 
English case the architect's contract of employment pro- 
vided for partial payments much as they are paid to-day and 
for termination of the employment at certain stages of the 
contemplated work at the option of the employer. After 
the plans and specifications were prepared, the owner 
decided not to proceed with the work, and thereupon 
notified the architect of his decision, offering to pay the 
two and one-half per cent then due upon the contract, and 
demanding the plans and specifications. The architect 
refused to part with them and sued the owner for his 
payment, setting up a custom among the architects to 
retain their plans if the work was not proceeded with. 
The court held that such a custom even if proved would 
be unreasonable, and that the owner need not pay for the 
plans and specifications unless he obtained them. 

In a rather late ease where the building was completed 
under the architect's supervision and the architect paid in 
full and then refused to give the owner the plans and speci- 
fications, the same question was passed upon and the same 
decision given. The basis of both of these decisions seems 
to be that the contract between the parties resulted in the 
making of plans the property in which passed to the owner. 
on payment of the remuneration provided under the con- 
tract. The opinion of one of the judges who made this 
decision contains the following comments: "If one con- 
siders the matter from the point of view of the reasonable- 
ness of the custom set Up, the argument seems to me to be 
entirely in favor of the building owner. What would be 
his position after the building was completed ? Unless he 
has the plans, how is he to know where the drains, the 
flues, and many other things are? Is he bound to go to 
the architect and make a fresh contract with him with 
respect to every matter that arises relating to the struc- 
ture ? Counsel for the defendant (the architect) were 
bound to admit that, if their view as to the retention of 
the plans is correct, there would be some sort of obligation 
on the architect for their safe custody ; but that admission 
does not make the retention reasonable." 

Unquestionably, where an architect's plans and specifica- 
tions win a prize or award in a competition, said plans and 
specifications become the property of the party or body 
giving the prize or paying the award. There are numer- 



ous cases showing attempts of the architects to get away 
from this ride just stated, but they seem to have been 
uniformly unsuccessful. The reason for these decisions 
has been expressed in this way: " It is true there seems 
to be a custom with architects to retain the plans in such 
cases, unless the architect whose plan is adopted is em- 
ployed in the erection of the buildings. This may be a 
very good custom among architects as between each other, 
but it binds no one else. Different classes of professions 
may very properly adopt certain rules for their own gov 
ernment and for the regulation of their particular business. 
The mistake is in giving them the force of law and sup- 
posing they can affect other persons not parties to the 
arrangement and who have no knowledge thereof." 

Our considerations clearly indicate that if an architect 
intends to retain his original property -right in his plans 
and specifications, he must provide for such retention on 
his part in his original contract with his employer. This 
entire matter has become of less importance it would seem 
on account of the late decision which holds that unless an 
architect's design is covered by letters patent or protected 
by copyright, any voluntary unrestricted surrender of 
such design or of plans and specifications causes the archi- 
tect to lose all right of property to them. In this par- 
ticular instance, an architect had prepared plans and 
specifications for a house, filed the same with the build- 
ing department as required, superintended the construc- 
tion, and received his pay therefor. Later another party 
who was pleased with the design called and asked for 
a price for a similar house. Upon the fee being given, 
the party stated that he could get the same work for less 
money. Thereafter that party employed another architect 
who practically duplicated the first architect's design and 
house. The architect then brought action against said 
building owner for the value of the plans, claiming a com 
mon law right of property in the plans. The court held 
that so long as the plans for the house remained in the 
possession of the suing architect, they constituted personal 
property and that no one had a right to take them from 
him or make use of them without his consent. The filing 
of the plans and Specifications and the architect's consent 
to the construction of the house which he superintended 
was held to have dedicated said plans to the public. The 
court said : " The law protects him (the architect) in the 
first publication of his work ; it guarantees him the right 
to receive compensation for his labor and when this has 
been accomplished the purpose of the rule of law has been 
served and at common law he can have no further rights 
in the work." It would, therefore, seem well settled now 
that at common law the architect's rights in his designs, 
plans, etc., are his own property only so long as they are 
unpublished or not dedicated to the public. 

As between the architect and the contractor it has been 
held that while the plans and specifications belonged to the 
architect as general owner, yet where there has been an 
unconditional delivery of them by the architect to the con 
tractor pursuant to the building contract, then the con 
tractor has a special property in them entitling him to the 
use and possession of them during the time the building is 
in course of construction. It was also held that if the 
architect should take without the contractor's consent and 
carry away such plans and specifications in the possession 
of the contractor before the completion of the building, then 

the architect would be committing a trespass. 



THE BRICKBU1LDER. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



19 




MAIN ENTRANCE, DRILL HALL AND INSTRUCTION BUILDING, BOAT HOUSE 

NAVAL TRAINING STATION, NORTH CHICAGO, ILL. 

JARVIS HUNT, ARCHITECT. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





ENTRANCES TO MESS HALL AND DRILL HALL, NAVAL TRAINING STATION, NORTH CHICAGO, ILL 

JARVIS HUNT, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



21 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 




IONIC CAPITAL EIGHT FEET IN WIDTH. 

Executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Garber & Woodward and Tietig & Lee, Architects 



COMPETITION FOR A STORE AND LOFT 

BUILDING. DESIGNED IN. ARCHITECTURAL 

TERRA COTTA. AWARD OF PRIZES. 

THE Jury of Award for the; Store and Loft Building 
Competition, which was the problem for the last 
Annual Architectural Terra Cotta Competition conducted 
by The Brickbuilder, awarded First Prize ($500) to I. P. 
Lord and F. D. Bulman, associated, Boston ; Second Prize 
($250) to Claud W. Beelman and Walter Seholer, asso- 
ciated, Indianapolis; Third Prize ($150) to Jack Lehti, 
Washington ; Fourth Prize ($100) to William F. Burkhart, 
Jr., andG. Evans Mitchell, 
associated, New York City ; 
First Mention to William R. 
Schmitt, New York City ; 
Second Mention to John 
Atwell King and Hubert 
Douglas Ives, associated, 
New York City; Third 
Mention to George Richard 
Klinkhardt, New York City ; 
Fourth Mention to J . Fred- 
erick Larson, Montreal ; 
Fifth Mention to Wirt C. 
Rowland and Herbert 
Wenzell, associated, De- 
troit ; vSixth Mention to 
Charles G. Beersman and 

Frank A. Engel, associated, New York City. The Com- 
petition was judged in Boston, January 20th, by Pro- 
fessors Eugene Duquesne, H. Langford Warren and J. S. 
Humphreys, of the Architectural Department at Harvard, 
and Messrs. J . Harleston Parker ( Parker, Thomas & Rice ) , 
Hubert G. Ripley, and James Ford Clapp. 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 

The Bevier Memorial Building, Rochester, N. Y. 
Plate 6. The building accommodates the Department 

of Fine Arts of 
the Rochester 
Mechanics In- 
stitute. The 
exterior is of 
" Tapestry " 
brick with a 
soft yellowish 
gray tone . The 
sill courses, 
window soffits, 
cornice brack- 
ets, and coping 
are of colored 
faience, blues, 
greens, and 
yellows pre- 

dom inating. 
The iron sash 
is painted a 




DETAIL BY NEWHALL & BLEVINS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



terra cotta which in the upper part of the building is of 
limestone color. The projecting part of the cornice is of 
copper with the soffit of terra cotta caissons let into the 
copper, these caissons being red. Upon the interior the 
floors are of hardwood, the trim of white enamel, and doors 
of mahogany. The bathrooms have tilted floors and walls. 
The building, which contains two apartments on a floor, is 
eight stories high with an apartment on the floor behind 
the cornice which has been treated for the manager of 
the company. The building cost approximately $250,000 
or about 37 cents per cubic foot. 

Borough! [all.Roselie, 

N. J. PLATE9. The exterior 
is built of hard burned red 
rough surfaced brick, laid 
with broad cement joints. 
The brick is a veneer on 
terra cotta block. The ex- 
terior ornamental stone- 
work is of composition with 
texture like marble. The 
trim around the front doors 
is of wood and treated in 
color to match the stone- 
work of the terraces and 
balustrade. The roof is 
covered with large size blue 
slate of uniform color, and 
the flashing's, cresting finials, etc., are of copper. In the 
basement is the fire apparatus with double folding doors at 
either end of the room. The main staircase which leads from 
the basement to the second floor is of iron with slate treads 
and ornamental railing. On the second floor is the audi- 
torium seating two hundred and fifty people. The building 
is largely fireproof with the walls and floors of basement in 
brick, the walls of the upper floors filled in witli brick, and 
the beams of heavy yellow pine treated in mill construc- 
tion . The 
b u il d i n g i s 
heated by 
steam. The 
contents, fig- 
ured from the 
f o o t i n g s to 
cover one-half 
h e i g h t o f 
gables, arc 
120,0()() cubic 
f e e t . T h e 
cost, exclusive 
of architect's 
com in i ssion . 
was $19,2 25, 
makingthecost 
per cubic foot 
approximately 
16 cents. 




DETAIL BY GEO. II. STREETON, ARCHITECT. 

Executed in Polychrome Terra Cotta by t he 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



russet brown, harmonizing with the brick. 

Apartment House, Brooklyn, N. Y. Plates 7, 8. 
The exterior is treated in red brick, buff limestone, and 



TO ABOLISH COMPETITIONS. 
'HE Southern California Chapter of the A. I. A. is tak- 
ing vigorous steps to discourage the holding of archi- 
tectural competitions throughout the country and to 



t: 



22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




establish a better professional 
basis for the practice of archi- 
tecture. None of the chapter 
members participated in the 
recent competition held at San 
Diego for a Polytechnic high 
school, or the one being con- 
ducted at San Bernardino for 
a V. M. C. A. building. The 
chapter has prevailed upon the 
Los Angeles Board of Educa- 
tion to seleet the architects for 
the new school buildings, and 
has persuaded the Library 
Board not to hold a competi- 
tion for the six branch library 
buildings to be erected in that 
city. 



DETAIL BY BAKNKTT, 

HAYNES & BARNETT, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Winkle Terra Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



OX December 5t 
meeting and ba 



JOINT MEETING OF 

BOSTON ARCHITECTS 

AND BUILDERS. 

5th a joint 
anquet was 
held by the architects and 
builders of Boston. William 
II. Sayward, Secretary of the 
Master Builders' Association, 
in commenting on the intimate relationship that already 
existed between the architects and builders, expressed 
the need of a more complete union as well as a joint ad- 
visory committee to consider matters of mutual interest. 
During the discussion of various topics the following sug- 
gestions met with universal approval. In the matter of 
scale drawings it was considered that with a Hi-inch scale 
drawingthere should be furnished -U-ineh scale details for 
every part of the plans that needed explanations. That 
the specifications should not be long, as a multiplicity of 
words leads to confusion. That the so-called "Blanket 

Clauses" which specify that 
the work " be done as the archi 
teet shall direct" should be 
eliminated, as it is introduced 
either from habit or because 
( jg^»>«j| the architect does not know 
just what he wants. That 
architects ought to ascer- 




DETAIL BY W. II. MCELFATRICK, ARCHITECT. 

The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

tain from builders whether things which they might eon 
template are feasible or not. That the general contract is 
best for owner, architect, and all concerned, and that the 
architect should seleet responsible, experienced sub-con- 
tractors and require the general contractors to employ 
them. That there should be a standardization of clauses 
in specifications in order that the personal equation might 
be eliminated as far as possible. 



NEW YORK POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL SCHOOL 
AND HOSPITAL. 

THE New York Post-Graduate Medical School and 
Hospital's new $900,000 fireproof building, 20th street, 

was opened January 11th. The hospital now possesses the 
facilities for .eivine; to the great congested East Side the 
largest dispensary service in the world. The new wards, 
laboratories, and operating rooms are arranged for the 
Study of diseases in small groups. It has three hundred 




DETAIL BY FRANK G. PIERSON, ARCHITECT. 
Executed by < >. W, KeU-ham Terra Cotta Works. 

and eighty beds, many of them in private rooms. The 
majority of the new wards accommodate from two to seven 
patients, while the largest can take care of fifteen. The new 
building, which is mainly of brick and terra cotta, rises to 
a height of eight stories with a tower of five additional 
stories. The roof is far above the street and away from 
noise and other distractions. The patients can enjoy the 
scenes in the East River, or if too cold or wet they can go 
into the " little " ward which rises above the tower. This 
ward is complete in itself and supplies full service in the 
matter of food and every requirement to the temporary 
roof-dweller. The tower contains private rooms only. 



The Architectural Leag 
its twenty-seventh annual 
Arts Building on January 
Bitter will present a bas- 
relief equestrian portrait 
model of the late Presi- 
dent Alexander Cassatt 
of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and William Maekay 
will display "The Legend 
of the Saragossa Sea," a 
decoration which he has 
recently completed for 
Castle Could. The exhi- 
bition will be open from 
January 28th to February 
17th inclusive. 



ue of New York City announces 

exhibition to open at the Fine 
28th. Anion-- the exhibits Karl 




7ifr<»/<»n#n»*#fi*fKwi 



rrrtrtffft 




In the January issue of 
The Craftsman is an ar- 
ticle on the decorations 
made by Everett Shinn 
for the new City Hall at 
Trenton. The panels rep- 
resent the speeial indus- 
tries of Trenton and are 
of tremendous size, 45 
feet long by >> feet high. 



iui iiuiUMMMji'ii 



DETAIL BY JAMES KNOX 
TAYLOR, ARCHITECT. 

Executed by Conkling-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Company. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER 



2 3 



The left panel shows men working in the colossal steel 
mills, the right depicts the pottery kilns with the men 
at work. 

At a recent meeting of the Philadelphia Chapter of the 
A. I. A., resolutions were adopted commending the site 
selected by the Washington Park Commission and the 
National Fine Arts Commission for the Lincoln Memorial. 
They also emphatically opposed the construction of a me- 
morial roadway, which in their opinion would be un- 
suitable as a national memorial to Abraham Lincoln and 
would lack the monumental and tangible quality such a 
memorial should possess. 

An international conference on People's Baths and School 
Baths will be held this year at Scheveningen (The Hague), 

during the last week of 
August. The chief 
purpose of the meeting 
is the promotion of 
public interest in bath- 
ing from a hygienic 
point of view. Muni- 
cipal authorities and 
civic improvement so- 
cieties in all civilized 
countries will be 
invited to send dele- 
gates to attend the 
conference. 




detail by gillespie & carkel, A section of the city 

architects. of Chicago, borderine; 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta T , lr «. _ „ „„ 

Company, Makers. Lakt -' Michigan near 

Lincoln Park boule- 
vard and consisting of eleven blocks valued at $10,000,000, 
is to be set aside exclusively for residential purposes by the 
Lake Shore Improvement Association of that city. The 
land, which is practically clear of buildings, will be given 
only with a proviso that no buildings other than resi- 
dences, apartment buildings, and hotels are to be erected. 
Plans are being considered for a hotel which will be one of 
the finest in Chicago. 

A stadium which will seat more than one hundred thou- 
sand people is to be a feature of the general 
scheme of beautifying the lake front of 
Chicago, according to an announcement 
made recently by the South Park Commis- 
sion. Plans have been drawn and are in 
the hands of the commission. The stadium 
will be located so that the spectators will 
have a view of athletic games, army tourna- 
ments, or other outdoor gatherings in 
Grant Park, and also water events on Lake 
Michigan . 

At the Real Estate Show to be held at 
Grand Central Palace, New York City, in 
March, cash prizes will be awarded to the 
architects showing the best plans and ele- 
vations for suburban homes. Frank H. 
Holden will act as advisory counsel, and the 
rules of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects will prevail. 




POST OFFICE, NORWICH, CONN". 

Architectural Terra Cotta furnished by the South Am boy 

Terra Cotta Company. 

James Knox Taylor, Architect. 

An option has been obtained by the Metropolitan Motor 
Speeding Association on a tract of about three hundred and 
thirty acres on the Newark Meadows, N. J. Their plans 
for a motordrome as tentatively outlined are to provide a 
racing track of two miles in circuit. The main structure, 
containing the grand stand, will be of brick and will have 
a seating capacity of one hundred thousand. The road- 
bed will be of vitrified brick. 



J. Horace McFarland, President of the American Civic 
Association, in his annual address at Washington urged 
the creation of a Federal bureau of National parks and 
advocated Government control of all land containing 
great natural phenomena. Mr. McFarland declared the 
transmutation of the forested district lying between 
Washington and Baltimore into the Lincoln Memorial 
National Park would be a more fitting tribute to the 
( xreat Liberator than a mere commercial highway. 



IN GENERAL. 



The boilers used in the Borough Hall, Roselle, illus- 
strated in this issue, were furnished by the II. 15. Smith 
Company. 




HOUSE AT ROCHESTER, N. V. 

Faced with Norman Brick made by the Ironclay Brick Company 

Leon Stern, Architect. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT ST. PAUL, .MINN. 

Built of variegated, dark sepia brown interlocking terra cotta facing 

tile made by the Twin City Brick Company. 

The appointment of F. D. Millet as president of the 
Consolidated American Academy, Rome, has given uni- 
versal satisfaction. Mr. Millet, living at the Villa Aure- 
lia, gives his entire attention to the affairs of the Academy. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway will erect eight large 
hotels at various points between the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts. Considerable credit is due the authorities of this 
company for their efforts in obtaining buildings with exte- 
riors of architectural interest. The French Chateau type 
will be followed in its most dignified and artistic sense. 

In addition to three modern commercial buildings of 
ten stories each to be erected in Los Angeles, contracts 
have been let for the Water Department Building to cost 
$250,000, the Times Building, $210,000, and the Clark 
Memorial Home, #200,000. 




BATH HOUSE, HOBOKEN, N. J. 

Built of " Natco " Hollow Tiles furnished by the National 

Fire Proofing Company. 

James E. Ware, Architect. 

The National Fireproofing Company supplied Natco 
hollow tile blocks for the walls of the Borough Hall, 
Rosellc, illustrated in this number. 

The annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Architectural 
Leaguewill be held in Los Angeles February 23d, together 



with an exhibition of architectural work. The $1,000 
prize offered to the members of the League for the best 
work in the Atelier classes will be awarded at that time. 

O. L. Brettner announces the opening of an office for the 
practice of architecture at 412 Woodruff Building, Spring- 
field, Mo. 

Charles 0. Pfeil has withdrawn from the linn of Shaw & 
Pfeil, and will occupy suite 1401-3 Tennessee Trust Build- 
ing, Memphis, Tenn. 

The brick used in the apartment at Brooklyn, William 
A. Boring, architect, illustrated in The Brickbuilder 
f>r this month, were furnished by the Sayre & Fisher 
Company. 

The American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company fur- 
nished the terra cotta for the commandant's house, the 
main guard-house, four dormitories, drill house, instruc- 
tion building, administration building, mess hall ami gal- 
lery, powerhouse, hospital, laundry, receiving guard-house, 
and ten officers' quarters, which form part of the Naval 
Training Station at North Chicago, illustrated in this issue 
of The Brickbuilder. 

Thomas \V. Harris and Aaron Riley Merritt have formed 
a copartnership for the practice of architecture, with offices 
at 1 Erie County Bank Building, Buffalo, N. V. 



The Atlan- 
t i e T e i- r a 
Cotta Com- 
pany supplied 

the p o 1 y - 
chrome terra 
cotta for the 
Bevier Memo- 
rial Building, 
R o c h e s t e r , 
and the house 
at Bratenahl, 
< >hio, together 
with a number 
of garden jars 
for the house 
at Glen Cove, 
N. Y., all of 
which build- 
ings are illus- 
trated in the 
plate forms of 
this issue. 




DETAIL BY MYRON II. CHURCH, 

ARCHITECT. 

Executed by The Northwestern Terra Cotta 
Company. 



R. Clipston 
Sturgis will 

have charge of the work of restoring Christ Church on 
Salem street, Boston, making it of more practical use ami 
at the same time preserving it as a historical monument. 
The entire interior will be remodeled, as far as the present 
plans go, to resemble the view previous to 1S06, when 
extensive changes were made. 

Emlyn L. Stewardson and James P. Jamieson, practising 

architecture under the firm name of Cope & Stewardson, 
Philadelphia, announce that the firm is dissolved by mutual 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 5 



consent. Mr. Stewardson will continue to practise in 
Philadelphia with George Bispham Page under the firm 
name of Stewardson & Page. Mr. Jamieson will continue 
to practise in St. Louis. 

The architectural practice of de Brauwere & Hopper will 
hereafter be continued by Victor F. V. de Brauwere, 
824 Plymouth Building, Minneapolis, Minn. 

M. B. Kane, architect, has opened an office in the Bohm 
Building, Edwardsville, 111. Manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples desired. 

The Department of the Interior proposes to spend 
$381,620 in the national parks in California during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1913. For the development 
and care of the national parks the Secretary of the Interior 
has asked Congress to appropriate the sum of $791,080.60. 

The largest apartment house on the Pacific Coast is now 
being erected in San Francisco. It will provide for twelve 
apartments on each floor ranging from five to ten room 
suites. The walls upon the interior will be wainscoted 
with opaque glass, the floors tiled with marble, and the 
doors fitted with plate mirrors. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTSMAN. — A good all-around 
draftsman wanted to enter the office of a Chicago architect. 
Young man — graduate of an architectural school and with 
good office experience. Opportunity to become head draftsman. 
Give age, experience, references, and salary wanted to start. 
Address, Chicago, care The Brickbuilder. 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTSMAN. — At once ; must 
have five years' experience in designing. State age, experi- 
ence and salary wanted. Address, Allyn Engineering Co., 
c/o C. H. Ferber, Chief Architect, No. 606, 607, 608 Second 
National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

PARTNERSHIP WANTED.- By an Architect with tech- 
nical education and twenty years' experience in an established 
firm, in or near Boston. Address P. O. Box 1273, Boston, Mass. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Bevier Memorial Building, Rochester, N. Y. . Plate 6 

Claudk Bragdon, Architect 



T3ISKE 6- COMPANY JNC 
lACE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
AIRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



The Cincinnati Architectural Club has been established 
for the purpose of advancing the standard of work among 
the local draftsmen, with club rooms at 31 West 5th street, 
Cincinnati. Oscar Schwartz is secretary. 

Reports from fifty building centers throughout the 
United States quoted by The American Contractor show a 
decline of fifteen per cent for the past year as compared 
with 1910. The same cities show an aggregate loss of 
sixteen per cent for December last, as compared with 
December, 1910. The losses and gains in the cities listed 
are about equally divided. The principal gains for the 
year were made in Cambridge, 24 ; Cincinnati, 67 ; Cleve- 
land, 21; Dallas, 31; Evansville, 52; Hartford, 29; 
Louisville, 142; Milwaukee, 25; New Haven, 33. The 
principal gains for December were : Baltimore, 78 ; Bridge- 
port, 95; Buffalo, 185; Cambridge, 128; Cleveland, 225 ; 
New Haven, 290; Paterson, 73; Rochester, 113: Scran- 
ton, 95. 



BOILERS and RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following examples of our work : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clougli, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Competition for Design of a Children's Room. 



TUB Forsyth Dental Infirmary for Children is a charity 
incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts. This 
charity will care for the teeth of deserving children up to 
sixteen years of age. 

The building which will house the charity is constructed 
of white marble, and will be flanked on one side by a park 
and playground for children, who will enter by a side- door 
from the park ami pass to a general waiting room on the 
lower or basement floor. The present competition deals 
with the decoration in tiling of the walls and a central 
aquarium of the Children's Waiting Room. 

This waiting room will be so constructed that it can be 
thoroughly cleansed and sterilized daily. The ceiling will 
he arched, of Guastavino glazed tiles, in a single tone. 
The floor will be of magnesium or other impervious sur- 
face material, also in a single tone. Although the room is 
in the basement it is well lighted by five full windows. 

In this room will he collected deserving children of all 
nationalities, many of them coming from homes where the 
surroundings are at least not uplifting. It is expected that 
the decorative features will be of sufficient interest to hold 
the children's attention, to stimulate their imagination and 
to be of value educationally. The keynote of the designs 

should be cheerfulness. It is hoped that the wall decora- 
tion will be as effective in its way as Abbey's (nail pic- 
tures or the Canterbury Pilgrimage of Scwall are in theirs. 
It is suggested that the subjects deal with fairy tales or 
well-known children's stories. 

The conditions of the competition are as follows : 

1. First, second, and third prizes of $250, $150, and $100 
respectively will be given the successful competitors. 

2. Designs in color for the wall surfaces on a scale of one 
inch to the foot and a detailed full-size colored drawing of 
a fragment, including one figure, together with color sug- 
gestion for the treatment in tile of the base of the central 
aquarium, must be submitted to the trustees of the Forsyth 
Dental Infirmary before March 1, 1912. 

3. Competitors must keep in mind the limitations in color 
and detail which flat tile work demands. Broad color 
effects rather than fine detail should be sought. Tile units 



may be of any and varied shapes, but the limit of area of 
any tile must be less than 144 square inches. 

4. Less than one-half of the available wall space should 
he given up to pictorial panels OT other effects, the rest of 
the wall space to be covered by plain-colored tiles. 

5. Competitors should furnish suggestions as to the color 
tone of floor and ceiling. 

6. The designs and suggestions of the successful com- 
petitors become the property of the Forsyth Dental Infirm- 
ary for Children, to be used as the trustees see tit. 

7. The trustees of the Infirmary reserve the right to 
require that the successful competitor furnish detailed full- 
size drawings (color to be suggested) of the designs sub- 
mitted by him within six weeks of the termination of the 
competition, for an additional compensation of $5(>o. 

8. The trustees also reserve the right to purchase unsuc- 
cessful designs or the individual panels of designs which 
are not successful in winning prizes, at a price to be 
agreed upon by the judges in the contest as a reasonable 
compensation. 

9. T1k- competition is open to every one. 
L0. Bach drawing is to he signed by a now </<■ plume, or 
device, and accompanying same is to he a sealed envelope 
with the nom deplume on the exterior and containing the 
true name and address of the contestant. 

11. The drawing is to be delivered flat or rolled (pack- 
aged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of 
the trustees of the Forsyth Dental Infirmary for Children, 
14 1 ' Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 

before March 1. 1912. 

12. Drawings submitted in this competition must be at 
the owner's risk from the time they arc sent until returned, 
although reasonable care will be exercised in their hand- 
ling and keeping. 

Blue prints of the room on the scale of 1 inch to the foot 
will be supplied on application to the trustees of the For- 
syth Dental Infirmary for Children, 149 Tremont Street, 
Boston, Mass., to whom all inquiries should he addressed. 

The designs will be judged by Mrs. Phillip L. Hale, 
Vesper L. George, and C. Howard Walker. 



Le Brun Traveling Scholarship Competition. 



Till-: Xew York Chapter, A. I. A., is about to hold a 
competition to determine the award of the Le Brun 
Traveling Scholarship. Under the terms of the Le Brun 
Deed of Gift, the following provisions are established: 
The award is to be made to some deserving and meri- 
torious architect or architectural draftsman, resident any- 
where in the United States, to aid him in paying the 
expenses of an European trip, lasting not less than six 
months. The amount which will be paid to the beneficiary 
is $1,000. The beneficiary is to be selected by means of a 
competition, the award being made by a jury consisting 
of at least three practising architects, no one of whom is to 
be connected with any school or atelier for the teaching of 
architecture. In making the award, the jury is to give 
full and careful consideration to the records of qualifica- 
tion tiled by the competitors as well as to the comparative 
excellence of the drawings submitted. 

Any architect or architectural draftsman, a citizen and 
resident of the United States, not under twenty-three or 
over thirty years of age, who shall, for at least three years, 
have been either engaged in active practice or employed 
as an architectural draftsman, and who is not and has not 
been the beneficiary- of any other traveling scholarship, 
shall be eligible to compete. Each competitor must be 
nominated by a member of the Xew York Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, who shall certify in writ- 
ing that the above conditions are fulfilled and that the 
competitor is deserving of the scholarship. No member of 
the chapter shall nominate more than one candidate. 

Every competitor must engage to remain, if successful, 



at least six months abroad and to devote well and truly 
that length of time to travel and the study of architecture 
otherwise than by entering any school or atelier or attend- 
ing lectures, it being intended that the benefit derived 
from this traveling scholarship shall supplement school or 
office experience. 

It is proposed to begin the competition about March 
ioth, and to allow until May 1st for the receipt of draw- 
ings. Further details as to dates will be issued later, but 
it is now expected that the winner shall start upon his trip 
July 1, 1912. 

All persons who are eligible, and who desire to compete 
for this scholarship, are requested to send their applica- 
tions to Mr. Henry Bacon, 160 Fifth avenue. New York 
City. Applications must be received not later than March 
1, 1912, and must in each case state clearly the residence, 
citizenship, age, experience, and general qualifications of 
the applicant . and be accompanied by the necessary nomi- 
nation and certificate from a member of the Xew York 
Chapter. A.I. A. Persons residing at a distance from 
Xew York and not knowing a member of the Xew York 
Chapter may avail themselves of the services of any well- 
known architect, who can vouch for them to a member of 
the Xew York Chapter with whom he is acquainted. 

No application will be considered that is not accom- 
panied by a nomination and certificate from a member of 
the Xew York Chapter. A. I. A.— Henry Bacon, Arnold W. 
Brunner, William M. Kendall, C. Grant LaFarge, H. Van 
Buren Magonigle, — Committee on Le Brun Traveling 
Scholarship. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



-/ 



CLAY PRODUCTS EXPOSITION 

THE COLISEUM, CHICAGO 



MARCH 7-12, 1912 



THE Bungalow contest — the program for which is given on the next page — is 
only one feature of the Clay Products Exposition. All the Bungalow designs 
submitted will be displayed at the Exposition. Architects are invited to attend, not 
only to see these drawings but to make a study of the only complete collection of clay 
products that has ever been assembled. 

The Exposition will be an education in clay and will include everything from Art 
to Utility. The best manufacturers of the country will exhibit and a study of the 
materials will show the architect the possibilities of clay for structural purposes. 

BEAUTY IN BRICK MANTELS. ART IN CLAY FIREPLACES. THE 
BEST EXAMPLES OF FAIENCE MADE BY AMERICAN FIRMS. TABLE 
WARE OF ALL COUNTRIES AND ALL AGES. PERFECTION IN 
POTTERY. WALKS OF CLAY, WALLS OF CLAY, LAWN ORNAMENTS 
OF CLAY, WINDOW BOXES AND VASES OF CLAY. ODDITIES AND 
UNUSUAL THINGS OF CLAY. IN FACT A COMPLETE EDUCATION 
AND REVELATION OF THE EXTENT OF THE CLAY INDUSTRY, 
THE THIRD MINERAL INDUSTRY OF THE COUNTRY. THE OBJECT 
OF THE EXPOSITION IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE 
IMPORTANCE, EXCELLENCE, SUPERIORITY, AND ADVANTAGES 
OF BURNED CLAY PRODUCTS. 

The Sanitary Congress which will be held in connection with this Exposition will 
be the most complete of its kind ever held. The arrangements are in the hands of 
some of the most competent sanitation experts and will be well worth attention. 

One of the Bungalow designs receiving a prize is to be built on a lot in Chicago 
and given away to some fortunate visitor at the show. There will be souvenirs in clay 
given every day to visitors. 

Five hundred different manufacturers will exhibit their products. Many manu- 
facturers make many kinds of products, so that the showing will be most complete and 

exhaustive. 

This opportunity to see and examine the world's best material in clay, and to meet 
the manufacturers, ought to be well worth while. 

Particulars regarding any feature of the Clay Products Exposition may be had by 

addressing 

THE CLAY PRODUCTS EXPOSITION COMPANY, 

815 Chamber of Commerce CHICAGO, ILL. 



mm 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE OF THE 

BUNGALOW TYPE. 

To Be Built of Brick. Cost not to Exceed $3,000. 

COMPETITION CLOSES FEBRUARY 15, 1912. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a small detached house of the Bungalow type. The outer walls and foundations of the house 
are to be built of Brick. 

Three bedrooms must be provided for in the plan. Two of these may be placed in an attic sp.r\ . Ample 
basement room is to be provided. 

The location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 

The cost of the house — exclusive of the land — shall not exceed $3,000. The method of heating, the plumb- 
ing, other fixtures, and finish, to be governed by the limit of cost. 

Houses of this type of construction have been built in different sections of the country, and from the data 
which has been gathered concerning the cost of a number of these houses, an average price of 15 cents per cubic 
foot has been obtained. This cost is given as the basis upon which the size —figured in cubic feet — of each 
house submitted in this Competition must be approximated. 

Measurements of the house proper must be taken from the outside face of exterior walls and from the level of 
the basement floor to the average height of all roofs. Porches, verandas, and other additions are to be figured 
separately at one-fourth (25 percent) of their total cubage. The cost of porches, etc., is to be included in the 
total cost of the house (S3, 000). 

On this basis of figuring — the number of cubic feet multiplied by the cost per cubic foot — the jury will not 
consider any designs which exceed the limit of cost. 

The particular object of this Competition is to encourage the use of Brick for Small Houses. Thousands of 
houses costing from $2,o00 to $5,000 are being built in this country even- year. The larger part of them are of 
wood construction. The cost of brick is very little more and its advantages over wood as a building material 
are obvious. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

( m one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. Plans 
he first and second floors (if there is a second floor) at a scale of S feet to the inch. A section showing con- 
struction of exterior wall, with cornice. Heights of Hoors to be given on section. Enough detail sketches to fill 
out sheet. In connection with the plan of the first floor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the 
immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. Give on the drawing all measurements used in finding the 
cubage of house, together with the total cubage. Present this data at a scale which will permit of two-thirds 
reduction. The plans arc to be blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany the plans. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 26 inches by 20 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on the 
sheet 1 inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 24 inches by IS inches. The sheet is to be of white 
paper and is not to be mounted. 

The drawing is to be signed by a nom deplume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope 
with the nom deplume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office 
of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass.. on or before February 15, 1912. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owners' risk from time they are sent until returned, although 
reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keep- 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession. 

First consideration will be given to the fitness of the design, in an .-esthetic sense, to the materials employed : 
Second — excellence of plan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER and the right is reserved to publish 
or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will be given in connection with 
each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by 
enclosing in the sealed envelopes, containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to every one. 

The prize and mention drawings" will be published in THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This Competition is conducted under the patronage of the International Brick and Clay Products Exposition 
Companv and the drawings will be exhibited at the Clay Products Exposition to be held in the Coliseum, Chicago, 
March 7 to 12, 1912. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 

Volume XXI FEBRUARY 1912 Number 2 



PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS CS, MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ..... $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada .............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

PAGE PAGE 

AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS ... II BRICK ENAMELED Ill and IV 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE .... II BRICK WATERPROOFING .... IV 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA . . II and III FIREPROOFING IV 

BRICK HI ROOFING TILE IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



From Work by 



ANDREWS, J AQUES & RANTOUL; COPE & STEWARDSON; DELANO & ALDRICH; AYMAR 

EMBURY II; ELLICOTT & EMMART; FRANK B. MEADE; LORING P. RIXFORD 

AND GEORGE W. KELHAM; WILLIAM LESLIE WELTON. 



PAGK 



LETTERPRESS 

CHURCH DEL CARMEN, SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO ' Frontispiece 

THE COMPLETE ANGLER OR COMPETITIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN. — II HubertG. Ripley 31 

HOW ARCHITECTS WORK. - III. OFFICES OF NOTED ARCHITECTS IK Everett Maui 35 

THE HILLiARD BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY, HOWELLS & STOKES, ARCHITECTS 39 

DELLA ROBBIA ROOM, HOTEL VANDERISILT, NEW YORK CITY Samuel Howe 43 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK BUNGALOW — PRIZE AND MENTION DKSIONS 47 

THE EQUITABLE BUILDING FIRE, JANUARY 9, 1912 /'■ » » Si 

LEGAL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS. -PART VIII William L. Bowman 52 

THE BUNGALOW COMPETITION — AWARD OF PRIZES 55 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 

COMPETITION PROGRAM -ESSAY ON USE OF ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 60 



NOTICE -The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 







CHURCH DEL CARMEN. 
SAX LUIS POTOSI, MEX. 



THE COMPLETE ANGLEU 

OH COMPETITIONS^ 
ANCIENT AND MODEHN 







A GR.OUP Of PR.OMINENT EGYPTIAN AeCMlTECl 1 A&OUT TO HAND IN 
THFIE COMPtllTiON Dfc-AWiNC.5 TO THL Pt^OF PEJ J I ON AL ADVUOfc, 




BY HUBERT G. RIPLEY. 
II. 



IN treating of the origin and development of competitions 
it has been the constant aim to adhere strictly to the 
truth, not only in all essential 
matters, but down to and inclu- 
ding the smallest detail. Should 
some of our pet theories not 
stack up rigidly in accordance 
with ascertained facts, when 
analyzed in the cold gray dawn 
of scientific discovery, pitiless 
though this calcium searchlight 
maybe, then these theories will 
be discarded, and something- 
else just as good substituted 
in their places. 

With this thought in mind, 
everything that appears under 
this heading has been carefully 
searched and scrutinized for any 
errors or misstatements of fact 
or fancy. To do this a large 
number of authorities have been 
consulted, musty old bookcases 
have been ransacked, and the 
peaceful dust and cobwebs of 
many years been rudely dis- 
turbed in the eager thirst for 
truth. After running through 
a long list of authors on Ethno- 
logical, Archaeological and Pa- 
leontological subjects to refresh 
our memory here and there, and 
to check up certain data, we are 
compelled to take issue with no 
less a personage than James 
Fergusson, Esq., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., M.R.A.S., Fellow 
Royal Inst. Brit. Architects, 
Corresponding Memb. vSoc. et 

Tuum., etc., etc. In fact we became all het up reading 
what he has to say concerning the Turanian Races in tin- 
introduction to his History of Architecture. 




PIG. IV. 

Being page 53 of the architect's specifications for the Pyramid 
of KHNUM-KHUFU, which even in the mutilated form we see 
it to-day, illustrates the care with which the architects of the 
Fourth Dynasty executed their important works. For full trans- 
lation of the text see appendix B. 



We remember on an earlier occasion being strongly 
moved by Mr. Fergusson 's book, but that was several years 

ago under Professor Homer, 
and our memories of that 
time are mingled with varied 
emotions. What do you think 
Jim had the nerve to say about 
the ancient inhabitants of the 
land of Khem et Mizraim ? lie 
called them lacking in the high- 
est moral sense, without litera- 
ture, phonetic modes of literary 
expression, despotic in govern- 
mental forms, lacking in cour- 
tesy to the ladies, and without 
"those feelings which ennoble 
man or make life valuable." 
And then on top of all this he 
has the effrontery to wonder 
and be amazed at their "pro- 
gress" in architecture, painting 
and sculpture. Why, it was just 
because they possessed in a very 
high degree all the qualities 
that Mr. Fergusson says they 
lacked, that they were so pre- 
eminent in art, and their splen- 
did and tremendous remains 
have lasted untarnished, un- 
equaled, and sublime to the 
present day. 

It makes us violently uncom 
Portable to come across State- 
ments tending to disparage a 
people to whom we owe the 
guiding principles of our Art. 
and to whom we should look with 
feelings of reverence, venera- 
tion and awe. Such reckless 
and ruthless assertion as are contained in the aforesaid 
Introduction ought to be refuted with vehemence. The 
idea of saying that these " people occupied a low position 



3 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Temple of Khonsu at Kama 



FIG. V. 
from Gailhabaud. This beautiful little gem of the Twentieth Dynasty (1170-1060 B.C.) was the result of one of the most 



spirited competitions of that epoch. For the intimate details and full particulars see appendix A. 



in the intellectual scale." It's monstrous, and yet, on the 
very same page he (sic*) admits that a modern English 
engineer officer blunders in his endeavors to copy works 
instinctively performed by the ancient Tauranians. Ain't 
that the limit ? Do you wonder at our indignation? No, 
of course not. Is it not natural that Fergusson's History 
of Architecture is looked at askance by the average archi- 
tectural student of our colleges, and that rarely are very 
high marks given in that course? 

The editor of a leading weekly magazine, a charming 
story-teller, poet, writer, and general all around success, 
who started to be an architect once, and probably would 
have been a corker if he had gone on with it, says in a 
recent book (which should be read by all architects, 
draftsmen, students, office boys, and pretty stenogra- 
phers; name of book mailed on request if properly addressed 
and stamped envelope accompanies the request) that all 
good architects are frivolous, and that a serious man can 
be silly at times if he really puts his mind to it. Con- 
versely, a person who has nothing in particular to saw can. 
by a careful and conscientious study of the dictionary and 
reference works of various kinds, dope out a line of gush 
almost worthy of serious consideration. Not for a minute 
would we disparage the heroic sacrifices that Mr. Fergus- 
son has made to give his book to the world, sacrifices that 

*This little word "sic" is something we have had our eye on for a long 
time and this seems to be an excellent place to employ it. As used here it 
is intended to mean " huh." 



must have worked to the detriment of his private practice 
as an architect, but as between dilettanti, we must believe 
that he was perhaps misguided and grossly imposed upon, 
led into erroneous misstatements if you will, when he goes 
on record as he docs about the habits and customs of the 
ancient Egyptians. 

We have seen at what an early stage in the world's his- 
tory architectural competitions flourished and burgeoned, 
and how under succeeding dynasties of Thinites, Mem- 
phites, Heracleapolites, Ilyksos and Theban kings, more 
perfect programs came to be demanded not only by 
owners and building committees, but by the architects 
themselves as a safeguard to their own interests. The 
people of the Nile valley were the greatest race of builders 
that the world has ever known and, in spite of this, most 
architectural histories and works on architecture contain 
but meager details about them, and a few pages suffice to 
dispose of their works. In the average history the three 
great pyramids of Gizeh are mentioned, and a cross sec- 
tion is shown through the tomb of Suphis: Dedendra, 
Karnac, Philse and Edfou are hurriedly passed over, and 
reference is made to the Great Sphinx and a couple of 
obelisks, and that is about all. Scarcely five per cent of 
the space in the book is devoted to Egypt. Xow this is 
all wrong. Ninety-five per cent of the space of any work 
on architecture that pretends to be at all comprehensive 
should be given over to the various epochs of that hoary 
land of antiquity ; there will still be plenty of room in the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3Z 



remaining pages to give proportionate and proper space to 
the works of other nations. 

Would it not be refreshing as well as illuminating and 
really instructive, if this were the case? It certainly would, 
and at some future time we may hope to see this great 
work undertaken by some master hand, who will awaken 
the animating spark that shall make to live again the true 
blending of diuturnity with caducity, which was the 
touchstone, the experimentum cruets, by which esthetic 
values were measured. 

For the present, at least, we must perforce confine our- 
selves to that portion of the work of those Master Builders 
that have a direct bearing on the subject of competitions ; 
and to understand and appreciate properly their phasis, a 
knowledge of the climatic conditions is essential. 

The soil of the Nile valley is fertile and rich, fish and 
game abound, the land teems, or did teem in the old days, 
with the sacred Herpestes, Ichneumon and Ibis, jerba and 
vulture, monitor and trionyx, haje and cerastes, all in a 
high state of cultivation ; and the great African armadillo 
was everywhere a household pet and a plaything for the 
little ones. Fortunately the long spell of good weather 
that Egypt has enjoyed, perfect days followed by perfect 
nights for sixty or seventy centuries, has preserved for us 
in almost their pristine freshness the ' ' very chisel marks 
of the mason, and the actual colors of the painter on the 
tombs and temples which were ordered by a Suphis or a 



Rliamses," save where some vandal hand has been raised 
in desecration. 

" Musr indeed is gone with all its Rose 
And Jamshyd's Sev'n-ring Cup where no one knows ; 

But still a Ruby kindles in the vine, 
Andstill a Garden by the water blows." 

Inasmuch as the Egyptian architects were accustomed 
to chiseling on stone the drawings and sketches from 
which their buildings were constructed, the architect was 
generally a sculptor as well. These master craftsmen and 
designers were called ganouatiou, a word which is assonant 
with the Greek name for architect. 

Toutanou-khamanoti, brother-in law of A3, a Pharaoh 
who reigned in the fifteenth century B.C., had quite a 
little problem on his hands in completing the temple to 
Atonou, which his father had begun on the cost plus a 
fixed sum basis. It seems that even the large income of a 
Pharaoh was sometimes seriously threatened by the inroads 
made in it by certain extravagant ganouatiotis when given 
a too free hand; and as Toutanou-khamanou's father's 
estate was administered by exacting and Puritanical execu- 
tors who kept a close watch on all extras, and even refused 
to approve some of the bills as they were sent in on the 
first of each month, the ganouatiou was discharged and a 
provisional successor appointed. 

Before the appointment was confirmed, however, the 
news leaked out through the medium of the Theban News 



FIG. VI. 
Plan and longitudinal section of the Temple of Khonsu, from the original competition drawings, 
slightly revised by Paynozem I to agree with the design as finally carried out. ( This and I he prece- 
ding illustration, Fig. I', are from /lie library of Lord Tnverelyde.) 




m 





34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Bureau, and immediately the throne was besieged with a 
deluge of applications from architects of the very highest 
professional standing, each asking outright for the job. 
The executors wavered for a while thinking it might be the 
best plan to give the work to Gorm & Gorm, a prominent 
firm who made a specialty of temples, but the pressure 
was too great ami a competition was finally decided upon. 

The competitors were divided into three classes : five 
firms being especially invited and paid the sum of five 
hundred simoleons* each, five were selected from the 
" open field " (the " open field " being a euphonious term 
signifying a junior or hierophant class of ganouatious who 
really did better work than the older and more solidly 
established men, or 
thought they did, which 
was the same thing), 
and a third class com- 
posed of "all those arch- 
itects who were in active 
practice and had estab- 
lished offices in the dis- 
trict of Oxyrynchus 
previously to Pakhons 
first, 1543 B.C." 

In addition to the 
sums paid the especially 
invited architects there 
were three prizes : the 
first or capital prize 
being the commission to 
design and superintend 
the erection and comple- 
tion of the temple, at 
the established rate of 
six per cent on the total 
cost of all contracts, in- 
cluding plumbing, heat- 
ing, finished grading, 
sculpture, ami decora- 
tive work ; second, to 
the architect whose 
design was judged next 
in merit, the sum of one 
thousand simoleons ; 
thirdly, to the author of 
the next best design, the 
sum of five hundred 
simoleons. Further- 
more, none of the espe- 
cially invited firms were 

eligible to any prize except the capital prize, in which 
remote contingency any sum paid ' them was to 
be considered a sum paid on account of carrying on the 
contract . 

With a few exceptions, the verbiage of the program 
for the competition for the selection of an architect for 
completing- the temple to Atonou, district of Oxyrynchus, 
Middle Egypt, is much the same as similar documents are 
to-day, which sustains our contention that competitions 
have not varied greatly during the past thirty-five hundred 
years. 

* A simoleon was the ancient Egyptian coin which was very nearly the 
equivalent of our dollar, or 97.0000007 cents. 




FIG. VII. 

In this powerful modern building the influence of the Turanian mind is plainly 
evident. Mass and detail fairly exestuate the spirit of Khonsu, Thoth, Baal and 
Ashteroth. 



It would be both interesting and instructive if we were 
able to show by illustration the result of this competition, 
but, unfortunately, in this case, not only the program 
itself, but likewise the competitive drawings, were made on 
papyrus, and all traces and vestiges of them have long 
since perished. The Alexandrine Library had them for 
many years in its coffers, and it is from that source that 
these bald statements of fact are taken. t 

The Egyptian was never hasty in his work. Being 
accustomed to seeing monuments and works of art on all 
sides that had stood the test of time, weathering the sun- 
shine and storm of four or five thousands of years ( the 
earlier the period the finer its esthetic qualities), he had 

instilled into him the 
basic principle of slow 
development, and an ab- 
horrence of weird and 
barbaric, i.e. alien, 
forms and details. 
Never will you find 
either in their executed 
work, or in any of the 
illustrations in the arch- 
itectural journals of 
those days, a trace of 
another style, or a ten- 
dency to " do something 
in Gothic" or dabble in 
"Art Xouveau." There 
was always plenty of 
time to do full justice 
to the problem, to study 
it thoroughly and build 
substantially and of the 
very best materials ; 
thousands of years be- 
hind him and thousands 
of years to come. Now 
these centuries have 
melted away in the cru- 
cible of time, other cen- 
turies have followed 
them and their work- 
still stands. Can you 
beat it ? 

The most valuable 
heritage that Egypt has 
left us is that impalpa- 
ble, indefinable some- 
thing, that a 1 ne sais guoi, 
that n'imporle quelle chose, that Mr. Bragdon has called 
"the fundamental rhythm of nature." To be sure he- 
is in error when he places this " precious tincture — cher- 
ished in her brooding bosom for uncounted centuries" — 
in Asia ; but many writers arc apt to be a little careless 
in their statements. 

The place where this thing first occurred was not in 
Asia, Claude, believe me, but in the Nile valley, compared 
with which the valleys of the Euphrates and the Ganges 
are quite modern and handselod. 

f We are indebted to Lord Inverclyde, whose hospitable roof contains 
many authorities rich in material most needed, for much of the data here- 
with given, and who has placed his collection containing works of rare 
interest freely at our disposal. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

How Architects Work. 



35 



n. EVERETT WWII). 



III. — OFFICIOS OF NOTED ARCHITECTS. 



A VISITOR to Mr. Freedlander's office steps from the 
elevator directly into the entrance hall, where the 
white painted trim, plain walls of dark cream colored 
fabric, and old red rug on the floor, express quiet good 
taste. The client cannot fail to be impressed by the dis- 
play of framed photographs of executed work which fairly 
cover the walls. In the equally unpretentious private 
office there is a flat top desk, and in one corner Mr. Freed- 
lander's own designing board and on the walls some 
rendered drawings. This private workshop and consulta- 
tion room, commanding a view from a Fifth avenue cor- 
ner, is more retired than is usual in a medium sized office 



in hand. Each set is clamped between two half-round 
Strips of wood which form a neat 1-inch round binder, 
agreeable to handle and easily replaced on the notched 
horizontal supports. Tracings and other drawings of cur- 
rent work are kept in the large cabinet of drawers while 
drawings of finished buildings are filed above in paper 
tubes. .Architectural journals are filed in open shelves at 
one side of the drafting room and drawers below house 
supplies. The working library is located in Mr. freed- 
lander's private office. 

A visitor of Mr. II. Van Buren Magonigle's maypossibly 
discover "on the wall opposite the entrance to the outer 





DRAFTING ROOM. 

for the reason 
that Mr. Freed- 
lander has a 
manager who 
meets callers 
and looks after 
the general 
office business, 
correspondence, 
etc. As the 
plan indicates, 
the private 
office can be 
reached easily 
from the draft- 
ing room, the manager's or stenographer's rooms and the rules of his office, and further thai a 
reception room, without passing through the entrance hall, breakable. 
One is tempted to ask whether the stenographer and 
manager would not like to have their desks nearer the 
windows. The "circulation," however, is good and the 
compact and convenient arrangement seems to result in 
an orderly, expeditious conduct of business. 
The plan and photograph together show clearly the filing this case a real " right-bower," has his desk between the 

end of the drafting room of this office. Racks at cither Stenographer and the telephone and in one step hi 
side of a window support office sets of bine prints of work deal with a casual caller over the counter and gel away 



n flittf II L Lf 



OFFICES OF J. II. FREEDLANDER, 244 FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY 



PRIVATE OFFICE. 

office a dainty 
little notice 
w h i i' h re a cl s 
" Mr. Magi migle 

cannot be seen 
after 12 M., ex- 
cept by appoint 

ment." 

Our host 
b e a m i n g 1 y 
greets us in the 
afternoon, re 
marking that 
this sign is one 
of the inflexible 
inflexible things arc 



This outer office, by the way, has dark green walls 
trimmed into panels with brown oak. The thin partitions 
arc 7 feet high of 2-inch studs covered both sides with 
compo board painted and crowned with an oak wainscot 

cap moulding. The office manager or head draftsman, in 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



quickly without being followed. This counter is a good 
substitute for the custom followed in some wise offices of 
always going outside to see a visitor and thus by being 
able to retreat saving a half hour each time a considerate 
material man insists on 
having his stuff specified. 

The plan of the drafting 
room cannot give a full idea 
of the closets stored with 
all the supplies needed or 
imagined for real work or 
competitions ; nor of a util- 
ity cabinet which would 
make envious the eyes of 
other draftsmen. The 
latter is a board possibly 
3 feet square hung on the 
wall, supporting in orderly 
rows, on hooks, hammer, 
screw driver and other 
office tools, rubber stamps, 
etc., and along the bottom 
two tiers of trays full of 
brass fasteners, tacks, 
screws, rubber 
bands, and the 
numerous other 
things always 
w a n t e d a n d 
always wanting 
in an architect's 
office. 

I f y on a re 
plannin g a n 
office Mr. Ma- 
gonigle would 
tell you that he needs 
more space for filing draw- 
ings. One bit of experi- 
ence in his drafting 
room may give a new 
idea to the reader: — Some 
of the drafting tables are 
lowered to a height making 
it convenient to use ordi- 
nary chairs instead of 
stools. When you think of 
the ancle of light entering 
the top of a window, the part 
of the drawing hoard ,x feet 
from the wall will be per- 
ceptibly better lighted if 28 
inches high instead of 42. 

This drafting room has a 
shelf 3 feet high all around 
the walls, a convenience 
appreciated by every draftsman. 




DRAFTING Koo.M. 




OFFICES OF H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLE, 7 W. 38TH ST., NEW YORK CITY 




PRIVATE OFFICE. 



photographer has been busy taking a corner of the private 

office posed for our especial benefit. Our host is one who 
does things himself and enjoys the liveliest pleasure in 
active touch with every phase of his work. We may see 

his desk in the corner 
covered with evidences of 
business and the walls 
above it hung with his own 
creations and some ex- 
amples of the artistic abil- 
ity of Mrs. Magonigle, or 
we may turn and find a 
table at the window which 
is now the center of a pri- 
vate conference, and again 
the support of his own 
designing hoard. On one 
wall is an interesting 
grouping of plaster cast 
medals, -- some ancient 
and some products of his 
own efforts in that line. 
Across one end of the room 
open book shelves house 
the architectural 
library, and the 
interviewer' s 
glance in that 
direction brings 
forth Mr. Ma- 
gonigle's opin- 
ion that the best 
bookcase for an 
architect's valu- 
able volumes is 
one arranged to 
receive the books flat 
and with shelves so spaced 
that only two or three 
volumes rest on any one 
shelf. We have not failed 
to iK it ice that the trim 
and furniture of this little 
studio are dark brown 
<>ak, that the walls are 
covered with brown cart- 
ridge paper, the frieze and 
ceiling are white and that 
the rug is yellow and green. 
Turning now to the office 
of Messrs. Delano & 
Aldrich we find that that 
firm occupies parts of two 
stories of a business build- 
ing in addition to the full 
story in which the drafting 
roof and general office are located. A dozen men 



The walls too are 

lined with compo board to facilitate the tacking up of occupy every toot of the drafting room which has top 

drawings. One useful feature seen here and in other north light in addition to the four windows. The whole 

architects offices is a plainly marked line of dimensions office has a busy aspect which betokens a large amount 

laid oft in feet and quarters across the room on a beam of work turned out in proportion to the space occupied. 

and also on the wall from ceiling to floor. Upon first entering the general office one beholds a 

While we have been lingering in the drafting room our telephone switchboard and an active table ready for the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



37 



issuance and receipt of drawings. The sample room is in 
reality a designing room for two, and not until one is 
within the reception room does he rind a quiet, contem- 
plative atmosphere. The walls are large panels of old 
mural paintings framed in oak. Two sections of the open 
bookcases are closed with elaborately carved doors and a 
beautifully carved old table rests on a fine oriental rug. 
The walls of the general office and a 3 ft. wainscot in the 
drafting room are covered with paper which appears to 
be oak veneer. Passing upstairs we find two rooms for 



general scheme and the detailed relation of the minor but 
necessary parts, even to the telephone switchboard. The 

reader will be interested, however, in the aspect of that 
portion of the office which is intended to meet the client's 

eye. As he enters from the public hall he passes through 
an arched private corridor into the waiting room, both of 
which are treated in white which gives them a bright, 
cheerful effect, even though they are dependent upon 
artificial light. The large table and chairs and the doors 
are mahogany. The reception room is very large and 




RECEPTION ROOM. 

the respective 
members of the 
firm, furnished 
with tables, desks 
and telephones. 
One has a low 
black wainscot, a 
black marble 
mantle and pan- 
eled plaster walls. 
The other has an 
Italian marble 
mantel of old 
New York resi- 
dence design and 
the walls are pan- 
eled with wood 
mouldings ap- 
plied to the plas- 
ter and all painted 
gray. 

In the Story 
below the recep- 
tion room are to 
be found the 
stenographer's 




BUSINESS OFFICES, 
TIIIKI) FLOOR PLAN 



OFFICES OF 
DELANO & ALDRICH, 






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PRIVATE OFFICES, 
FIFTH FLOOR PLAN. 



4 !•:. 39th STREET, 

new viikk err v. 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 



DRAFTING ROOM. 

seems impres- 
sively spacious 

with its five big 
windows opening 
on a Fifth avenue 
corner. A plain 
brown grass rope 
rug lies on the 
floor, the furni- 
ture and trim are 
mahogany, t h e 
walls are covered 
with a smooth 
fi n i s h . close - 
woven fabric of a 
brownish yellow 
tint, the frieze 
and ceiling are 
white. Two or 
three plaster 
models of such 
buildings as the 
new ' ' Banker's 
Trust " are in- 
teresting features 
of the room. 



room and a room for specification writing and the superin- There is a ylass front, high legged bookcase at one side 

tending end of the office. An interior telephone system and above it a magnificent moose head, one ot Mr. Trow- 

reduces to a minimum any need for traveling from floor to bridge's trophies. A few photographs of the firm's 

floor on the part of the office force. executed work may be seen. We now glance through 

One of the large offices in New York is that of Messrs. open connecting doors and gain a vista from the recep 

Trowbridge^& Livingston. .The plan shows clearly the tion room clear through Mr. Livii room. The 



3^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



effectiveness of these three large rooms en suite is due to 
the fact that the color scheme, furniture, trim and all of 
the reception mom are continued through the three. The 
grass n»pe rugs in the two private rooms as an excep- 
tion are green with plain, dark border and a lighter 
field. Mr. Trowbridge's room seems a not unusual office 
as to its fiat top desk in the middle of the room, a 
table and some chairs 'not forgetting a holder tor his 
never forgotten cane), but the walls attract our attention. 
There are hung in unconventional manner photographs ol 
ancient masterpieces of architecture. On one wall is a 
grouping of line Egyptian photographs, on another a col- 
lection of Grecian, and again of Roman. We may see also 
here and there some excellent Japanese prints and photo- 



filing boards hangs along the chair rail. Bach one is for 
a particular building ami holds a bunch of sheets of memo- 
randa. These sheets, called in some offices " memo- 
records," are derived from interviews with clients, 
instructions in letters from clients, extracts from minutes 
of building committees, or information from any source 
which may affect drawings or specifications or the execu- 
tion of the work. These memo-reeord sheets are written 
in quadruplicate and one copy is sent immediately to each 
member of the firm, one to the specification writer, and 
one to the head draftsman, so that each is kept <ui courant 
daily with new facts regarding every piece of work in hand. 
From the accompanying illustrations of the various 
offices, planned in most instances by the architects them- 




DRAFTING Room. 

selves, one is impressed 
with the natural combi- 
nation of the practical 
with the esthetic. The 
result of such planning 
not only provides an 
atmosphere of helpful- 
ness and inspiration to 
the architect himself and 
his co-workers, but also 
impresses the client with 
a deeper appreciation for 
the ability of the artist 
whom he has selected to 
design the work contem- 
plated by him. 

T h e u ]) p e r most 
thought is to produce a unity of expression through the 
medium of material substances. Such an effort is always 
more or less influenced by the natural requirements as well 
as historic precedents. 

Since art is a product of genius and imitative qualities, 
the architect must necessarily surround himself with con- 
ditions both inspiring and creative. This he accomplishes 
ment means in the conduct of such a volume of business by making his library a source of valuable information, his 
as is here carried on. In the room of the specification office and reception room restfully attractive, and his draft- 
writer is to be found an item of the routine of business ing room extremely practicable. Such an atmosphere is 
interesting to small offices as well as large. A row of clip conducive to the broadening influences of pure architecture. 



RECEPTH )N ROOM. 

graphs while on the desk 
stands a paperweight, — 
a miniature model of a 
Japanese gateway. Not 
the least interesting of 
the wall decorations of 
this room arc addi- 
tional trophies of the 
sportsman, including 
some almost unbeliev- 
ably bi g , speckled 

beauties mounted and 
framed so that they are 
swimming in a sea of 
birch bark. Space will 
not permit recounting 

h e r e their wonderful 

tales, — even two tails, caught at one famous cast. 
Mr. Livingston's room is similar to that of his partner 
a-- before remarked, but the photographs <>n the walls arc 
chosen from a modern period. 

Little need be added to the story told by the plan as to 
the relative location and accessibility of the various mem- 
bers of the office force and all that a convenient arrange- 




OFFICES OF TROWBRIDGE & LIVINGSTON, 5J7 FIFTH AVE., 

NEW ViiKK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Hilliard Building, New York. 



39 



HOWELLS & STOKES, ARCHITECTS. 



T 



ERRA COTTA NEW YORK" will soon be 



How many of us ever stop to appreciate the important 
place architectural terra cotta occupies in the vast com- 
mercial edifices of to-day ? 
Few, if any, traversing the 
business section of New 
York City realize that 
nearly fifty per cent of the 
visible building material is 
terra cotta. The progress 
for the last two decades 
has been a gradual and con- 
sistent growth. And this 
steady inroad of ' ' cooked 
earth ' ' — technically known 
— has been practically a 
silent progression which 
bespeaks for the future an 
unprecedented prosperity 
in its history. 

Only in recent years have 
we begun to understand 
the possibilities of terra 
cotta. We have prejudiced 
ourselves against its con- 
structive and decorative 
qualities. We have thought 
of it as a new substance 
when in reality it is the 
oldest manufactured mate- 
rial recorded. We have 
feared for its fire resistance 
and durability in spite of 
the fact that it is the one 
substance practically inde- 
structible and absolutely 
fireproof. But facts change 
opinions and opinions 
change conditions. In addi- 
tion to the qualities of terra 
cotta just mentioned we find 
that its lightness and its 
great resisting strength has 
made it of inestimable value 
in the construction of public 
buildings. 

An excellent example of 
the use of terra cotta in an 
artistic and practical 
manner is demonstrated in 
the Hilliard Building lo- 
cated at the corner of John 
and Dutch streets. This 
building stands on the 
slight elevation known in 
Revolutionary times by the 
euphonious name of the 
Golden Hill, and it is still FIRST floor PLAN. 




so called. It is the site of the battle bearing that name 
where the first man fell upon this continent to the great 
cause of Freedom. It was on Friday, January is, i?7o, 
some two months prior to the famous Boston Massacre, 

that the soldiers cut down 
and blew up Liberty pole, 
which commenced the fight. 
The Hilliard Building 
furnishes a pleasing expres- 
sion of brick and terra cotta 
judiciously blended. The 
body of the building is of 
mottled Roman brick of 
four distinct selected 
shades, and terra cotta of a 
warm gray buff appearance. 
Realizing the ingenuity 
necessary in mixing the 
clays so as to produce the 
required tone when baked, 
one is more than impressed 
with this harmonious color 
effect. 

The design is remarkable 
for several things, among 
others the skilful way in 
which it has been handled 
as a whole. 'Idle dominant 
feature is the towerlikc 
treatment of the mass with 
its pyramid crown. This, 
by the way, is an ingenious 
contrivance which performs 
many functions ; within it 
are the water tanks safe 
from possible freezing 
under the varying changes 
of this remarkable climate, 
so preferable to the hideous 
wooden barrels accenting 
the top of every office, de- 
partment store, and loft 
building. Here also is to 
be found the machinery for 
the elevators and many 
other comforts for Un- 
tenants. 

The terra cotta panels of 
classic decoration at the 

fourth story are elaborately 
moulded, portraying the 

skill of delicate workman- 
ship. The panels while of 
considerable size arc care 
fully executed in detail and 
low relief and maintain both 
the scale and refined feel 

that pervades the whole 

TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. structure. The surface of 



4 o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Terra Cotta Details. 



MILLIARD BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



4* 




SM vMiwm 



Details at 4^ Story - 




r,ur . f , ; , f , 1 , f ■ T 



Terra Cotta Details. 



ILLIAkI) BUILDING. NEW VORK CITY. Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



4 2 



THE BRICKBUI LDE R. 




FRIEZE AT 16TH FLOOR. 

this terra cotta has a wonderful richness which, when com- 
bined with the delicate elaboration, illustrates its use for 
decorative panels and bas-reliefs. 

The architects in these panels have given us a beautiful 




MISCELLANEOUS TERRA COTTA DETAILS. 

example of fine drawing, delicate modeling in low relief 
which is of singular charm, such as is found in the work 
of Alberti in his Mantuan church of Rimini. The composi- 
tion is quiet in character and easy in movement; it is subtle, 
having a well-balanced composition singularly adapted 
to the material. The relief is low, vet it invites light 
and shade, forming an important and stately enrichment. 
The terra cotta treatment of the lar.ee window groups at 

the fourteenth and fifteenth 
stories combines the striking 
and harmonious variety of 
color together with the effect 
of light and shade. The six 
large openings contain seven 
hundred and twenty-four pieces 
( if br< mze green matt glaze terra 
cotta quite uniform in size. 
Directly above and beneath are 
terra cotta decorations of the 
gray-buff shade, similar to the 
panels at the fourth story, with 
manganese spots. These de- 
tails are expressive of the won- 
derful advantage accruing En im 
the ability to mould by hand 
the plastic clay into symmetri- 
cal shapes. The architect must 

feel this great advantage in 
seeing the actual full size de- 
tails of all ornament and being 
able to study and change them 
plastic state. 

The terra cotta adorning the sixteenth story and the 
iinials above maintain the low and pleasing standard of 




CONSOLE AT 16th STORY 

while still in a moist 



relief. The adaptability of the burned 
clay fur architectural decoration is here- 
carried tn a very high point <>t perfec- 
tion in its ornateness and dignified 
character. The cornice, moulded 
courses and other ornamented features 
have been studied with very slight pro 
jections in order that the eye may travel 
from the ground to the roof with little 
or no interruption. 

The building calls for the housing of 
insurance and real estate offices. Being 
a purely office building the one great 
problem of planning presented is that 
of obtaining the maximum amount of 
space for office use upon the 
interior. The most modern 
office facilities necessary for an 
up-to-date building in this 
locality have been employed. 
The main entrance hall is six- 
teen feet in width with wainscot 
of Italian marble, trim of Phil- 
ippine mahogany, and marble 

staircase connecting the first PENDANT AT 

and second floors. The trim 13THSTORY. 

of the first two floors is of 
Philippine mahogany while that throughout the 
remaining part of the building is of quartered oak. 
The Hilliard Building reveals in a dignified manner the 
practical uniformity in composition and texture of terra 
cotta as well as in the color and tone of the finished work. 
It is one of the living examples of the perfect harmony that 
may result from the use of brick and terra cotta. 




DETAIL OF FIRST FOUR STOKIKS, .MAIN FACADE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



43 



Delia Robbia Room, Hotel Vanderbilt, New York. 



WARREN & WETMORE, ARCHITECTS. 
SAMUEL HOWE. 



THE visitor is somewhat startled for the moment on 
reading' the title instead of the nsual word Grill 
Room, which by the way appeared upon the original plans. 
The change, we may say the elevation, of the title is, 
however, amply justified. It is well named, and it is no 
little triumph to modern ingenuity and skill that this par- 
ticular mode of construction presented in so rich and dec- 
orative a form has been adopted in a hotel to-day. 

For a short time the temptation was — so it seemed — to 
design a type of decoration which would involve the more 
usual environment, to panel the walls with wood in some 



fashion. But the architects abandoned that, determining 
to cling tenaciously to the exalted idea that nothing should 
enter the place that was not proof against disastrous lire. 
The result and the wisdom of that change is to be seen 
to-day in a most acceptable manner. It is doubtful if this 
continent shelters just such another example of ceramic 
ingenuity and perseverance, which at the same time is 
sternly structural. Of the (luastavino system of vaulting 
we have had many examples, and some of them show dis- 
tinctly the wisdom of adding color and glaze. 

There is scarcely anything new in this form of construc- 




MAIN ENTRANCE LEADING DOWN FROM PARK AVENUE. 



44 



THE BR ICKBUI LDER. 



tion. The student of Spanish and Italian architecture 
fnizes very well the Oriental influence in the ribs and 
vaulting's of many of the old churches, drawing's of which 
arc to-day to be found in the libraries of all large cities. 
Possibly one which at the moment is particularly worthy of 
study is the great church at Assissi, built in memory of 
San Francesco. These ribs, borders, surround the glo- 
rious paintings of Giotto and Cimabue. The architect 



gether with an interesting glaze thin and transparent. 

It is of a grayish-green tone which reflects light by 
virtue of the corrugated nature of the ornament. It is 
\> inches long by 6 inches wide laid herring-bone with 
white joints. 

All tiles used in vaulting are fully glazed. The tiles 
and faience forming cap and angle borders to piers are thill 
or matt glaze. ( B) Border of the same material turquoise 




BALCONY WITH MEZZANINE AND DETAIL OF VAULTING. 



of this church is unknown, but he left behind him a 
great tribute to his practical acceptance of Oriental en- 
richment. It was built in 1228, and here we are to-day 
Struggling with very much the same type of decorative 
problem. 

The following letters indicate in brief the color of the 
tile and faience: ( A I The main body or field of the vault- 
ing is from the usual Guastavino system of timbrel arch 
construction to which a fret design has been added to- 



blue in color. (C) Cream color tile. (I)) Is a border 
which is somewhat unusual, consisting as it does of rosettes 
at set intervals of a cream color. They are in high relief. 
Between them alternating are countersunk panels sur- 
rounded by a border of white which is raised in relief. 
The panels arc of bright color — red, turquoise, and yellow 
respectively. (E) A moulding cream color tile. (F) Dark 
blue tile. ((!) Rope moulding, which is built into the vault- 
ing, keyed as it were anil made very secure. < II ) Dark blue 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 15. 




HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 




stccwti /-woe risLW 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 16. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 18. 




HOUSE AT NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 2 PLATE 19. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 20. 



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■43 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 21 



,«L 'fc 




TEA HOUSE AND PORCH, HOUSE AT LENOX, MASS. 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. 



PLATE 22. 




HOUSE AT LENOX, MASS. 
Delano & Alorich, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 23. 




r//iST tLOOk PL/IjV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 24. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 2. PLATE 25 _ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 2b. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 27. 




GARRI5QH- AVE- (FRONTS-ELEVATION - 





ENOCH PRATT FREE LIBRARY, 

FOREST PARK, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Ellicott & Emmart, Architects. 




rj^aiLMRnr j-laji 



THE B RICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 2. PLATE 28. 
















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BIRMINGHAM LEDGER BUILDING, BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 
William Leslie Welton, Architect. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



45 



tile. (I) Bead and real moulding, cream color. (K) Dark 
blue tile. (L) Panel ornament forming a soffit of the main 
arch in which the ornament is white on a blue ground. 
(M) Blue tiles. (N) Cap, abacus, necking, rosettes, and 
other ornament of white upon a blue ground. (O) Orna- 
ment white on blue ground. (P) Blue tiles. It is a little diffi- 
cult to explain the effect of the composition or the influence 
of one tone upon another. A thoughtful study, however 



of many stories rests. Of course, as every one knows, it is 
no easy matter to handle dark blue and buff and make of 
it a picture which is bright, stimulating, and that is cer- 
tainly the kind of tone with which a public dining-room 
Should be Idled. Consciously or Unconsciously, the archi- 
tects have once again shown what can be done with a full- 
toned blue. It was tried in Persia ages ago before the 
Northern or Central portion of Europe was heard of. and 




VIEW SHOWING ENTIRE LENGTH OF ROOM Willi BALCONY AM) DETAIL OF RAILING. 



discloses the subtle manner in which this rich composition 
has been made to be light, cheerful, and at all times agree- 
able. Perhaps the position of the groined vaulting and the 
manner in which the daylight comes in from the upper 
part of the windows has something to do with tin's. There 
is about the whole room an atmosphere of cheerfulness, 
with all its serious construction, its academic and well- 
studied poise, that cannot be denied, and one would 
scarcely think that upon this beautiful vaulting a structure 



when this favored land was fast asleep. And it is no little 
pleasure, nor is it a light tribute to the material nor to the 
metallic oxides and glazes which make it so presentable, that 
once again this rich mysterious blue should be the key-note 
and thi' note in a new order of things, a new civilization, 
a new world. There is just a flavor of the tone in the out- 
side of the building and in away it appears again and again 
wherever we look. It is the accent of the electric light 
fixtures of the main floor; it appears in the liver) of the 



4 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



servants ; its echo is to be heard through the various pas- 
sages and subsidiary parts in the cafe", butler's pantry, 
passages and what not. And yet it is never dull, never 
dark, never depressing. Scientists and colorists always 
say of blue that it blackens at night, but this particular 
tone skeins to escape. It adds in depth and mystery, as it 
does in richness, as if the plume of a thousand vines were 
distilled into it. And again, the yellow, reel — and the 



matter. The ground is cream, somewhat like the tone 
of the vaulting. And upon this canvas in a most frolic- 
some way appear peacocks, pheasants, parrots, farmyard 
fowl, as well as small insects and occasionally foxes or 
monkeys. All this in spite of its freedom and abandon 
has been carefully thought out as to balance ami accent. 
Throughout the SUperb plumage of the birds is ever pres- 
ent the shade of blue. It appears everywhere. The panels 




VIEW SHOWING Till-: CENTRAL PIERS PROM WHICH SPRINGS THE VAULTING, A PORTION or THE WALL DECORATION AND 

THE DETAIL OF THE ELECTRIC LIGHTING. 



projecting ornament and cross-lights with their reflections 

enter into and humanize the whole. 

Again, the white marble floors and the peculiar dull 
white surface of the fascia to the balconies, the chamfered 
corners of the pilasters with their caps and bases, all help 
to soften the blue. The wall panels are particularly clever 
in that the problem of designing the painting was no easy 



are carefully painted, not in the too frequent thin natural- 
esque way, but sufficiently conventional to make them 
acceptable here. Round the balcony at certain set Inter- 
vals cast-iron standards are placed and between them rope 
taking a graceful outline, thus getting rid of the customary 
hard line so serious and set. Of the electric lighting it is 

scarcely necessary to write. The views show the detail. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



47 








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j j lLj4BMCKiBlJILPEI^ COMPE11TI0H 



FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 

Submitted by Ralph J. Batchelder, Boston, Mass. 
COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE OF THE BUNGALOW TYPE, 



4 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 




THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 

Submitted by William Boyd, Jr., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE OF THE BUNGALOW TYPE 



5° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FOURTH PRIZE DESIGN. 

Submitted by Charles Willing-, Philadelphia, Pa. 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE OF THE BUNGALOW TYPE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



5i 



The Equitable Building Fire, January 9, 1912. 



REPORT BY P. II. BEVIER, C.E. 



THE Equitable Building is a heavy granite structure 
located at Broadway, Cedar, Nassau and Pine 

streets, New York City, occupying the entire block, 

with the exception of a brick building at the northeast 

corner occupied by Messrs. Belmont & Co., and a granite 

building at the southeast corner known as the Western to make room for a moden fireproof buildii 

National Bank Building. 

The main portion of the 

Equitable Building runs 

through to Nassau street 

between these two buildings. 

There is an interior court 

extending upward from the 

top of the rotunda over 

the first floor arcade. The 

northwest corner of the 

building was the earliest 

portion constructed and con- 
sists of granite walls backed 

up with heavy brickwork, 

cast-iron columns unpro- 
tected by fireproofing, and 

iron I beams with brick 

arches. The larger part of 

this portion of the building 

entirely collapsed from the 

roof to the first floor. The 
remainder of the building 
consists of granite walls 

backed up with heavy brickwork, unprotected cast-iron 
columns, flat hollow tile arches 8 inches deep without pro- 
tecting skewbacks. The soffits of all beams and girders 
were unprotected by fireproofing. This portion is standing 
and not greatly damaged except in certain parts where the 
cast-iron columns have 
failed and the entire 
section collapsed from 
roof to first floor . Where 
the columns did not col- 
lapse the arches and 
structure appear to be in 
fairly good condition. 

The fire originated in 
the basement of a res- 
taurant in the southwest 
corner and spread rap- 
idly up the elevator 
shaft, mushrooming over 
the entire top of the 
building. On account 
of a very high wind and 




VIEW SHOWING PORTION OF BUILDING WHICH COLLAPSED 




J/O' 

PLAN OF BUILDING WITH PORTIONS WHICH COLLAPSED SHOWN 
IN FINE CROSS HATCHING. 



to the basement. Had the columns been protected the 
building would not have collapsed in any portion, and 
the damage would have been only that by lire and water. 
As it is, the portions which collapsed were totally destroyed. 
The other portions could be repaired but will be torn down 

The com- 
pany had contemplated the 
razing of the present build- 
ing for some time to make 
way for a modern structure. 
The Belmont Buildingisof 
comparatively modern con- 
struction, fireproofed with 
hollowtile throughout, and is 
uninjured except where some 
wooden partitions were 
burned out in the westerly 
end, and by water which 
flooded the entire building. 
In the Nassau street (east- 
erly) end of the main build- 
ing, on the fifth floor, was 
located the Lawyers' Club, 
the main room being very 
large and lofty. All the 
woodwork was consumed 
from this room, but appar- 
ently the structure is not seri- 
ously damaged. The main 
room connected through doorways into a room which occupied 
the entire top story of the "Western National Bank Building. 
Over this was an angle iron and booktile dome. All the 
woodwork was also consumed from this room, but apparently 
the steel and fireproofing construction was not injured. 

No damage was done 
to the lower stories what- 
ever, which was of steel 
and hollow tile construc- 
tion throughout, except 
by water. 

All the interior sub 
dividing walls are of 
brick and the fire could 
have been confined to 
one portioj of it had the 
openings communica- 
ting from one part to 
another been closed by 
fireproof doors. 

The accompanying 

diagram will give an idea 

the Equitable Building. The 



shape 



of the size am 
earliest portion, on the northwest corner, was built in 1868, 
the main portion in 1885. It can be easily demonstrated 
that for a comparatively small amount this conflagration 



extreme cold, which hampered the fire department, the 
fire spread over the entire building, consuming everything 
above the first floor which was burnable. 

The building was wall-bearing, so that when the columns 
collapsed the ends of the beams resting in the walls on could have been prevented b\ enclosing vertical opei 
stone templates were pulled from the walls but left them at elevator and other shafts with fireproofing material, fire 
standing. There is no question but that had the elevator proofing of the columns, and placing of fireproof doors in 
shaft been protected the tire would have been confined openings in walls which subdivided the building. 



52 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Legal Hints for Architects. — Part VIII. 



WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C.E., LL.Ii. 



Extra Work! That hope of the contractor, despair of 
the owner, and nightmare of the architect ! While archi- 
tects and engineers have been continually crying ' Out, 

damned spot ! out, I say ! " extra work is still ever present 
in construction work. In the uniform contract they have 
at least gotten rid of this term, expressing the clause which 
is generally supposed to pertain to such work as follows: 

No alterations shall be made in the work except upon 
written order of the Architect." It would seem now that 
this phrase has not prevented the doing of or restricted the 
ordering of what is now strictly considered " extra work." 
Whether or not it was the intention of the parties framing 
the uniform contract to include in the word "alterations " 
the various kinds of work which have been expressed as 
changes, additions, deviations, alterations, extras, etc., is 
not known to the writer. 

In Part V of this series I have defined technically the 
most important of these words, showing their differences. 
At least one state has come out clearly in its interpretation 
of this clause and in several decisions held that it does not 
apply to extra work. This means that no written order of 
architect or owner is required to make the owner respon- 
sible for extra work or work outside the contract. In one 
ease there was a contract for all the plumbing work for 
a proposed hotel. The specifications stated that the archi- 
tects were unable to locate and describe the drainage pipes 
of the building about to be constructed. When the old 
drainage system was discovered after much of the plumb- 
ing work had been completed by the contractor, the muni- 
eipa! inspector refused to permit its use and an entirely 
new one had to be constructed. The changed conditions 
also required other work and materials not included in the 
original contract and certain alterations of the completed 
work and also certain repair work. The inevitable ques- 
tion arose as to whether this work was within the contract 
or not, and it was contended that even if it was not, yet the 
owner was not liable because the work had not been 
ordered in writing as provided by the clause under discus- 
sion. The court held that none of this work mentioned 
could be considered as "alterations " within the provisions 
of the contract. In a very late case this matter is expressed 
thus: "Where the parties deviate from the original plan 
agreed upon, and the terms of the original contract do not 
appear to be applicable to the new work, it being beyond 
what was originally contemplated by the parties, it is 
undoubtedly to be regarded and treated as work wholly 
extra, out of the scope of the contract and may be 
recovered for as such." Then speaking of this particular 
clause the opinion states : " The materials and labor here 
SOUght to be recovered for were never contemplated in the 
original plans and specifications and were not alterations 
within the provisions of the contract." 

In another decision this requirement was held inappli- 
cable to work which was not within the plans and specifica- 
tions and which was merely an addition in no wise 
affecting or relating to anything contained in the contract 
between the owner and contractor. 

These decisions bring us squarely to the question which 



is often difficult to determine, what is an "alteration" 
within this provision ? An alteration has been legally 
defined as being "generally understood as meaning a 
change or changes within the superficial limits of an exist- 
ing structure, or a change of form or state which does not 
affect the identity of the subject." The first part of that 
definition probable was given on account of a special defi- 
nition which this word has under most city building codes 
and as used in a certain mechanics lien law. The distinc- 
tion there being between alteration as an addition in 
height, depth or extent of interior accommodations: and 
addition as a lateral addition or occupying more ground 
area. It would seem that this word is best construed in 
the same sense as the three words "changes, addi- 
tions and alterations" have been construed, namely, such 
changes as are incidental to the complete execution of the 
work as described in the plans and specifications and there- 
fore of only minor or trifling importance. Any material 
departure from the plans and specifications with reference 
to which the contract was made, which resulted in a new 
and substantially different undertaking, cannot be regarded 
as within the meaning of this word. Where changes in 
substituting mountain surface stones for mountain quarried 
stone and lap binders for headers in foundation walls were 
made, they were held to be "alterations" within this 
clause. ' >n the other hand, work caused as damages from 
water freezing and causing the foundation walls to crack 
and split was not "alterations." 

While the expression "alterations, deviations or addi- 
tions," has been held to include extras, yet there seems to 
be as yet no decision directly holding that the clause under 
discussion includes extras. The architect should therefore 
beware how he orders extra work believing it to be part of 
the contract and then after finding out he is wrong how he 
protects the owner by claiming that the owner is not liable 
because the contract provision for a written order has not 
been complied with. Whether certain work is extra or 
alteration is a question of fact which may be somewhat 
difficult to determine, but at all events, no matter which it 
is, the architect who always issues a written order for any 
such work will always be safe from honest criticism. 

It is almost the universal rule to-day that the architect 
has no authority or power to waive this requirement of a 
written order for "alterations," and since it is often con- 
sidered a condition precedent for the recovery by the 
contractor of his compensation, no architect should ever 
knowingly order such work without then and there issuing 
the necessary written order. It should be further noted 
that this prohibition extends only to the architect . so that 
where a contract in addition provides that an owner may 
order alterations without voiding the contract, the owner 
clearly has the power to order such alterations orally. How 
about the owner ordering alterations orally where this 
clause under discussion is the only one mentioning that 
subject? It is elementary that a party to a contract can 
waive any of its provisions for his protection so that such 
oral order would undoubtedly bind the owner. It has been 
held that where the architect ordered orally with the owner 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



53 



present and consenting- thereto, that it was a waiver of this 

requirement. Also where such work ordered orally even 
by the architect has been paid for by the owner upon 
a partial payment, such payment would ordinarily be con- 
sidered a ratification of the architect's order. In tin's con- 
nection however, it, has been held in just such a case- 
that the architect's certificates for partial payments which 
contain an estimate for work orally ordered have been held 
not to be written orders within the requirement. 

Since the various decisions as to owner's waiver or rati- 
fication have been determined upon so many diversified 
facts, and since there is much difference of opinion among 
the courts, it seems best to dismiss this subject with the 
comment that most courts seem to find any excuse legally 
valid to protect a contractor from loss where the owner has 
received the benefit of work and materials and where it 
would otherwise create a case of unjust enrichment. This 
rule does not hold good where governing bodies are con- 
cerned, as counties, municipal corporations, etc., and hence 
where architects are acting for such bodies they should be 
especially careful to comply with the contract requirements 
for any class or character of work outside the plans and 
specifications. In this way they will escape being the inno- 
cent means of enriching such bodies at the expense of an 
innocent contractor. 

This requirement for written orders of the architect is often 
used in contracts in connection with the use of the word 
" extras " instead of " alterations." The rules of law gov- 
erning such a clause are identical with those which we have 
just discussed. In such cases some courts have created a still 
further distinction between the ' ' extra work, ' ' which under 
the contract requires a written order, and work which is 
clearly beyond or outside the contract. For example, where 
there was a contract to do exterior work, and the architect 
orally ordered interior work, the latter work was held not 
to be extra work within the requirement of a written order 
and hence that the contractor could recover as upon an 
entirely separate contract. The theory here, however, is 
the same as we have heretofore discussed, that where it 
can be seen that the new work ordered has no connection 
with the original contract it is considered a new contract 
or agreement between the parties ; and if no price is men- 
tioned, then the owner is liable for the reasonable value of 
the work so ordered. It is to be regretted that there is 
such a conflict of terminology, but since it does exist it is a 
matter for the architects to try and correct and make it 
uniform, but at the present time it requires their careful 
attention when they are called upon to decide judicially 
questions involving such terms. 

Although I have stated that courts are rather inclined to 
be lenient and still technical in finding some satisfaction 
of this requirement of a written order, yet the following 
instances will show that they refuse to go to extremes. It 
was held that this requirement was not satisfied either by 
mere unsigned sketches of the manner of doing the altera- 
tion or extra work, nor by the fact that excavation stakes 
were marked so as to take the excavation lower than the 
plans showed. It has been held, however, that a detailed 
plan satisfied the contract in this regard. 

On numerous occasions I have pointed out that this par- 
ticular trouble as a practical matter ought to be easily 
remedied by the issuance of written orders complying with 
the contract provision in every detail, not only for that 



work which the architect may consider outside the con- 
tract requirements, without reference to what he may term 
such work, hut also in the cases where the architect 
honestly believes that such work is within the contract, 
which belief, however, is not shared by the contractor. It 
would seem best in such a case to issue a proper contract 
order, conditional, however, upon a decision or determina- 
tion by the owner, the proper contract arbitrator or arbi- 
trators, or a court, upon the difference of opinion. This is at 
least an easy way in which the architect could prevent the 
contractor suffering any loss unjustly, and also relieve and 
break down that feeling now prevalent among some con- 
tractors that the architect is working for the interest of 
his employer, the owner, and that as a zealous employee 
the more he can enrich the owner even at the expense 
of the contractor the greater will be his ultimate 
reward. 

In our considerations of this clause we have so far dodged 
the most interesting and also somewhat difficult question 
for the architect as to what is his authority or power under 
such a clause. We have seen that as the owner's agent 
the architect should be governed by the strict interpreta- 
tion of his powers, and this considered with our definitions 
of "alterations " would seem to bring us to the 1 conclusion 
that the architect has no power to order extra work or to 
create any new obligation on the part of the owner to pay 
for work and materials clearly outside the contract. 

In the ordinary case the contractor would probably not 
be permitted to suffer from this unauthorized assumption 
of authority on the part of the architect, upon the principle 
of implied powers of the architect or upon some basis of 
quasi-contracts upon the theory of the owner seeing the 
work being done and accepting the benefits thereof, hence 
he should pay the reasonable value for same. Such is not 
the case when we consider municipal corporations and like 
bodies. This can be shown very plainly by a situation 
which exists to-day in one of our great municipalities. In 
one form of contract it provides for the method in which 
"extra work" can be ordered so as to make the munici- 
pality liable for such work. In another form the words 
" extra work " were changed to "additional work" with 
the same requirements. About the same time this change 
was made the courts began to make the distinction between 
the two classes of work as I have defined them previously, 
with the result that the architects and engineers in many 
cases failed to notice under which form of contract they 
were superintending. Extra work would be ordered in the 
manner called for by the additional work contract, and 
vice versa, and when the contractor tried to collect, the 
city authorities would blandly tell him that he should 
have had a different kind of order for that work and that 
they could not pay him. Legally and technically such 
refusal was correct and there was and is no way in which 
such a contractor can recover for such work which he did 
under the directions of the city architect or engineer in 
charge, and as he and said superintendent imagined, in 
strict compliance with the contract requirement. 

While it must be admitted that the contractor should 
take care of himself and should not depend upon the aivhi 
teel or engineer, yet at the same time an architect or engi- 
neer should not be so ignorant of his powers and thus 
primarily be the cause of the contractor's inevitable loss. 
Equitably and morally, therefore, it is, and should be, the 



54 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



pride of every architect to know that when lie orders any 

work he is assured that the contractor shall not suffer 
therefrom, and to do this requires so little in the way of 
study or merely asking a few questions of one who knows, 
that there seems no reason why such losses should occur, 
and put the architect or engineer in the false light. 
Beware, therefore, of contracts of sovereign bodies such 
as states, counties, cities, towns, villages, etc., in this 
regard. 

It has been said that there is no settled rule of legal 
construction which can be applied to determine whether 
certain work or materials were included in or were foreign 
to a written contract. However, when we remember that 
the intent of the parties is to be effectuated, if possible, 
and in the ascertainment of that the writing should be 
read in the light of the circumstances attending its execu- 
tion and the subsequent attitude and conduct of the parties 
in relation to the subject matter of the controversy; and 
when we consider the discussion herein, it would seem 
that as a practical matter but few cases should trouble the 
architect reader when this question is presented to him. 

There is still another point in this regard which the archi- 
tect must take into serious consideration, and that is, if he 
orders the contractor to do work under this clause and 
the work ordered is not alteration work and the order is 
persisted in by the architect or owner, the contractor can 
cease work on his entire contract, declare a breach of the 
same, and collect at law the damages therefor. In order 
that this may be clearly understood I shall give two exam- 
ples of this, the first involving ordinary parties and the 
second where a state was one of the contracting parties; 
in neither of these instances was the clause the one under 
discussion, but that does not affect the principle. 

In the first case the contract contained probably the 
broadest phraseology that could be used in this regard and 
permitted the owner "to make alterations in the line, 
grade, plans, form, position, dimensions, or materials of 
the work to be performed. " The original contract called 
for a wholly masonry dam, but after investigations made 
when the work was started, it was finally decided to 
change to an earth dam with a masonry core. The engi- 
neer then made new plans and details therefor and gave 
them to the contractor and ordered him to proceed with 
the work. The contractor refused to proceed upon the 
changed plan and claimed a breach of the contract Upon 
the owner's backing the engineer up in his demand. After 
litigation covering several years, the highest court of the 
state held, that although this clause above quoted gave 
the owner great power to modify and alter the plans, yet it 
did not authorize him to alter or destroy the essential iden- 
tity of the thing contracted for. That the proposed change 
constituted a breach of contract which justified the eon- 
tractor in refusingto comply and for which breach the con- 
tractor was accordingly entitled to his legal damages. 

In the other case the state reserved " the ri.^rht to make 
any change they shall deem proper in the plans and speci- 
fications," etc., there having been bids advertised for and 
the contract awarded as required by said bidding proposal. 
The contract and specifications called for several buildings, 
all of which were to have exterior facings of sandstone. 
After some of the buildings were completed and practi- 
cally all of the stone cut and on the ground to complete 
all the work under the contract, the state through its 



agents changed the stone facings on the remaining build- 
ings, which they then decided to complete to brick with 
stone trimmings. Other buildings they at the same time 
decided not to build. W^r^ the contractor continued the 
work as ordered but claimed the bread] of contract and later 
sued for his damages. The court sustained the contrac- 
tor's position and the opinion comments upon the situation 
as follows: "These (buildings) were all to be built. 
The size and height of them were fixed and the material 
to be put in the walls determined. The general character 
of the buildings could not be changed so that the buildings 
would not be the same contracted for: if it could be, then 
a public letting in such a case would not be useful and 
might be an idle ceremony. Under such a reservation 
could a building planned for five stories be reduced to 
two? Could a stone building let to a stone mason be 
changed to wood or brick ? Could the five connecting 
wards be reduced to two, three or four? We are clear that 
authority for such extensive changes could not be found in 
such language. If the state could chan.ee to brick walls 
with sandstone trimmings, then it could change to walls 
made wholly of brick, and thus there would have been no 
stone to cut and the cutting contract would be entirely 
nullified. It is difficult to draw in advance a precise line 
between what is authorized . by such a reservation and 
what is not. It authorizes such changes as frequently 
occur in the process of constructing buildings, in matters 
of taste, arrangement, and details ; but it does not authorize 
a change in the general character of the buildings." 

These examples show that when an architect finds him- 
self confronted with a refusal on the part of the contractor 
to comply with his orders given pursuant to the clause 
under discussion or some other clause of similar import, 
he should not take matters into his own hands without 
consulting the owner or good legal advice on account of 
the very serious liability which his course of action may 
impose upon the owner, and the personal loss of some of 
his architectural prestige and business integrity. 

Our original clause under discussion is today often 
varied by an additional requirement of the owner's signa- 
ture as well as the architect's to the written order. Some 
requirement of this kind is always to be found in munici- 
pal contracts, etc., and is considered a condition precedent 
to the recovery of the contractor of any pay for such work 
done. Minor changes in buildingwork often come up just 
when the work is being done and when time is valuable, 
and the architect to save delay often tells the contractor to 
go ahead and do it, and that he will see that he gets the 
proper order, and then either forgets the promise or find- 
ing that he cannot get the owner or proper board to sign 
such order makes the best excuses he can. Again there are 
often cases where the contractor would rather make some 
minor change which both he and the architect know is 
needed, rather than hold up his work a day or so for the 
necessary written order at a greater cost to him than the 
change would pay. Of course in such ease the contractor 
should be warned that he is liable not to be paid for the 
work so done, but the architect should see that the extra 
order is obtained if possible. The rule for the architect 
should be that no directions or orders at all in variance 
with the plans and specifications should be given by him 
or his superintendent or inspector except upon the strict 
compliance of the contract provisions in that regard. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



55 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



THE BUNGALOW COMPETITION. 

THE Jury for the Bung-alow Competition awarded First 
Prize ($500) to Ralph J. Batchelder, Boston ; Second 
Prize ($250) to Jack Lehti, Washington, D. C. ; Third 
Prize ($150) to William Boyd, Jr., Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 
Fourth Prize ($100) to Charles Willing, Philadelphia. 

Mentions were awarded to Harris Allen, Berkeley, Cal.; 
Henry Jay Briggs, Washington, D. C. ; J. Martin Brown, 
New York City ; F. D. Bulman, Boston ; Alfred Coakman 
Cass, New York City; Clinton Hall, Plainfield, N. J. ; 
Addison B. LeBoutillier, Boston ; Edward F. Maher, 
Boston. 

The competition was judged by Messrs. Gordon Allen, 
Robert P. Bellows, Allen H. Cox, James C. Hopkins, 
Charles D. Maginnis. 

The competition proved to be very popular, 666 
designs having been submitted. In giving this compe- 
tition it was hoped — and we may say that the hope 
has been realized — that a series of designs would be 
obtained which would help to point the way and encourage 
a better class of construction in inexpensive houses. It is 
not felt that a work of this sort trespasses into the field of 
architectural practice or in any way interferes with the 
rights of the architect. The four premiated designs are 
published in this number, later a selection of the designs 
submitted will be 
published in book 
form and sent broad- 
cast to prospective 
homebuilders. And 
we feel that this work 
will be the means of 
arousing a deeper in- 
terest in a better style 
of design, and inci- 
dentally increase the 
use of brick rather 
than the cheap and 
flimsy materials 
which have been so 
extensively used in 
the past. If this 
work succeeds in a 

reasonable degree in creating a more widespread interest 
in houses of wholesome design and substantial con- 
struction, it will have served its whole purpose, which 
was to create a better appreciaton for the work of the 
architect and give to the country a better class of small 
houses. 

It is remarkable how the quality of draftsmanship has 
improved from one competition to another and how closely 
the majority of contestants have followed the conditions 
laid down in the programs. 

The benefits derived by those who enter these contests 
even though they do not win prizes are manifold, in that 
they furnish a practical training and afford a chance to 
measure one's ability with one's fellows. Again, the pub- 
licity given to the best designs which are selected for pub- 
lication is of benefit in some degree at least to their 
authors, many of whom have small opportunity to demon- 



strate their ability even to members of the architectural 
profession. 

The judging of these competitions is no small task. 
As is well known the judges are selected from among the 
best men in the profession. Their work is in no sense 
perfunctory but at all times serious and painstaking. It 
can be stated as a positive fact that in no instance has a 
member of one of these jurys entered upon the work lack- 
ing in enthusiasm and a full sense of the responsibilities 
which rested upon him. If it were possible for contest- 
ants to look on while the work of judging one of these 
competitions is going on, there would be no question but 
that everyone would feel that the duties of the jurors were 
being faithfully and conscientiously fulfilled. 



I 




LUNETTE PANEL (8 FEET LONG) BY HOLABIRD .V ROCHE, ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



T SEEMS advisable at this time to remind some contes- 
tants in the competitions given by Tine BRICKBUILDER 
that they should adhere more strictly to the conditions 
specified in the programs. This is done in the spirit of 
helpfulness and not criticism. Many designs worthy of 
further consideration receive an H. C. simply because the 
designer has either carelessly or willingly ignored one or 
more of the requirements. In order to make our point 
clear we will cite a few instances which happened in con- 
nection with the recent Bungalow Competition ; 

The program asked 
for a lien and ink 
perspective without 
wash or color. In 
spite of this require- 
ment a number of 
drawings submitted 
were rendered in 
washes of various 
tints, others were 
partly finished in 
pencil, or India ink 
so diluted that it 
would be impossible 
to make satisfactory 
reproductions from 
the drawings. 

The program called 
for a sheet measuring exactly 26 inches by 20 inches. A 
number of drawings were received in which this condition 
had been absolutely ignored. 

The program required that the sheet be of white paper 
and not to be mounted. Several drawings received were on 
thick cardboard, while others were on white paper mounted. 
In addition several drawings were on colored paper. 

Quite a few drawings were received from three days to a 
week after the competition closed. 

Six drawings were so badly packaged by the senders 
that when received they were torn and otherwise damaged 
beyond the possibility of repair. 

Quite a number of drawings were sent witli insufficient 
postage. 

A few drawings were received without envelopes con- 
taining the nom de plume on the exterior and the true name 
and address of the contestant. 



56 



THE BRICKBUILDER 















i/iSJhte 




WfY*£ 



thought that in the future, competi- 
tors will see to it that all the require- 
ments of the program are carefully 
observed, thus assuring to their 
design the careful and unbiased con- 
sideration of the Jury. 



DETAIL BY THEO C. VISSCHER, ARCHITECT. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

At least ten days is required to make the necessary 
arrangements and have one of these Competitions judged. 
As soon as possible after the Jury has made its report 
every contestant is notified as to whether or not his draw- 
ing received a Prize or Mention, and in addition a detailed 
notice is given in the next issue of The Brickbuilder. 
The entire work is carried on with all the promptness and 
dispatch that circumstances will permit. It is quite im 
possible to answer all the telephone calls, — some of them 
long distance, — telegrams and letters which begin to 




PLATE ILLUSTRATION. 
First National Bank, Bar Har- 
bor, Me., Plate 26. — This building 

is constructed of a local red brick 

having imitation limestone for the 

trimmings and a tar and gravel roof. 

Upon the interior the banking and 

directors' rooms are finished in 

mahogany with walls and ceilings 

of rough plaster and floors of marble 

tiles. The remaining rooms are 

decorated and painted in a light 

cream color. The basement pro- 
vides for the heating apparatus 

and silver vault; the second floor, 

lawyers' offices and toilets. The 
contents of the build- 
ing figure 65,000 
cubic feet with a total 
cost, excluding fur- 
nishings and fittings, of approximately 
$18,850, making the cost per cubic foot 
29 cents. The furnishings and fittings 
cost approximately $3,000 and the vault 
$6,500. 




detail by albert 

15. westover, 

architect. 

Conklingf- Armstrong 

Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 



T 



FIGURE OF INDIAN (6 FEET HIGH) FOB SUBSIDIARY BUILDING, 

PAN AMERICAN UNION, WASHINGTON, I). C. 

Executed by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Albert Kelsey and Paul Cret, Associated, 

Architects. 



arrive the day following the closing of the Competition 
inquiring about the results. 

One of the reasons for the promotion of these contests 
by The Brickbuilder is to give to young men who are 
identified with the architectural profession an opportunity 
to acquire a training in small Competitions. If they can- 
not meet the simple requirements of one of The Bkick- 
builder programs they would have little chance, if they 
were equally negligent, in a larger Competition. 

It is manifestly unfair to those who have met all the 
requirements of a program to submit to the judges draw- 
ings which have ignored one or more of the requirements. 

These conditions which have been cited in connection 
with the Bungalow Competition are equally true of pre- 
vious Competitions. 

As before stated, these criticisms are made with the sole 



HE Board of Directors of the American 
Institute of Architects has appointed 
as members of the Committee on Public 
Information for the American Institute of 
Architects, I). Knickerbacker Boyd (chair- 
man >, Glenn Brown, and Frank C. Baldwin. 
The appointment of this committee was 
authorized by the resolution adopted at the 
last convention of the A. I. A., which was 
as follows : 

Resolved: That the Board of Directors 

be requested to appoint a Special Committee 

on Public Information, the duties of which 

shall include the following: 

To keep a record of such published matter as may be of 

interest to the profession and to semi to such publications 

likely to be interested, information concerning the work of 

the Institute and of the profession. 

To request monthly reports on matters of interest to the 




DETAIL BY WALLIS & GOODWILLIE, ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



57 



profession from Commit- 
tees on Public Information 
of the several Chapters, 
which Chapter Committees 
shall be Sub-Committees 
for their respective terri- 
tories of the Institute 
Committee. 

To inform the press of the 
country in regard to Annual 
Conventions of the Institute 
and the work which the 
Institute is undertaking and 
has actually performed. To 
correct, through the press, 
popular misconceptions 
with regard to the practice 
of architecture and to rectify 
erroneous statements affect- 
ing the profession. 

To keep constantly before 
the public the aims, aspira- 
tions and accomplishments 
of the profession through 
its organized body, the 
Institute. 




JOHNS HOPKINS UNI- 
VERSITY is about to 
begin the construction of an extensive group of buildings 
intended to house all its activities except the hospital and 
medical school. These buildings will be erected upon a 
site of one hundred and fifty acres fronting on Charles 
street, Baltimore, two miles north of the Monument. The 
grounds include the seat of the Carroll family and the 
mansion known as Homewood. 

An advisory board, consisting of Grosvenor Atterbury 
of New York, Frank Miles Day of 
Philadelphia, and Frederick Law 
Olmsted of Boston, has been 
appointed to develop the problem 
of the new buildings and grounds. 
It is expected that actual construc- 
tion will begin at Homewood dur- 
ing the present summer. 

The group will contain labora- 
tory buildings for chemistry, 
physics, biology, geology, and 
engineering, but its main feature 
will be the academic and library 
building. There will be dormi- 
tories, refectories, a students' hall, 
and a gymnasium . 



DETAIL FROM FISKE & CO., INC., NEW YORK OFFICE. 

Tapestry brick with fountain of Hartford faience. 



consideration in high chim- 
ney design is the height 
necessary to insure proper 
draft. One rule for this is 
to proportion the height 
according to the coal con- 
sumption per week of 56 
hours, thus : 4 tons per 
week, 75 feet high : 13 tons 
per week, 100 feet high : 26 
tons per week, 120 feet 
high ; 50 tons per week, 
1.50 feet high ; 100 tons per 
week, 180 feet high ; 150 
tons perweek,200 feet hi' i 
Another rule is to make the 
height of the chimney three 
times the length of the 
boiler plus twice the dis- 
tance of the farthest boiler 
to the chimney. This allows 
one foot of height for every 
foot the gases travel around 
the boiler and two feet of 
height for every foot of 
external flue. 

There are many different 
rules for determining sec- 
tional area, some depending 
upon the coal consumption, some upon fire-grate area, 
and others upon the evaporation of water. Simple 
approximate rules are: (a) 1 square foot area for each 
cwt. of coal burnt per hour; (b) area = Vio of the total 
fire-grate area, each flue being ! h of its fire-grate area, 
and main flue Vs of total ; (r) 2.V> square inches per 
indicated horse-power of the engine; (d) if the height of 
the chimney is taken into account, as of course it should 
be, then on the average - 



THE DESIGN OF HIGH 
CHIMNEYS. 

IN a recent paper by Henry 
Adams before The Society of 
Engineers the problem of chimney 
designing was discussed from a 
theoretical and practical viewpoint, 
which architects are often called upon to meet, give 

herewith a few of Mr. Adams' deductions. The first 




area 



or 



lb. 



DETAIL BY DWIGHT II. PERKINS, ARCHITECTi 

North western Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



As this is a problem 



of coal burnt per hour 
12Vheight in feet 

fire -grate area sip ft. 
1.5V height in feet. 

Mr. Adams states that the cir- 
cular chimney is most effective 
for its area, as it takes the least 
material for its construction and 
permits of no angles for the 
accumulation of soot. With any 
chimney it is considered desirable 
to add 2 inches all around to the 
calculated minimum area to allow 
for friction. A safe wind pressure 
on plane surfaces normal to the 
direction of the wind is 56 pounds 
per square toot. His formula for 
wind pressure according to the 
width and height of the structure 
is as follows : log/>= 1.125 + 1 
log // — 0.12 log wi where /> 
ultimate wind pressure in pounds per square fool m 
sary to be allowed for against a plane surface normal to 
the wind ; // : height in feet of center of gravity of sin t 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




TERRA COTTA FORTH?: HILLIARD 
BUILDING. 

THE architectural terra cotta for the 
Hilhard Building', New York, — How- 
ells & Stokes, architects — described in this 
issue, was furnished by the New York 
Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 



HOUSE AT GREENWICH, CONN., H. C. PELTON, ARCHITECT 

Roofed with Old Mission Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 



considered, above ground level ; w = width in feet of part 
to be taken as one surface. 

Theoretically the batter of the chimney 
should be taken into account in determining 
wind pressure, but its effect is so slight as 
to be negligible. 

A square chimney will give the same 
resistance whether facing the wind or diago- 
nal to it, as the greater area of the inclined 
surface with the reduced pressure Upon it 
make the same total as the flat side under 
full pressure. 

Up to 150 feet high or 5 feet inside 
diameter the top length is generally one 
brick thick ; above that height or diameter, 
the top length should be I 1 !' bricks thick. 
and the thickness should be increased by a 
4^-inch set-off at every 20 feet below the top. 

If the diameter of the throat is kept uni- 
form and a 4%-inch set-off occurs at every 
20 feet, the intermediate portions being of 
uniform thickness, a batter of 1 in 53.33 
will be given. 

The fire-brick lining must be entirely self- 
supporting and have a clear space behind, 
to allow for expansion and contraction inde- 
pendently of the main structure, which 
would be prevented if dirt and dust were to 
get behind it. 

It is important to note that a high 
chimney .should stand on an independent foundation in 
order that any compression of the soil may be uniform. 



IX GENERAL. 

Warren \V. Day, architect, has removed 
his offices to 527 Main street. Peoria, 111. 
Manufacturers' samples and catalogues 
desired. 

II. A. I hooker and J. Adam Fiehter 
have associated for the practice of 
architecture under the firm name of Fiehter & Brookcr, 
offices Second National Building, Akron, Ohio. 





HOUSE AT CONVENT, N. J., PERCY GRIFFIN, ARCHITECT. 
Built of Standard Fire Flashed Brick made by Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Company 



MERCANTILE BUILDING, WALKER AM) WHITE STREETS, 
SCHWARTZ .X: GROSS, ARCHITECTS. 

Built of brick furnished by Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Company. 



Fountain iV- Moratz, architects, have removed their offices 
to the Euclid Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The fascia to the balconies, the caps, 
bases, and pilaster corners in the Grill 
Room of the Hotel Vanderbilt, illustrated 
in this number, were furnished by the 
Rookwood Pottery Company of Cincinnati. 
This work was all executed in colored 
faience. 

Gove and Walsh, architects, have re- 
moved their offices to the Boston Building-, 
Denver, Colo. 

Columbia University, New York, has 
under consideration the organization of a 
Faculty of Fine Arts in co-operation with 
the National Academy of Design and the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



59 




11111 
""! 

nun 

ni l] Illi 



nillllfl 



1 




BUILDING FOR UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD, OMAHA, NEB. 

JARVIS HUNT, ARCHITECT. 

Built of gray speckled Standard and Norman Brick made by Columbus 

Brick & Terra Cotta Company. 

The first great national movement of the clayworkers of 
this country will culminate in the Clay Products Exposi- 
tion to be held in the Coliseum, Chicago, March 7th to 
12th. It is the especial purpose of this Exposition to 
acquaint the public with the various types of clay products 
which enter into building construction and to encourage a 

better class of 
building;, espe- 
cially on the 
part of the 
home builder. 
This Exposition 
promises to be 
a revelation, to 
the thousands 
who will un- 
doubtedly at- 
tend, of the es- 
thetic and con- 
structive possi- 
bilities which 
are to be ob- 
tained by the 
use of burnt 
clay in its vari- 
ous forms. The 
best designs 

submitted in 

'I'm- Brick- 
builder Com 

petition for a 
NATIONAL BANK OF NEW JERSEY, Bungalow will 

NEW BRUNSWICK, N J ])c L . xhihiu ,, ;ll 

Architectural Terra Cotta furnished by South 

Amboy Terra Cotta Company. the exhibition. 




Sayre & Fisher Company supplied their Roman mottled 
brick for the exterior of the Hilliard Building which is 
illustrated and described in this number. 

The II. B. Smith Company installed the boilers in the 
Hilliard Building which is illustrated and described in this 
number. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, St. Louis, fur- 
nished the brick for the Lionberger House, St. Louis, 
Cope & Stewardson, architects, which is illustrated in tlic 
plate forms of this number. 



The Krippendorff-Dittnian Company, of Cincinnati 
several hundred gallons of Cabot's Red Waterproof 
Stain on their buildings, and after two years' wear 
neighbors, the 
Perkins-Camp- 
b e 1 1 Co m - 
pany, wrote, 

We like very 
much the ap- 
pearance of 
this building', ' 
and bought a 
large quantity 
for their own 
seven-stor y 
building. 

R. Guasta- 
vino Company 
announce the 
r e m o v a 1 of 
their Boston 
office to 60 
State street. 



, used 
Brick 
their 




DETAIL BY C. B. J. SNYDER, ARCHITECT. 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Company, Makers. 



The Indian- 
apolis office 

of the Western Brick Company has been removed to the 
I lume-Mansur Building'. 

The Cincinnati agency of the Ohio Mining' & Mann 
facturingr Company has been changed to the Pursell- Grand 
Company, Mercantile Library Building'. The Cleveland 
agency of the same company has been changed to the 
Cleveland Brick Sales Company, Schofield Building. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company has just issued a very 
attractive booklet in which is illustrated an unusually line 
collection of Catholic Church work for which the Atlantic 
Company supplied the architectural terra cotta. 

Full-size designs and models have been prepared for 
King Edward's Memorial, London, by Messrs. Edwin L. 
Lutyens, architect, and Bertram Mackennal, sculptor. 
This work will be placed on the broad walk in the Green 
Park when finally passed upon by the Memorial Committee. 

Considerable interest is being manifested over the 
action of the Board of Education, Los Angeles, Cab. 
inviting' local architects to submit tentative plans for 
organizing an architectural department in the public 
schools. This is surely a step in the right direction. If 
the cardinal principles of pun and construction 

instilled into the young it will enable future generations to 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



know and appreciate the difference between good and bad 
art. It will raise the standard of architecture and be of 
inestimable value to the artistic development of our 
cities- 

The historic building called the I louse of Queen 
Berengere, located in the Quartier du Marais, Paris, 
will, it is reported, soon be taken down, and rebuilt in 
America. This unceasing vandalism according to French 

authorities will soon result in a law giving State supervis- 
ion over all ancient buildings of artistic or historic value. 

Works of ancient art and of the Roman occupation have 
been recently discovered in Tripoli, Africa. The draped 
sculptures date from the fourth century, is. c, and are 
considered as family statues, of more interest is the 
rediscovery of the two tombs at Gargaresch which belong 
to the Roman period. 



COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN 
South Carolina and Georgia 

Edited by CRANE & SODERHOLTZ 

A series of the choicest examples of pure Colonial Architecture 
found in the South. Showing some of the best and most interest- 
ing examples of American Colonial work, many of which have 
now disappeared. 

A collection of 52 plates illustrating exteriors, interiors, and 
numerous details ; entrances, doors (interior and exterior I, mantels, 
halls, staircases, interior trim, mouldings, wrought iron work, 
furniture, etc. 

One volume, portfolio, size I2 :! j' x l6'o inches. 

Price, $10.00 
THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

64 East 12th Street, New York, N. Y. 



For Sale: Long established architectural busi- 
ness ix thriving town in- 16,000. Location, office 
EQUIPMENT, l'i.ANS, ETC. MODEST PRICE. ADDRESS, 

Robert C. Parker, 1A Elm St., Westfield, Mass. 



r 



Architectural Post Cards 

Detailed views of American Architecture. Reproduced by 

the Double Collotype Process. 

More convenient and more durable than photographs. 

10 COMPLETE SERIES 

Send for descriptive circular and sample cards 

Architectural Post Card Co., 5540 Catharine St., Phila. 



BOILERS and RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



^ 



Westfield, Mats. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Enoch Pratt Free Library, Forest Park, Baltimore, Md., Plate 27 
ELLICOTT & Emm ART, Architects 

The Birmingham Ledger Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. Plate 28 

Wm. Leslie Wblton, Architect 

1zuske 6- company jnc 
Iace bricks; establish 
Jure bricksI ed in 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
t< > public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our zeork: 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 

Volume XXI MARCH 1912 Number 3 



PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS £». MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers ... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............ . $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

page j PAGE 

AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS ... II , BRICK ENAMELED Ill and IV 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE .... II BRICK WATERPROOFING .... IV 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA . . II and III KIREPROOFING IV 

BRICK HI ROOFING TILE IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

E. R. BOSSANGE AND BUTLER & RODMAN; FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN; WALTER I'.. 

CHAMBERS; HUGHES & BACKOFF; PARKER, THOMAS & RICE; I). EVERETT 

WAID; GEORGE C. WALES; WARREN & WETMORE. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AI.K 

CHURCH OF NUESTRA SRA. DEL CARMEN, CELAYA, MEXICO Frontispiece 

THE COMPLETE ANGLER OR COMPETITIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN. — III Hubert G . Ripley 63 

HEATING AND VENTILATION OF SCHOOLS. — II (hat Irs L. Hubbard 67 

HOTEL VANDERBILT, NEW YORK CITY, WARREN & WETMORE, ARCHITECTS 71 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. —II H . Van Buren Magonigle 

DISTINGUISHED ARCHITECTURE AS A PRECEDENT. — I C. Howard Walk,, 79 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 83 



NOTICE. — The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 




■j- X 

rf — 

:- . 

- > 

- X. 

2 s 

ID * 

- rf 

c ■- 



THE COMPLETE ANGLER 

OR. COMPETITIONS^ 
ANCIENT AND MODERN 






BY HUBERT G. RIPLEY. 
III. 



FROM the mighty and powerful Empire of Khita, and 
its rich and opulent cities of Carchemich, Kamath, and 
Kadesh, Greece owes the beginnings of its civilization, 
and has drawn inspiration from that source, as well as 
from ancient Egypt. 

In Egypt the all powerful sacerdotal class jealously 
guarded the prerogatives of the architects, outlining their 
codes of ethics, professional practices and rates of commis- 
sion, and it must be conceded that they did the job up 
good. Although embracing all classes and conditions of 
designers and craftsmen, for thousands of years it was 
a close corporation. The work was well done and no 
member of the profession ever thought of overstepping the 
hard and fast rules laid down for their guidance since the 
days of Menes. 

In Carchemich, about 1323 B.C., we learn from a recently 
discovered cuneiform inscription that a number of the 
most eminent Hittite architects who were in the habit of 
lunching each noon together ( where they often lingered as 
late as three o'clock over their nuts and wine) conceived 
the idea of an association for mutual benefit, or sort of 
Gentlemen's Agreement. It seems that a few years pre- 
viously one of their number had won the Theban traveling 
scholarship, and had spent two delightful, delirious years 
en voyage through the great cities of upper, lower, and 
middle Egypt; from the cataracts of Souan to Canopus, 
where the rich, black mud of the Delta (the world's pri- 
mordial slime) deposits its globergerina ooze in the pellucid 
depths of the blue Mediterranean ; now stopping for one 
mad week in the Quartier Latin of Bubastis, where he 
joined the Theban Beaux Arts students in their fantastic- 
revels at the annual festival of Basht or Bastit < revels 
beside which the Quarts Arts Bal Bullier Moulin Rouge 
Folie Bergeres Torbillion would seem like a Sunday school 
picnic, although those affairs were always conducted with 
the utmost decorum), now clambering up over the foliated 
capitols of the Hypostyle Hall of Karnac, with collapsible 
rule and steel tape ; for he was a serious chap and earnest 
student, even if, in his subceasive moments, given to 
frivolity and relaxation, as when gazing through a glass 
darkly at " the sparkling wines in crystal bowls, that 
grease the gudgeons of men's souls.'' 



Well, then, this chap (for the moment his name escapes 
us ; to those of an inquiring mind we would state that as 
written it looked much like the neatly arranged collection 
of dinky little jiggermarandies laid out on the manicure's 
table), who had seen considerable of the world and had 
profited greatly in the enlargement of his ideas and the 
expansion of his horizon, without bursting any buttons on 
his vest, and who was still able to wear the same size derby 
he wore before his foreign trip, — this subject of Khitasir 
spoke so warmly in favor of the project, and held forth so 
entertainingly and eloquently on the advantages to be 
derived by such an association, that it was almost four 
o'clock before the lunch party broke up. 

The editor of the Carchemich Architectural Review and 
Building News (for in Khita we are compelled to admit the 
architectural press was supported largely by advertise- 
ments of manufacturers of building materials) dropped in 
about three o'clock while the discussion was at its height 
and bought a round of cigars. His sympathies were en- 
listed, and he promised to support the new movement with 
trenchant editorials. 

This movement, once started, went on for awhile with 
leaps and bounds ; even a number of the most efficient and 
skilful draftsmen were admitted to the association as junior 
members, that is to say, they had the privilege of attend 
ing the regular meetings and listening to the chin chin, 
but were not eligible to any office and had no voting power. 
The great goddess Nut was the patroness of architei 
and a large altar was erected in her honor on which they 
offered up their unsuccessful competition drawings, mi 
executed projects, etc. One of the very first subjects to 
be considered in their meetings was the regulation <>\ com 

petitions, for it must be conceded by all fair-minded per 
sons who pretend at all to read the cuneiform inscriptions 
fluently, that architectural ethics among the Hittites were 
in a very sad state. 

An incident which occurred only a short time before, 
when the building of a Palestra to Booze at A/.az was in 
contemplation,* shows only too well that their sporting 
instincts were more strongly developed than their ethical 
manners. Half a dozen well-known architects of Kadesh, 

»</. Brugsch Memorabilia Subulata Khililis, vol. CXIX,pp.S3, ll^i. 



6 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




FIG. VIII. 
A corner in the Cafe of Carchemich where the leading Hittite architects used to foregather in their subceasive moments to swap stories, throw fish, 
and generally discuss expetible conditions. Restoration by F. Duban. 



all clever men and keen on the seent of a job, but good 
sportsmen, traveled down on the midnight camel train 
together to look over the ground with the idea of drawing 
up a program and formulating a set of rules for their 

guidance in a limited competition, which was to be held 
for this great modern improvement. 

After a pleasant morning spent on the grounds, during 
which a lot of good-natured joshing was indulged in 

amongst the architects themselves and the different mem- 
bers of the Booze Palestra Building Committee, all hands 
adjourned for lunch to the leading Azaz cafe. As the next 
caravan back to Kadesh did not leave until 4.40, the archi- 
tects began shaking dice for the post-prandial drinks and 
cigars to while away the time, after the Building Com- 
mittee had tfone back to their various offices. 

Suddenly, a bright idea struck one of the bunch a biff 
in the medulla oblongata, and he rose and spake as fol- 
lows : " Say. fellers, why should each one of us waste time, 
draftsmen's wages, stenographers' arles, office rent, kilo- 
watts, materials, etc., on this job, when only one of us can 
annex it? I'd like fine to do it, so would Syrinx, Tho- 
ranx, and all the rest of you chaps, but only one of us can 
have it, and yet the combined expenses of all six in mak- 
ing the competition drawings will somewhat more than 
equal the total commission. You know these countrymen 
arc not educated up to paying more than i\w per cent, and 
the job is not any pipe dream at that, when the architect 
has to pay his own traveling expenses. Ik-sides, the suc- 
cessful man will have to pay Bunk five hundred simoleons 



for a near water color perspective on linoleum, just to 
show these jays how their concinnous old Palestra isn't 
goin.c' to look. I'll tell you what let's do, let's shake for it, 
horse and horse, best three out of five, one man out each 
time." 

Now, as they all had had cocktails to start on, ale with 
their lunch, and innumerable amphikypclla and skyphoi of 
arrack with their coffee and cigarettes afterwards, they 
were pretty well lighted up, " their sallow cheeks incarna- 
dine," overflowing with good spirits and love for their 
fellow men, and with one accord they hailed the proposi- 
tion with shouts of joy, just as, a few centuries later, the 
Greeks under Odysseus hailed the first sun-glint on the 
wavelets of the sea. 

History does not tell us the result of this memorable 
sporting event; on this point we have searched in vain, 
cuneiform inscription after cuneiform inscription ; the 
daughters of Mnemosyne arc dumb regarding it and we 
can but vainly conjecture its outcome and incident details. 
We do know, however, that of all the exquisite and beau 
tiful Palestra; that antiquity has j^iven us, that of Booze 
is the least interesting and worths'. There is a perfunc- 
tory look about it. an unstudied grace and lack of charm, 
qualities that would undoubtedly have been evident had 
the job gone in competition. 

Before the Hittites were able, through the medium of 
their architectural societies, to standardize and regulate 
the practice of their architectural competitions, tOget right 
down to the shiny brass tacks of accuracy, precision, and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



65 




exactitude such as ob- 
tained in the earlier 
civilizations, their 
empire came to an 
untimely end. This 
was a great pity, for 
in spite of the many 
lacunae that exist, the 
glimpses we are able 
to observe here and 
there of their culture, 
vigor, and exuberant 
spirits proclaim them 
a most sympathetic- 
race. Indeed, from 
them the G reeks 
learned to practise art 
as the pursuit and the 
production of the 
ideally beautiful, and 
the slogan " Art for 
Art's Sake ' ' is derived 
direct from ancient 
Khita. 

Not that we would 
unbend for a minute 
in our attitude regard- 
ing the ancient Egyp- 
tians, or swerve one 
hair's breadth from 
our firm allegiance to 
the underlying princi- 
ples which governed 
Egyptian art ; still one 
must admit the charm, 
the ambrosial allure, 
the intoxicating fragor 
of drosomell and 
cccubum that per- 
vades even the most 
ephemeral produc- 
tions of the Hellenic 
mind. The Egyptian 
" loved beauty as 
found in nature, his 
spirit demanded such 
beauty in his home 
and his surroundings. 
The lotus blossomed 
on the handle of his 
spoon, and his wine 

sparkled in the deep blue calyx of the same flower ; the 
muscular limb of the ox in carved ivory upheld the couch 
upon which he slept ; the ceiling over his head was a starry 
heaven resting upon palm trunks, each crowned with its 
graceful tuft of drooping foliage ; or papyrus-stems rose 
from the floor to support the azure roof upon their swaying 
blossoms ; doves and butterflies drifted across his indoor 
sky ; his floors were frescoed with the opulent green of rich 
marsh-grasses, with fish gliding among their roots, where 
the wild ox tossed his head at the birds twittering on the 
swaying grass-tops, as they strove in vain to drive away 
the stealthy weasel creeping up to plunder their nests. 



tig. ix. 

Angle of the yvuvaaia in the Palestra of Booze at Azaz as restored by M. Escalier. 
It is to be noted that in spite of the fact that the funds at the disposal of the Building 
Committee did not permit of carrying out the entire building in masonry as originally 
planned and shown on the competition drawings (a situation that sometimes arises 
even now in this advanced and enlightened age), yet see with what matchless grace and 
superlative charm this difficulty has been conquered. 



Everywhere the ob- 
jects of everyday life, 

in the homes of the 
rich, showed uncon- 
scious beauty of line 
and fine balance of 
proportion, while the 
beauty of nature and 
the outdoor life, which 
spoke to the beholder 
in the decoration on 
every hand, lent a cer- 
tain distinction even 
to the most common- 
place objects. The 
Egyptian thus sought 
to beautify and to 
make beautiful all ob- 
jects of utility, but all 
such objects served 
some practical use. 
He was not inclined 
to make a beautiful 
thing solely for its 
beautj — the practical 
dominated."' 

The peevish and 
carping critic may ask 
what in thunder has 
all this to do with com- 
petitions, and we 
reply, let him carp and 
peeve all he wants to, 
for unless a thorough 
understanding is pos- 
sessed of the primary 
and essential rudi- 
ments, the test borings 
as one might say, all 
careful! y recorded, 
checked and totted up, 
the most painstaking 
a n d a c c u r a t c 1 y 
planned superstruc- 
ture falls to the ground 
with a dull sickening 

thud before even the 
workmen have fin 

ished laying the tar 

and gravel roof with 
asphalt pouring ( into 
beach gravel shall be 



which, while hot, clean white 
imbedded ). 

Tt was from the Egyptians that the Greeks learned the 
use of the colonnade, thus solving "the fundamental prob 
1cm of great architecture." In a great variety of ways 
was the colonnade used, and the many examples testify to 
a number of distinct and beautiful styles, all executed with 
exquisite and refined taste and great mechanical skill. 
What would competitions nowadays be without the colon 
nade ? We pause for a reply. The great competitions of 
six thousand years ago were won on the colonnade just as 
• Breasted, Hist. Egypt, p. K>2. 



66 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



were the competitions of last year, and presumably next 
year, and, we dare say, six thousand years hence. Every 
once in a while, for a longer or shorter period, architects 
seem to forget all about the colonnade, and the arch is put 
through various stunts, or flat unbroken wall surfaces hold 
their short-lived sway, or maybe great hulking cornices 
shut out the glad sunshine which strives in vain to pierce 
the deep canyons of our city streets. Then some brilliant 
genius "discovers" the colonnade again and immediately 
everybody is hot after them. 

The Creeks were past masters of the colonnade and 
could make them sit up and beg, and lie down and roll 
over, and would calmly reproduce practically the same 
peristyle in building after building without knocking wood. 
They also knew all about arehes and domes and even con- 
descended to show the Romans how to do them up to the 
Queen's taste, still they did not care much for them them- 
selves, and while some of the minor Greek architects, like 
Zenothemis and Laches, frequently indicated arches and 
domes in their competition drawings they never got higher 
than second or third place, and had accumulated a choice and 
exotic collection of " vestes " and "'ours." Indeed, Zeno- 
themis became awfully discouraged about his office, his 
practice dwindled down to a mere nothing, and he was tip 
against it hard to make 
a living. He took up 
writing instead and in 
time developed quite a 
style and did very well, 
they say. Laches was 
more fortunate, how- 
ever, and hearing that 
there was to be a big 
competition for the fin- 
ishing of the Colossus 
of Rhodes, he wrote a 
very smooth and care- 
fully worded letter to the 
chairman of the building 
committee (who, by the 
way, used to be stuck <>n 
Laches' kid sister and 
never quite got over 
being dippy about her), 
got invited into the com- 
petition, and, as there 
was no special oppor- 
tunity to use arches or 
domes in a colossal 
statue, won first prize 
and actually completed 
the work begun by 
Chares. 

Laches was tickled 
pink over the outcome 
of this the first competi- 
tion he had ever won, 
and hastily sending mes- 
sengers to a number of 
his fellow competitors, 
he invited them to join 
him in an informal 
dinner in celebration of 




PIG. x. 

Unsuccessful design for the Colossus of Rhodes by Ephialtes of Cos, a visionary arch- 
itect with strong modern tendencies. One can readily see how inferior his idea was 
to the statue as actually carried out, which is too well known to need illustration. 



the event. Now a little dinner among the old Creek 
architects was something of an occasion in a quiet sort of 
a way and deserves passing mention. 

Among those present were Heliodorus, whose treatise on 
tombs is still recognized as the last word on that subject, 
Callicrates, the miniature sculptor, who carved ivory ants 
and other insects so small they could scarcely be seen, but 
who thought for a change he would like to try his hand on 
something big, Androbius the painter, a great friend of 
Laches, Apollodorus, the elder, grandfather of the archi- 
tect of the same name who built Trajan's bridge across the 
Danube, Luthycrates the sculptor, and several others of 
lesser note. At that date elaborate and stupendous ban- 
quets were not in vogue and the meal was simple, choice, 
and deliriously cooked. Fish, the great brain food, 
was the piece de resistance of the dinner, preceded by 
thinly sliced sections of smoked sausages, pickled ancho- 
vies, and oysters. The celebrated Copaic eels were then 
passed around and washed down with generous drafts 
of Chian wine. 

The symposium which followed this particular dinner 
was chiefly important in that the discussion developed a 
strong sympathetic feeling among all those present for 
ideally conducted competitions, and while there were some 

heartburnings and a 
slight undercurrent of 
envy among certain of 
the unsuccessful com- 
petitors, on the whole 
this little dinner did a 
lot to promote good 
feeling and a generous 
spirit of friendly emula- 
tion among the profes- 
sion at large. While 
the Creek architects as 
a body for a number 
of generations had 
worked in harmony with 
each other, and not 
one whisper had ever 
been raised against 
their ethics during the 
great epoch of Hellenic 
Art, this was in great 
measure due to the fact 
that the public at large 
was highly organized 
and educated in the 
p u rest e s t h e t i C 
principles. 

Without this com- 
munity of interests, no 
art or profession can be 
on a healthy, firm, and 
lasting basis, while with 
it we may hope to see 
architecture take her 
rightful place in that 
fair sisterhood of 
sciences that forms 
the radiomatrix of 
human endeavor. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Heating and Ventilation of Schools. — II. 



6 7 



CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



Gierop 



r /ftArmt 



//>%'> Am***, >r,\s >p 




HOTAI& 



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P/T 
MAIM DUCT 



WHILE much of the heating- and ventilating appara- 
tus for a large school building is the same as for 
a church or hall of equal importance, the arrangement is 
different and the methods of computation are varied some- 
what for convenient use. The first step in the design of 
a system of this kind is to determine the air volume. 
Although the 

State laWS re- *<'«<''{&'(«««*'<*■«■<■<■' ff<-rSf<-fS*'SS'{r's~'rsS's,,,sy-ssss~~., - , - , . 

quire only 30 
cubic feet per 
pupil per hour, 
it is usually best 
to proportion 
the apparatus 
so that 50 cubic 
feet may be sup- 
plied in large 
grammar and 
high schools. It 
is an easy matter 
to cut this down 

in very cold weather, and 50 cubic feet per pupil will not 
prove too much in mild or heavy weather, at which time the 
added expense will not be a large item. This applies espe- 
cially to class rooms, teachers' rooms, offices, etc. For 
basement play-rooms, assembly halls, etc., which are not 
occupied continuously for any great length of time, except 
on special occasions, a smaller air volume will suffice. 
The supply to play-rooms, and to others where the number 
of occupants is variable, is usually based upon a certain 
number of changes of the entire contents per hour, 
which under ordinary conditions may be taken as four to 
six. In assembly halls an air supply of 20 to 25 cubic 
feet per occupant per minute should be provided for. 
If the exact seating capacity has not been determined 
upon at the time the flues are worked out, it will be suffi- 
ciently accurate to count upon one occupant to each 15 
square feet of floor space, which allows for aisles, plat- 
form, etc. Having determined the volume of air to be 
supplied, the 
next step is to 
provide a suit- 
able intake and 
to consider the 
advisability of a 
filter or washer. 
If the building 
is located in an 
open space and 
is surrounded by 
a lawn of fair 
dimensions, the 

air may usually be taken in through basement windows of 
the proper size, without any special provision for filtering 
or washing. 

In the case of city schools, taking air directly from paved 
or macadamized streets, the intake should be at a sufficient 
elevation to avoid surface dirt, and if the atmosphere is 
likely to contain soot in any quantity, a filter or washer 



•^-^^^^^-' - - ' * t '. 



V 7 ^. 



should also be provided. Dry filters may answer the pur- 
pose if made of sufficient area and cleaned at frequent 
intervals, but the wet filter or washer is much to be pre- 
ferred on account of its greater efficiency and the case of 
keeping it in good condition. In addition to this, it may 
be made to serve as a humidifier, and also has a certain 
cooling capacity, which is often of con- 
siderable value during the hot days of 
June and September. If a dry filter is 
used, the overall surface for the pas- 
sage of air should be such that the 
velocity will not exceed about 80 feet 
per minute. 

The centrifugal or steel plate fan is 
best adapted to this class of work on 
account of operating at a higher pres- 
sure than the disk or propeller fan. 
The best results are obtained when the 
casing has inlets in both sides and the 
fan is placed in a room of such size that 
the air may freely enter both inlets. 
A table of capacities and speeds of centrifugal fans has 
already been given in a previous article, but for con- 
venience this will be repeated, with the addition of a 
fourth column giving the horse-power of engine or motor 
for driving the fan at the given speed. 

TABLE I. 



j-sssssfc : 




FIG. XII. 



Diameter of 


Revolutions per 


Cubic Feet of Air 


Horse-power to 


Fan. 


Minute. 


Delivered. 


Drive Fan. 


3 ft. 


300 


4,200 


2 


4 ft. 


250 


8,200 


4 


5 ft. 


225 


14,000 


6 


6 ft. 


200 


20,800 


10 


7 ft. 


175 


27,600 


14 


8 ft. 


150 


36,400 


20 


9 ft. 


125 


43,200 


25 


10 ft. 


100 


48,000 


28 




S//SSS/S//SS - 



H 






, .-■ -■• . , <- f '■■>''■'■*,* 



>>>>>>>>>>>,' 



FIG. XIII. 



The casings of fans are made in different forms to suit 
various conditions. That shown in Fig. XII has a three- 
quarter housing with bottom hori- 
zontal discharge. This type is es- 
pecially adapted to cases where un- 
derground ducts are used, also to low 
basements, and where the form of 
heater shown in Fig. XII is used. 

Three-quarter housing fans are 
also made for discharging the air at 
the top at different angles. A full 
housed fan, with up angular discharge, 
is shown in Fig. XIII. This form is 
commonly used where the distribu- 
ting duets are carried at the ceiling. 
Fans of the size employed in this class of work require a 
solid foundation of brick or concrete, extending from 12 
to 20 inches below the basement floor, depending upon 
their size. 

Fans for schoolhouse ventilation are commonly driven 
by steam engines on account of the greater eC( >n< >my . The 
power required is comparatively small, and if the exhaust 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



t 



. . . — — «i— 



', it 



( — n 



GOZJUJJO& 



AIJZ DUCT 






steam is condensed in the heating coil, the cost of opera- 
tion may be practically neglected. Some of the large city 
schools are equipped with their own lighting plant, in 
which case it is usually more 
convenient to operate all venti- 
lating fans by electric motors, 
and if the exhaust from the 
engines is used for heating, it 
will probably be no more ex- 
pensive, as the electrical loss 
in transmission and conversion 
will be largely offset by the 
higher mechanical efficiency of 
the engine. 

Both belted and direct -con 
nected engines are used for fan 
driving. In either case great 
care must be taken to eliminate 

all noises, else they will be carried to the rooms above 
through the air-ways. When electric motors are used 
it is best to employ the direct current, if possible, as 
this makes it practicable to use a slow-speed motor directlj 
connected to the fan shaft, and also allows of a consider- 
able speed variation 
without excessive loss 
of power. The size of 
the cold-air inlet is based 
on a velocity of 800 to 
1,000 feet per minute; 
the higher velocity being 
allowed when the inlet 
windows open directly 
into the cold-air room. 
The area of the distribu- 
ting ducts is also based 
on the velocity of air- 
flow through them. For 
the main trunk lines 
near the fan a velocity 
of 1,000 to 1,200 feet 
per minute may be 
allowed, which should be reduced to Too or 800 feet, 
where the smaller branches connect with the uptake Hues. 
The distributing ducts are carried both underground and 
at the basement ceiling, the former arrangement being 
employed when the basement rooms are used as class 
rooms or for similar purposes, and it is desirable to keep 
the ceilings clear on account of the appearance. 

Underground ducts arc now commonly constructed en- 
tirely of concrete, although brick side walls are sometimes 
used. 

They should be made with smooth interior and the 
branches should be given easy bends where they connect 
with the mains. Overhead ducts are usually of galva- 
nized iron, except where the upper parts of corridors are 
Utilized for trunk lines by the use of false ceilings. The 
sizes of mains and branches should be proportioned accord- 
ing to the assumed velocity and the volume of air to be 
carried. In addition to this, adjustable deflectors should 
be placed at the junction of all ducts, as shown in Fig. XIV 
for carefully proportioning the air-flow to all parts of the 
system. 

A method often employed to advantage is shown in 




fAL5£ -CE/LJ/VG 



£A3£M£NT 
CQZKU30Z 



■A 



J^r 



PIG. xv. 



Fig. XV, where the main trunk lines are formed by using 
a false ceiling in the upper part of the basement corridors. 
Plastered walls and ceiling may form the duct, without 

other lining, provided the 
plaster is on brick or wire 
lathing. 

The supply uptakes may be 
based on a velocity of 600 to 
700 feet per minute, the higher 
velocity being for flues of large 
size. This calls for approxi- 
mately ,i'j square feet area for 
a standard class room, which 
has been found to work well 
in practice. The inlets to the 
rooms should be of such size 
that the velocity will not ex- 
ceed 400 feet per minute over 
the gross area, and galvanized iron deflectors should be 
used to spread the air as it enters the rooms, thus pre- 
venting unpleasant drafts. The general arrangement of 
the flues may be the same as shown for gravity heat 
ing, except they will, of course, be duplicated many 
times, depending upon the size of the building. When 
the corridor ducts are used, as in Fig. XV, the flues arc- 
carried up alone; the corridor walls to the rooms above. 
This arrangement will work very well, provided the vent 
flues are placed along the same wall. The flues in large 
buildings of the type under consideration are more com- 
monly of galvanized iron, as they require less room and 
are easier to construct than when of brick. 

Two general 
types of main or 
primary heaters 
are used at the fan 
for warming the 
entering air for 
ventilating pu r- 
poses. These are 
made up of pin 
radiator sections, 
and of wrought - 
iron pipes respec- 
tively. Fig. XII 
shows a common 
form of cast-iron 
h e a t e r a n d t h e 
method of draw- 
ing air through 
it. It is supported 
from 1 to 3 feet 
from the ceiling, 
with a brick wall 
and by-pass dam- 
per at one side 
and a galvanized iron stop at the other. The general 
path of the air from the inlet windows to the fan is indi- 
cated by the arrows. Another arrangement for a cast-iron 
heater is shown in Fig. XIII. In this case the air is 
drawn upward through the heater instead of downward, 
and temperature regulation is secured by means of a 
double mixing-damper as shown. The pipe heaters com- 
monly used consist of vertical 1-inch wrought-iron pipes 



f ■■ — ^_-_i — ^-_ 



mw 



1 ffftATOZ 



rA, 

4= 



> 



-AI& DUCT 



f&JER,^ 



3LCT/OA/AL tLtVATION 



/f£A%tt 



FIG. 



HhArfiZ. 



A/Jc&OCT 
PLAN 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



69 



screwed into cast-iron bases, and connected at the tops to 

secure a proper circulation of steam through them. A 

heater used in this way for raising" the temperature of air 

from 0° to 70° or 75° will easily have 

an efficiency of 1,500 heat units per 

square foot of surface per hour. 

This calls for approximately 60 

square feet of radiating surface in 

the main heater for each 1,000 cubic 

feet of air per minute to be supplied 

for ventilation. 

There are several different com- 
binations in use for heating and 
ventilating" a building of this kind. 
The conditions are evidently dif- 
ferent from a church or hall be- 
cause it consists of a large number 
of comparatively small rooms with 
varying" exposures instead of a single 
large one. This makes it necessary 
to keep the ventilating system sepa- 
rate from the heating and to provide 
a special radiator for each room to 
replace the heat lost by leakage and 
transmission. In some cases this 
is accomplished by placing indirect 
or secondary heaters in the air-ways 
leading to each room, and in others 
by the use of direct radiators and 
coils in the rooms themselves. The 

double-duct system, so called, is sometimes used, but not 
so much as formerly. This consists of primary and second- 
ary heaters at the fan of sufficient capacity to provide for 
the whole building. The air is heated to about 60° or 65° 
by passing through the primary 
heater, and a portion, from two-fifths 
to one-half, is heated to a consider- 
ably higher temperature by means 
of the secondary heater. Air at 
these two temperatures is carried 
to the bases of the flues in separate 
ducts, and there mixed in such pro- 
portions as to give the required tem- 
peratures in the different rooms. 
Fig. XVI shows a common method 
of arranging a group of four flues, 
with their secondary heaters. A 
plan is given at the bottom of the 
cut and a sectional elevation at the 
top. The air is discharged into a 
common chamber beneath the four 
heaters, from which it finds its wax- 
upward to the flues as indicated by 
the arrows. The right proportion 
to each flue is governed by adjust- 
ing dampers as shown. Tempera- 
ture regulation is secured by means 
of mixing-dampers at the heaters, 
operated from the rooms above. 

Another arrangement is shown in Pig. XVII, in which 
the mixing-dampers are omitted and temperature regula- 
tion secured by means of pneumatic steam valves upon 
the radiators, the same being operated automatically by 




FIG. XVII. 




PLZNW1 CffAMEZR 
fAN J7/JC /MJZGJ& 



PLAN 




FIG. XVIII. 



thermostats placed in the rooms. The ends of the heaters 
are placed directly beneath the bottoms of the flues, and 
the air volume to each is regulated by deflectors in the 
supply ducts, as shown in plan at 
the bottom of the cut. In practice 
the duct work would be more com- 
pact than indicated, it being spread 
out here in order to illustrate the 
principle to be followed. Another 
plan sometimes resorted to in build- 
ings which are not too extended is 
shown in Fig". XVIII. In this case 
all of the secondary heaters are 
placed in a room connecting with 
the fan discharge, and called a 
plenum chamber. From here a 
separate duct is carried from each 
heater to its respective room. 
Temperature regulation is secured 
either by means of a mixing-damper, 
as shown in the sectional elevation 
at the bottom of the cut, or by the 
use of pneumatic valves as already 
described . 

The advantage of this arrange- 
ment is that all of the heaters are 
located together in a room where 
they are easily accessible for inspec- 
tion and repairs. On the other hand, 
the construction is more expensive 
on account of the separate ducts. The indirect or second- 
ary heaters used in the way described may be propor- 
tioned by allowing 1 square foot of radiating surface for 
each 20 square feet of wall, and the same amount for 
each 5 square feet of glass. This 
is for rooms with a southerly expo- 
sure ; for a northerly exposure, in 
crease the result thirty per cent. 
The best form of direct radiation for 
class rooms is the circulation coil, 
usually of 1'4-inch pipe, placed 
along the outer wall beneath the 
windows. This distributes the heat 
where needed and is better than 
concentrating the heat at one or 
two points, as is done when cast- 
iron radiators are used. For the 
smaller rooms, sectional or wall 
radiators may be used, according to 
the amount of surface required, 
Basement rooms are usually warmed 
by overhead coils of L#-inch pipe, 
on account of keeping them well 
above the water-line in the boilers 
or the seal in the returns when a 
pump and receiver are used. 

Direct coils in buildings of aver- 
age construction may be propor- 
tioned on a basis of 1 square loot of 
radiating surface for each 10 square feel of wall, and the 

same amount for each 4 square feet of glass. For northerly 

rooms increase this thirty per cent. Cast-iron radiators are 
not so efficient as wall coils, and the ratios 1 to 8 for wall, 






cILCT/OAAL 

£L£VATION 



7 o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



-JrLQt 



and 1 to 3 for glass should be used for southerly rooms, 
with an increase for northerly exposures as above stated. 
Foot-warmers and corridor warming may be the same as 
for gravity heating, except the 
number should be increased 
according to the size of the 
building. A large high school 
should have from four to six 
foot-warmers of 100 to 125 
square feet of indirect radiating 
surface each. The boiler horse- 
power may be found by multi- 
plying the square feet of radia- 
tion in the main heater at the 
fan by 1,500; the secondary 
heaters by 4(M> ; direct pipe coils 
by 300; cast-iron radiators by 

250; adding the results, and FIG. xix. 

dividing by 30,000. This may 
be expressed in a formula, as follows: 

(M X 1.500) + (S X 400) + (C X 300) + (R X 25m 



K 



^rszzi i 



=h 



DICTION 



JA/LZT 



f-JZOMT £L£VATJOJV 



30, (inn 



H.-P.= 

in which, 

II. -P. = horse-power of boilers. 

M = square feet of surface in main heater. 

S = ,, ,, ,. ,, .. secondary heaters. 

C = ,, ,, ,, ,, direct pipe coils. 

R= ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, cast-iron radiators. 

Horizontal tubular boilers are used in this class of work 
more than any other, although water-tube boilers of the 
power type are employed in very large buildings, especially 
where a lighting plant is included in the equipment. 

The vent outlets from the rooms are usually- covered 
with a metal grille or register face, and always when the 
flue is connected with rooms on different floors. When 
separate Hues are used for each room, starting from the 
flooT level, the arrangement shown in Fig. XIX is very 
desirable. In this case no grilles are used, the baseboard 
is carried around the bottom of the Hue, and the floor 
extended to the hack side as indicated in the section. This 
makes the accumulation of dirt impossible, as the bottom 
of the flue is cleaned every time the floor of the room is 
swept. Vent flues without grilles are commonly connected 
with one or more large chambers in the attic by means of 
horizontal ducts as shown in Fig. XX. In arrangements of 
this kind air-checks should be pro- 
vided to prevent back-drafts into the 
rooms, especially at night when the 
fan is not in operation. The checks 
are made up of cloth (laps strung on 
light rods and wired to wire screens. 
When individual brick flues arc used, 
the air-checks may be placed back 
of the grilles at the room outlets. 
Main outboard vent shafts starting 
at the attic level should be provided 
with a water-tight pan at the bottom 
having a drain connection with the 
sewer as indicated in Fie/. XX. 
Dampers should also be placed in the 

shaft near the top for night closing, or at such other times 
as ventilation is not required. 

The type of damper will depend upon its size. For small 



X 



• 



AAMP££- 



RjQO/^ 



1 



LOOVRI: HAMPER. 

n iVi \n\n 



, k k k k \ k 

1 1 m 1 1 



\fVLL CHAIN 



FIG. XXI. 



and medium flues the common " butterfly " damper pivoted 
at the center is generally used. For larger sizes the 
damper may be made in two parts as in Fig. XX. 

For the largest flues the 
louvre damper gives the best 
satisfaction. This is shown in 
Fig. XXI, and consists of a 
number of sections pivoted to 
angle-iron cross pieces at the 
sides of the flue. 

The pivot of each section is 
attached to a "side bar" by 
means of a bell crank, so that a 
single movement of this bar will 
operate all of the sections. The 
damper shown in cut is closed by 
the action of a weight and opened 
by means of a pull chain. 

( )neof the best methods of ven- 
tilating the main toilets is to connect the local fixture vents 
with closed chambers at the back of the closets and urinals, 

and these in 
turn w i t h 
heated flues 

extending to 

the top of the 
building. 

The boiler 
stack may be 
used for heat- 
ing the flue 
d ur in g t h e 
heating sea- 
son, but it is 
well to pro- 
vide an elec- 
tric fan, on a 
by-pass, for 
use in sum- 
mer and early 
fall when the 
boilers are 
not in use. 
Chemical hoods in large buildings are best ventilated by 
means of a fan. The connecting ducts are usually of glazed 
tile and the fan blades should be of 
copper or the whole construction 
coated with some non-corrosive mate- 
rial. Buildings of the type under 
consideration should always be pro- 
vided with a system of automatic 
temperature control. The main heater 
should be divided into valved sections 
for rough hand regulation, with one 
section, or a by-pass damper, con- 
trolled automatically by a hot-air 
thermostat in the main air-way beyond 
the fan. Secondary heaters may be 
either provided with pneumatic valves 
or mixing dampers, controlled by 
thermostats in the rooms with which they connect. Direct 
radiation in the rooms is provided with pneumatic valves 
operated in a similar manner. 




PAN 



JJRMN 



FIG. XX. 



1 



WUGMT 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



7i 



Hotel Vanderbilt, New York. 

WARREN & WETMORE, ARCHITECTS. 



PERHAPS more than any other semi-public building in 
New York does this remarkable hotel stand for moder- 
nity in the realm of architecture. The word modernity 
expresses it exactly in the light of the modern spirit which 
requires of our buildings a feeling of lightness, cheerful- 
ness, and brightness, and which looks askance at those 
which oppress by virtue of their seriousness and heaviness. 

The prominence in this 
city of Great Towers to 
this last evidence of the 
skilful handling of a big 
problem is due perhaps 
more than a little to the 
pleasing manner in which 
the architects have used 
everyday material. So 
adroitly and skilfully has 
this been accomplished 
that the question of price 
or of stern economy does 
not in any way appear to 
the lay mind. Yet that it 
has received no little study 
is evident to the profes- 
sional brethren. 

Perhaps the most stim- 
ulating accent to this in- 
teresting building is the 
skyline, the coronet, as it 
were, upon a smiling face 
which appears at night 
bravely with electric lights 
as jewels and which is 
equally important by day. 
Of course the material 
used is terra cotta, glazed, 
— so adaptable for anchor- 
ing to the steel frame, 
modeled in relief, at times 
high and again low, with 
the drawing forced a little 
by the introduction of a 
darker tone to the ground. 
This coronet is worthy of 
considerable study and in- 
vites thought. It is of 
a very light buff shade. 
It is not enough to say 
that it is Oriental in spirit, 
that much of the detail 
and composition is doubt- 
less due to the enthusi- 
asm of the Moors whose conceptions of classical ideals are 
to-day to be seen in Renaissance Spain and the northern 
portion of Italy, because into this composition a whole host 
of other things appear. Look for instance at the way in 
which the windows are arranged, at the relation between 
the ornament of the bands and the brickwork, which at 
times is of buff; examine — and it is easy to do it even 




from the sidewalk — the relation between the enriched 
borders and the broad bands or breathing-spaces, so-called, 
that divide up and compensate for the lack of projection 
and heavy shadows, which too frequently are found in the 
upper parts of our buildings. It is many years since the 
world saw just this particular form of outline, this naive 
presentation of the head and shoulders of a figure crowning 

a pilaster. Examine — 
and it will pay any one to 
do so — the excellent 
drawing and balance of 
the enrichment to the win- 
dow-heads, of tile pilasters 
and their caps and of the 
balconies ; noting how the 
color of the main walling 
is used to force at times 
the outline and suggest 
shadow and emphasis. 
T h e s e windo w s a re 
grouped together sym- 
pathetically so that they 
count as an arcade, ex- 
tending round the entire 
building ; indeed in a way 
as much study has appar- 
ently been given to the 
rear as to the front of the 
building, the main differ- 
ences being more of detail 
than of mass, for of course 
some simplification has 
been entailed on the 
ground of cost. The 
arching -over between 
the arcadings, uniting 
the wings, is skilful in the 
extreme, and while the 
detail is small it is very 
distinct. The ornament 
is buff upon gray ground, 
which is bound to tell 
even in a dull day and at 
considerable distance. 

( )f the main walling, it 
is surely not enough to 
describe it as of brick 
coated gray in tone with 
gray mortar, because 
when I lie sun shines 
upon it and its semi- 
transparent humanizing 
tone makes it in a way resemble more the rich plume 
of the grape before it is handled, so rich is the color 

that we are tempted to feel that the architects have 

changed their palette every few feet. For instance, in 
the laying of this brick much skill and ingenuity has 
gone. The rear wallingS to the courts have headers 
which bear upon their surface a light tone, and form, 



72 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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THE BRICK BUI LDER 



73 



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74 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 



as it were, lighter accents to (compensate for the shadows 

which are there most of the daw These headers of 
gray appear in unexpected places, at the outlining of the 
main pilasters springing from the granite base, round the 
tanlike motifs of the main window bor- 

ders, and round the IP^H small medallions 

which, doubtless, are ■ /j4fl prompted more or 




PANEL BETWEEN WINDOWS AT 6TH FLOOR. 

less by the refining modeling of the Adams Brothers 
and their school. These headers with their light gray 
tone also accent and compensate for the lack of projection 
to the pilasters, and they bring, as it were, a sort of half- 
way contrasting tone to the terra cotta itself, showing a 
naive comradeship of material in a way that is very pleas- 
ing. Every visitor to the 
hotel is compelled to ex- 
amine the window-heads in 
the lower story. The de- 
tail invites ; it is of a scale 
unusual in buildings of this 
importance and magnitude, 
but so well have the broad 
spaces been studied that 
w h i 1 c t h e 




have evidently concerned themselves 
with a fundamental point : how to 
add interest to a tall building by 
slightly sloping the outline so that 
it falls away towards the top. This 
is wise. The cornice and entabla- 
ture to the lower section shows very 

well how responsive the 

terra cotta is to a subtle out- 
line. Note, for instance, the 

cove with its enrichment in 

two tones of buff with a gray 

-round, the way in which 

the bosses and rosettes are 

accented and the flatness of 

the caps to the pilasters, and 

the subtlety of the arabesque 

panels which form a band 
between them. Note again 
how light all this ornament 
appears, and yet how big it 

is in conception. The frieze 
or entablature is almost de- 
void of ornament or accent 
or projection. It owes its interest 
to a change of texture and to a sub- 
tlety of glaze and contrast to color 
of brickwork. Can anything be 
more delightful than the small circu- 
lar medallions which are as smooth 
as a cameo, as idealistic and yet as 
permanent as though cut from a 
shell ? 

There are a whole host of things that persuade the 
writer to name, the unusual size and detail of the marquee, 
which siums the sidewalk and shelters the visitor to the 
front entrance. This again is delightfully free from an> 
ornament; the ironwork counts as a skeleton rib and yet 
panels the c,iass surface admirably. Of the inside, the 



DETAIL 
AT 19TH STORY. 



d e tail 
s m a 1 1 
itself 



1 s 
i n 
it 



gains dig- 
nity a n d 
importance 

because it 
maintains 
a certain 
definite 
well -deter- 
mined tone. 

It is not frittered away : it 
is what might be termed a 
big idea facetiously de- 
tailed so that its very 
inches interest. This is the type of work which made the 
conceptions of the Georgian period in England so very 

welcome. 

The main wall is not straight, but it curves slightly, or, 
to use a technical term, it appears to batter, having two off- 
sets in its total height. This is secured by the use of bricks 




HERMES FIGURE 

AT TOP Or 15UILDING. 



BALCONY DETAIL AT ZUTH STORY. 

first thing the visitor notices is the spirit of cheerfulness 
which pervades the whole of the lower floor, which by the 
way is some two hundred feet Ion-', free of any belittling 
wallings, the idea of the building being maintained 
throughout ; that the walls are but Strong piers well 
placed, well studied, and existing only where necessity 
demands. This lower flooring is arched, and the arches 
are flat, elliptic, sprin.cine; from the piers without cap or 
moulding of any kind. 

The hotel in its entirety is a pleasing example of the 



on edge moulded to an ogee outline. Here the architects artistic and practical qualities of architectural terra cotta. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 3. PLATE 29. 




THE BRI CKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 3. PLATE 30. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 31. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 32. 







ty I 




1 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 33. 









HOUSE AT 
PRIDES CROSSING, 
MASS. ■ 




George C. Wales 

Architect. 




DINING ROOM. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 34. 




RECEPTION ROOM. 



THE BRI C KBU ILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 35 




UPPER AND LOWER STORIES, HOTEL VANDERBILT, NEW YORK CITY. 

WARPEN & WETMORE ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 3. PLATE 36. 




HOTEL VANDERBILT, NEW YORK CITY. 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 37. 





HOUSE AT BEVERLY FARMS, MASS. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 38. 




r/£sr rioo/? pm/v 

sc*L£ ■ ■ ■ ' . t /-a: 




r - - -J 






■stcorfD nooe PM. V 




HOUSE AT BEVERLY FARMS, MASS. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 3. PLATE 39> 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 3. PLATE 40. 




VIEWS OF STABLE AND TERRACE 

HOUSE AT BEVERLY FARMS, MASS. 

Parker, Thomas & Rice, 

Architects. 



PLAN Or GAJ&G£ AND SJA5LL 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 3. PLATE 41. 




CC 

UJ t 

z x 

h < 

< it 

£ < 

~> LU 

f- = 

co i 
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CC 

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THE B R I C K\B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 21. NO. 3. PLATE 42. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Commemorative Monuments. II. 



75 



II. VAX BUREN MAGONIGLE. 



IN the previous article we discussed general questions of 
site and setting', and of design as affected by them ; in 
this and succeeding ones it is proposed to give examples 
of many types of Memorials upon which the reader must 
supply the chief commentary ; happy the critic who, not 
engaged in the active practice of an art, can joyously jump 
upon anything that does not please his fancy ; but only a 
practitioner of superhuman tact can belabor the work of a 
contemporary without inflicting wounds upon that most 
sensitive portion of a brother artist — his amour-propre ; 
and that practitioner has not yet appeared over his own 
signature. But after a certain lapse of time, whether the 
author be living or dead, the work becomes impersonal ; 
it has cooled off sufficiently, as it were, for any impious 
hand to touch it. Let us, however, move delicately in 
this perilous task. 

It is our plan to commence with those monuments in 
which sculpture plays the more 
important role, taking first the 
single statue, then the more 
complicated sculptural composi- 
tions, and afterward those in 
which architecture is dominant, 
as in the column, the arch or 
the tomb, although the privilege 
is reserved of departing from 
this classification at any moment. 

Because it illustrates perfectly 
a number of principles too often 
neglected, we choose to begin 
with the little statue of Jeanne 
d'Arc in front of the Hotel de 
Ville at Orleans ; it is beautifully 
studied in relation to the archi- 
tecture around and behind it ; 
the richness of the Gothic tracery 
in the balustrade is an excellent 
foil for the simple treatment the 
figure has received. The sculp- 
tor has recalled the vertical lines 
of the architecture in the folds 
of the skirt, and so united them 
in a very subtle and charming 
way ; the broad surfaces of the 
armor are in excellent contrast 

to the color of the rest, using color in its sculptural sense 
as light and shade. There is a beautiful balance and 
contrast in color between balustrade and statue as the 
result of a greater number of shadow-throwing forms 
in the balustrade and fewer in the figure. It is interest in- 
to compare another statue of the Maid of Orleans in the 
same town at one end of the Pont de Tournelles. It lacks 
the feel of the period and might commemorate any daughter 
of the regiment ; but it is well placed. 

The view of the monument to "Chinese" Cordon, in 
Trafalgar Square, scarcely does it justice. It is really 
more impressive than it appears here. The pedestal, 
while designed in harmony with the character of the archi- 
tecture about it, has a fault common to many ; the cornice 




STATUE Or JEANNE D'ARC, ORLEANS, FRANC! 



is too shelf-like, and projects far t<»> much. Statue and 
pedestal should be one thing, and too great a projection of 
the cornice disunites them. Indeed, a cornice is scarcely 
necessary, and some of the best pedestals I know have none 
at all. All our real interest should center in the statue, and 
nothing should detract from that interest. All the pedes- 
tal is for is to lift the statue to a height sufficient for 
dignity, and to continue its lines to the ground, and should 
have only just so much treatment, be given just so much 
color, as will serve to unite it with the sculpture, support, 
oppose or repeat its dominant lines, and no more. 

The author of the statue of Stanislaus, in front of the 
Hotel de Ville of Nancy, was well inspired in designing it 
in accord with the prevailing note of the period, which 
was rather pompous. The detail of the pedestal is some- 
what out of scale with the statue, but the fault pointed out 
in the Cordon pedestal is absent here and there is, there- 
fore, greater unity in the 
composition. 

In the statue of James the 
Second at Whitehall, London, 
we may question the taste which 
invests the king with the trap- 
pings of a Roman general, but 
there is a certain harmony, 
nevertheless, between the monu- 
ment and its background. 

It will not fail of remark that 
most of these monuments are 
placed with a very definite ap- 
preciation of what their effect 
seen in relation to their sur- 
roundings should be — that 
there is a certain restful quality 
about them, and that they seem 
to belong fairly well to the spot 
they occupy. Let us examine 
one or two examples of an utter 
disregard of these simple prin- 
ciples, in New York. There is 
one absolute test we may apply 
to the placing of any monu- 
ment. There must be some 
thing inevitable about it. In 
other words, the monument must 
be so closely related to its environment that we could not 
imagine it looking so well in any other spot. When we 
apply this test to these examples we see at once that 
something is wrong; they do not belong where they arc 

any more than elsewhere. 

It is astonishing to find that the statue of Lafayette in 

Union Square is actually on the axis of Broadway. There 

is nothing to indicate that it stands at the head of an im- 
portant thoroughfare. In the first place, it is in itself too 
insignificant in mass to occupy so important a position and 
should be amplified and supported by some further archi 

tectural treatment. In the second place, it does not even 

face Broadway but is simply plumped down on the grass 
anywhere. It seems incredible that this monument, which 



7 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



for grace and beauty is one of the best thing's we have in 

its kind, should be so shamefully abused. It would gain 
immensely in distinction in a proper and dignified 
setting. 

Another example is the Lincoln Monument in Union 
Square. Thisphoto- 



graph is taken from 
the corner of Four- 
teenth street and 
Fifth avenue. It 
will be observed 
with interest that we 
have a fine view of 
the back of the neck. 
Fourteenth street 
and Fifth avenue is 
one of the busiest 
corners in the city, 
ami it might be sup- 
posed that the statue 
would be placed 
where the thousands 
of passers-by could 
see it. As it is, it 
may be some in- 
spiration to a better 

life for the occupants of the benches in the Park. The 
pedestal is beneath contempt, a product of our most 
tasteless period. 

The Farra.e;ut Monument is one of the early products <>\ 
the collaboration of Augustus St. Gaudens and Stanford 
White. Although White designed the pedestal, it might 
have been done by a sculptor if one could be found who 
was well trained enough in architecture to design his own 
setting; it has a plastic quality which harmonizes so per- 
fectly with the sculpture that in the work of two masters, 



in perfect sympathy, we seem to see but one mind and one 
hand. The color of the unusual and beautiful ex;edra 
emphasizes the harmony of form : it is a dark Milestone, 
and the bronze has taken on a beautiful dark patine. It is 
to be regretted that this monument is so ill-placed, dumped 

down on the west- 

■MMHHMHFIg^ifllllJMr 

Madison Square, 

unrelated to any 
path or thoroughfare 
orpoint of approach. 
In the setting ac- 
C o r d e d W a rd's 
statue of Washing- 
ton we need yield 
nothing to Europe 
on the score of dig- 
nity and impressive- 
ness. Magnificently 
placed at the head 
of Broad street, the 
S n b - T r e asiir y 
Building is one of 
the few exceptions 
that we may make 
in our strictures 
upon the generally unmonumental placing of our buildings 
and monuments. The statue gains immensely by its 
splendid background. In a balcony just above this spot 
Washington took the oath of office as President of the 
United States and the sculptor has represented him in 
that attitude. This is far and away the best thing J. Q. A. 
Ward ever did. 

The monument to Admiral Coligny in Paris is an ex- 
ception to the rule that obtains abroad, for it is miserably 
placed, crowded into a narrow space and almost impossible 




STATUE OF STANISLAUS OF LORRAINE, NANCY, PRANCE. 






STATUE OK JEANNE ll'ARC, ORLEANS. 



STATUE OF GORDON, LONDON. 



STATUE OF JAMES II., LONDON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



77 








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78 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



to set.'; the architectural frame is a beautiful piece of 
design in the character of the work of Coligny's time, 
treated with extraordinary sympathy and skill. American 
architects are too prone to design distinctly classic settings, 
Greek or Roman, for 
statues of men of any 
period. They may have 
lived in colonial times or 
may have died yesterday: 
poets, statesmen, or cap- 
tains of industry; men of 
calm natures or men with 
fiery, turbulent tempera- 
ments ; dressed in the more 
picturesque garments of an 
earlier day or in the ap- 
parently mi manageable 
frock coat and trousers of 
the present fashion — the 
pedestal is almost invari- 
ably ' ' pure ' ' and as classic 
as possible. True, this is 
safer and in the main more 
satisfactory than the aver- 
age pedestal the sculptor 
designs for himself and to 
which he usually tries to 
give a plastic quality in- 
tended to harmonize with his sculpture, but which is usually 
cither mushy or brutal. But theoretically the most success- 
ful result lies somewhere between the two; the architect 
needs to loosen up and get more plasticity in his share of 
the work without losing the firmness that should mark a 
highly conventionalized form ; 
while the sculptor should either 
study the technics of architecture 
thoroughly for several years or 
let the pedestal alone. 

But in any case the character 
of the pedestal should partake in 
some degree of the character of 
the statue and the time. An 
orator represented as violently 
declaiming stands on a pedestal 
purely Greek and calm — con- 
trast with a vengeance ; or a 
statesman in badly fitting frock 
coat and baggy trousers (why 
must they fit so badly and bag so 
baggily >, in an attitude of states- 
manlike dignity, is supported by 
a playful little rococo base. Will 
the sculptor ever arise before the 
present fashions go out who will 
seize the possibilities of sculp- 
tural beauty in the clean-cut 
lines of a well fitted modern coat 
and trousers, which reveal the 
structure of the figure in the 

clothes as much as it needs to be revealed in a clothed 
figure. Is it because the sculptors are unfortunate in their 
models, the average statesman being notoriously careless 
in his dress ? Or is it because in their desire for movement, 




STATUE OF OGLETHORPE, SAVANNAH, GA 




MONUMENT TO ADMIRAL COLIGXY, PARIS. 



for modeling, they prefer to clothe the lc.e;s in gunny sacks? 

Or go to the other extreme and encase them in rigid 
tubes of tin ? Why must the coat pull under the arms, 
why must it be so tight across the chest and stomach that 

there are horizontal creases 
at every button ; and why, 
oh why, must the skirts of 
it look as though they had 
been innocent of the iron 
since they left the slop- 
shop? I am not pleading 
for the tailor's dummy as 
a necessary adjunct of the 
studio, but I should like to 
see gentlemen represented 
as such and not either as 
though they had slept in 
their clothes, or had had 
them made by a tinsmith. 
The problem of design- 
ing a tine pedestal for the 
Statue of a modern man in 
the usual dress of the day 
is a most difficult one, and 
to my mind has yet to be 
solved, just as has the 
treatment of his garments. 
The Farragut is hardly to 
be classed here, for he is in uniform, loose sea clothes 
with the wind in them, as lie should be. It is the ordinary 
citizen who gives the trouble. 

In the monument to Oglethorpe, the first Colonial 
governor of Georgia, the picturesque costume of the 

time gave Daniel C. French, the 
sculptor, an opportunity for a 
capital treatment in detail and 
in silhouette; the pedestal 
is by Henry Bacon who also 
designed the interesting ped- 
estal of the Mark Hanna 
statue by St. Gaudens in 
Cleveland. 

Albert Randolph Ross de- 
signed the very simple rectan- 
gular pedestal and entourage 
in Xew Hampshire pink granite 
for A. A. Weinman's statue of 
General Macomb at Detroit, one 
of the handsomest portrait 
statues we have ; simple, direct, 
and masculine, without affected 
or dramatic gesture; the treat- 
ment of the long military cloak 
is a triumphant solution of a 
difficult problem ; the man is 
in absolute repose, the only 
movement that of the wind in 
the cloak, and it is this that 
.civ^s the figure life and spirit. 
For such a statue just such a simple setting as this seems 
the only fitting thing. The color of the bronze is repeated 
in the three bronze cannons, actual relies of the War of 
1812. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



79 




ROMAN FORUM. 



RESTORATION OF ANCIENT ROME BY J. BUHLMANN AND A. WAGNER. 



TEMPLE OF rUPITER. 



Distinguished Architecture as a Precedent. I. 



C. HOWARD WALKER. 



THE intention of these articles is to analyze for archi- 
tectural students the qualities in acknowledged 
masterpieces of architecture which are instructive and sug- 
gestive in modern work, and the characteristics in various 
styles which are still applicable despite changes of mate- 
rials, requirements, and social ethics. In order to do this, 
an inquiry as to qualities common to all of the best build- 
ings in the world is necessary in order to eliminate minor 
peculiarities produced by local demands. It is manifest 
that directness of expression and simplicity of masses are 
to be found in all architectural masterpieces, and that 
refinement of detail is always present. All are carried to 
the farthest point of development in each of these factors. 
Confusion of form and erudencss of detail inevitably 
remove a building from the first ranks, and, usually, the 
materials used in the construc- 
tion are the best procurable. 
The architectural properties of 
special styles can be ignored, 
and are in fact merely fashions 
of expression. 

The influences which have 
caused the erection of fine build- 
ings are usually to be found in 
the recognized desires of a popu- 
lace, not of an individual ; and 
the work of an individual is of 
value only when it follows the 
trend of the established expres- 
sion of a number of minds 
devoted to one idea. Good arch- 
itecture has been the outcome of 
gradual accessions to a simple 
demand, not to original inspira- 
tions — hence the study of past 
work, and the application of its 
lessons. 

Certain structural factors are 
necessary, such as vertical walls, 
and isolated vertical supports; 




NORTH PORCH OF ERECTHEION, ATHENS. 



and beams, lintels, or arches spanning openings, and 
coverings or roofs to enclosed areas. As the roofs are in 
planes which are more or less retreating from the observer, 
and as they are usually of less proportions than the walls, 
they are of less relative importance and are treated 
correspondingly on the outside. Inside the building their 
importance increases, and they are often treated with 
greater attention than the walls. 

The openings in the walls are subject entirely to the 
demands of the circulation of the building, both as to 
people and to light. These factors are utilitarian and nec- 
essary, and all good architecture submits willingly to their 
demands. There is at once a feeling of incongruity and of 
dissatisfaction when any of these factors is exaggerated 
beyond the point of necessity. 

From the simple mud wall and 
pitched roof the original cell 
from which architecture has 
grown was created, the walls 
were protected from the rains 
by extensions of the roofs sup- 
ported on posts, at times over 
entrances only, at times entirely 
around the cell. The wooden 

structure became developed at 
its joints, became protected by 
metal and by stucco, and was 
translated into stone, and the 
so-called classic orders of archi 

lecture were developed. But 

the post in becoming the column 
and the beam in becoming the 
lintel and the eaves in becoming 
the cornice lost none of their 
structural character. They 
thickened, as stone had not the 
fibrous strength of wood, and 
the cleats became mouldings 
accenting the joints <>\ structure, 

merely indicating where one 



So 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



structural feature ended and another began. Whether Theseion at Athens or the Temple of Concord at Girgenti. 

the classic portico and peristyle would have developed from The proportions of the order change slightly, becoming 

stone structure only is not the question. In developing it more delicate in the progress of time, but the disposition 

did not violate its own possibilities. Hut it is worth of the columns, their relations to the walls, their uniform 



observing that originally 
detached colonnades were 
associated with walls com- 
paratively devoid of open- 
ings, and that when openings 
multiplied the columns be 
came engaged with the walls 
and were merely rounded 
buttresses. This at once 
occurs in adaptations of the 
elassie orders where more 
than one story is required 
and where ample light is 
necessary, both of which are 
the usual conditions in 
modern work. 

The Greet orders were 
developed in temples of a 
single cell' with one entrance 
and lighted from the roof — 

if lighted at all. The Parthenon at Athens, from the beauty 
of its material, its detail and its sculpture, is considered the 
most noble example of the simplest order, that of the Greek 
Doric, but it is not in as perfect condition as either the 



TEMPLE OF CONCORD, GIRGENTI, SICILY. 



height and character and 
distance apart are main- 
tained. All experiment with 
this order merely belittles it, 
especially if any attempt is 
made to use columns of 
various sizes and heights. 
Its character is dignified and 
inflexible. It denotes 
strength and simplicity, and 
is not amenable to changes. 
It was thoroughly developed 
for its purpose : that of ex- 
pressing a single cell or a 
small group of cells, isolated 
with considerable space 
about them, and with few 
wall openings, and can ade- 
quately express similar con- 
ditions to-day. The lesson 
of its profiles and details is that of admirable restraint. 
There is not a square inch of superfluous decoration, nor 
of redundant mouldings, and its factors can only be 
associated with the simplest of forms. Sculpture associated 











Tnrr 






" ^ -7T 



i 





The Parthenon. Temple of Castor and Pollux. The Erectheion. Monument of Lysk ; 

DETAILS OF CREEK ORDERS DEVELOPED IN TEMPLES AND MONUMENTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



81 




RESTORATION OF THE PARTHENON, ATHENS, BY E. SHIERSCH. 



with it must be extremely simple and dignified in eharacter. 
It was lightened in effect entirely by treatment in color 
upon its sculpture and mouldings, and without such treat- 
ment is most austere. As the projections of porticos and 
peristyles necessarily obstruct light its colonnades are of 
value solely to produce deep shadows, and are of doubtful 
use in modern 
work excepting 
as porticos over 
main entrances 
or in cloistered 
enclosures. Its 
special value to 
the strident is in 
the study of its 
simplicity, dig- 
nity, and re- 
straint. 

While the 
columns on the 
Greek temples 
carried compar- 
atively little 
weight, they are 
so robust that 
they appear 
adequate to 
carry much , and 

are consequently used below large surfaces of wall. The 
student is advised to study Stewart and Revett, Penrose 
and Pennethorne for subtleties of the Greek orders of 
architecture. 

The second Greek order, called the Ionic— is more del- 




RESTORATION OF THE ERECTHEION, ATHENS, BY BUHLMANN. 



icate than the Doric in all its qualities. Its mouldings 
and details are in smaller relative scale to its surfaces — 
its columns become more slender and are fluted and have 
bases. Its entablature is without the squares of the 
metopes and triglyphs, and grouped mouldings become 
frequent and its capitals are scrolled. As the shadows 

which its projec- 
tions cast are 
less than those 
of the I >oric, the 
order is capable 
of more frequent 
use when light 
openings arc 
needed between 
the columns, 
and, as the capi- 
tals and entabla 
hires differ in 
character, colon 
nades with dif 
ferent heights of 
columns can be 

associated. The 
order is there 
fore more flexi- 
ble than the 
Doric, and ran 
be used with greater ease upon grouped masses. The chief 
difficulty is in the use of the capital at a corner — as the 
Ionic caps with a corner scroll arc far from satisfactory, 
even in the best Greek examples as at Bassaeand elsewhere. 
The Ionic colonnades are, therefore, best when in antis, 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



that is, where they are defined at each end by a pier or 
wall and do not turn the corner. The most delicate work 
of the Ionic style is the Krectheion on the Acropolis at 
Athens, and the Temple at Priene. While Ionic architec- 
ture was picked out in color with blue, red, and gold in the 
backgrounds of the carving — it is not dependent upon 
color decoration. The qualities of the style are those of 
great refinement and delicacy, and it is admirably fitted to 
express monumental buildings of fine distinction. 

The third Greek order, the Corinthian, has the qualities 
of luxury and of display. Its entablature is enriched with 
carving and with scrolled modillions or brackets, its mould- 



attempts to superpose, that is, place one order with its 
columns over another, have been somewhat unsuccessful. 
A light transposed order can be placed over a heavy one with 
moderate success, but the superposing of three orders one 
over the other courts failure. The use of the entablatures 
alone without the columns can be carried on indefinitely. 
In order to avoid the difficulties of superposed orders, 
the attempt was made at an early date to have the height of 
the column embrace two or more stories, again with ques- 
tionable success, as the scale became gigantic and antago- 
nistic to that of adjacent buildings without columns. The 
full orders, therefore, with their columns are best when 







THE THESEION AT ATHENS, GREECE. 



ings become rich and ornamented, its capitals are most 
elaborate. It is capable of great variety, but cannot be 
simplified without appearing impoverished. It can only 
be adequately made of the finest materials, and is therefore 
costly. Unless associated with broad, plain surfaces, it 
appears over-ornamented, and is at its best when focused 
at points requiring rich treatment. It requires a some- 
what large scale, as when small it seems to be a reduction 
in miniature from larger forms. This, however, is not 
always the case when its columns arc engaged in the wall. 
It is the order which appealed to the sensuousness and 
luxury of Rome, and its best known examples are in 
Roman buildings. The Greeks at times used a simplified 
capital without scrolls, and with a single row of leaves, and 
with an entablature which was more Ionic than Corinthian. 
The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates is the best exam- 
ple of the Corinthian in its simplest form. The temple of 
Jupiter Stator at Rome is that of the most elaborate type. 
The orders were developed upon low buildings, of one 
story or of one story and an attic or parapet — or if used 
upon buildings of more stories they appeared at the top 
with plain walls below. All buildings in which the orders 
are used are necessarily stratified horizontally, and all 



expressing large cells of the height of the orders, and there- 
fore are adapted to large halls, banking rooms, theaters, 
etc., the portion of the building in which rooms are small 
being treated with wall surfaces without the columns. 

The Colosseum and the theater of Marcellus at Rome 
are well-known examples of superposed orders. 

The difference between the Roman orders and the Greek 
from which they were derived is one of relative distinction, 
the Roman orders being cruder in proportions, profiles 
of mouldings, and details and carvings. The Romans 
began the use of columns entirely as architectural orna- 
ment, regardless of necessity of structure, as is best evi- 
denced in the triumphal arches. As a result, sincerity of 
structure often succumbed to mere desire for interesting 
light and shade. 

The so-called Composite orders are the unsuccessful 
attempts of innovators. The true orders of architecture 
were so carefully developed by skilful men, that if they 
are used, changes which are not the result of necessity are 
unwise, and unless the conditions of the problem have 
marked points of resemblance to those of the buildings 
upon which the orders were first developed, it is well to 
avoid the use of the orders in their entirety. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



83 



THE CLAY PRODUCTS EXPOSITION 

T 1 iN - The basement and first two stories are finished in olive 

HE first Clay Products Exposition, held at the Coli- sandstone while the red brick above is separated by stone 
seum, Chicago, March 7th to 12th, met with a measure string courses at every second story. The moulded belt 
of success which could hardly have been anticipated by the between the two top stories together with the continuous 
promoters. The exposition was given at a time when all iron balcony takes the place of the regular cornice The 
the National Clay Working Associations were holding their apartments are mostly of the duplex type. Each apart- 
conventions. All sorts of burned clay products were shown, ment provides for an unusual number of servants' rooms 
and many of the manufacturers were assisted in making and includes an additional room in another portion of the 
their displays by members of the architectural profession, building. The basement accommodates individual laun- 
The daily press of 
Chicago seemed to 
have caught the 
spirit of the occasion 
and gave liberally 
of their space, with 
the result that clay 
products were cer- 
tainly given an un- 
looked for boost. 

More than one 
hundred thousand 
people attended the 
great show, among 
them, President 
Taft, governors of 
several states, 
mayors of cities, 
and many architects 
and builders from 
different parts of 
the country. 

The design 
awarded first prize 
in the Bungalow 
Competition was re- 
produced at full 

size, and in addition two hundred of the designs submitted 
in this competition were shown. Undoubtedly these fea- 
tures served to arouse the greatest interest on the part of 
the general public. Nevertheless the really wonderful 
displays of brick, terra cotta, faience, and fireproofing, 
shown in design and constructions were revelations. 

The cost of building the First 
Prize Bungalow was about $4,000. 
In its construction a brick costing 
$23 per thousand w<*s used ; the 
roof was covered with a beautiful 
green tile ; the wookwork and hard- 
ware were all first-class, and the 
labor cost nearly double what it or- 
dinarily would cost because of the 
fact that much of it was performed 
on Sunday and during nights. 

Plans have already been started 
for another exposition next year, 

and it is expected that profiting by the experience of this 
year an even better exhibit will be given. 




DETAIL OF FIRST PRIZE DESIGN BUNGALOW SUBMITTED IN THE BRICK 

BUILDER COMPETITION AND BUILT AT THE COLISEUM, CHICAGO. 

Ralph J. Batchelder, Architect. 




DETAIL BY WAI.I.IS .V GOODW1 1. 1. IE, 

ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Company, 

Makers. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 
Apartment House, 563 Park Ave., New York. 
Plate 29. The building contains fifteen apartments. 



dries with steam 

dryers and private 

storage rooms. 

The Ver Meer 
Studios, NewYork 
City. Plates 31, 
32. The building 
presents a somewhat 
unusual problem . 
The plan calls for a 
garage with groom's 
and chauffeur's 
quarters, and a 
large studio for the 
owner's use, in ad- 
dition to tWO studios 
and a studio apart- 
ment to be rented. 
The materials upon 
the exterior are 
Harv a r d brick, 
white marble, and 
wrought ironwork 
painted a dark gray. 
The designs of the 
leaded glass in the 
windows are adapted 
from Dutch originals. The large garage on the ground 
floor is practically surrounded by imperforated walls, 
making a fireproof box within the building which is itself 
of fireproof construction throughout. In order to provide 
more rooms the level of the first floor has been dropped 
several feet so that three stories are provided at the rear 
in the space occupied by the garage 
and studio in the front. 

House at Prides Crossing, 
Mass. Plates33,34. The house is 
of brick laid in Flemish bond with a 
wide joint of coarse mortar and 
pebbles. The color of the brick 
ranges from deep blues to light 
reds. The trimmings are of Indiana 
limestone. The dining room, parlor, 
and music room are finished in pine 
painted white, while the reception 
room and library are in oak stained 
dark. All doors of the first story are oak with one large 

panel. 

House at Beverly Farms, Mass. Plates 37 K). 

The house is built of dark-red brick with Indiana lime- 
stone trimmings. The roof is of heavy slate with a e.rccn- 
gray effect. Upon the interior the hall is paneled in gray 



8 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL OF STATIC OF POLAND SEAL FOR 
THE ST. STANISLAUS SCHOOL, 

ADAMS, MASS. 

Executed in cream matt terra cotta by the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company. 

John Wm. Donohue, Architect. 



a ii (1 w h i t e 
woodwork; the 
dining room 
has modeled 
plaster panels 
with a marble 
mantle, and 
the library is 
f i n i s h e d i n 
g u m wood . 
All floors 
throughoutthe 
first story are 
o f oa k p a r - 
quetry. The 
house is 
equipped with 
plunger ele- 
vators and a 
vacuum clean- 
ing plant. The 
kitchen is lo- 
cated in the 
basement for 
the purpose of 
e 1 i m i n a t i n g 
odors from the 
main floor of 
the house. The stable is arranged to accommodate the 
head gardener, the garage, and the stable equipment. 
It is built of brick similar to that used in the house. There 
is also a revolving summer house with three of the six 
sides enclosed with -lazed glass. The cost of the house 
was approximately 5150,000. 
Arena Restaurant, Newark, N. J, Plate 41. The 

exterior of the building is of brick and exposed timber 
work stained a dark brown. The grill room in the base- 
ment front is finished in chestnut, handcraft silvered effect, 
with high panel wainscot and shelf. The rear of basement 
provides for a complete kitchen equipment with pantries, 
refrigerators, steam heauhg and ventilating plant. The 
main restaurant — 25 by 138 feet — is 24 feet high with a 
balcony 20 by 25 feet 
supported on marble 
columns. The vestibule 
is finished in tile with 
mahogany trim. Over 
the vestibule is located 
the toilet for men. At 
the rear of the first floor 
is a balcony for musi- 
cians and private tables, 
under which is located 
the s e r v i c e p a n t r y , 
ladies' toilet and retiring 
room. The interior 
decoration is of I. on is 
XVI style with vaulted 
ceilings and skylights 
having designed ceiling 
lights and glass to 
in a tch. T he color 
scheme is a blending of 




DETAIL l'Ok GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY .BUILDING, 
BUFFALO, N. V. FIGURES FOUR FEET IX HEIGHT. 

Executed by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. Esenwein & Johnson, Architects. 



cream, gold, and terra cotta. The cost of the building was 
$30,000, making 24 cents per cubic foot, figured from cellar 
floor to roof. 

Washington Restaurant, Newark, N.J. Plate41. 
The building is faced with brick laid in Dutch bond with 
trimmings of Indiana limestone, marble, and terra cotta. 
The window treatment and marquise are of bronze. In 
the basement under the sidewalk is a grill room with the 
walls and ceil- 
ing decorated 
to represent 
the different 
zones. All 
woodwork is 
f i n i s h e d i n 
adzed chest- 
nut, while the 
floor is laid in 
red Welsh tile. 
The balance of 
basement pro- 
vides for a 
c o m p 1 e t e 
kitchen equip 
ment, inclu- 
ding a n i c e 
machine room 
for refrigera- 
tor, etc. The 
buffet on the 
first floor is 
t r i m m e d in 
quartered oak 
with a specially 
designed ale 
C a s e , r e d 

Welsh tile floor, and paneled wainscot. The restaurant 
is finished in quartered oak with marble base and columns, 
paneled ceiling, heavy moulded cornice and frieze with 
silver decoration, side walls of Delph blue tapestry, and 
Delph blue valances with silver ornamentation. The main 
vestibule, trimmed in quartered oak, has a mosaic floor and 

a marble staircase and 
elevator enclosure. The 
second floor is trimmed 
in Spanish mahogany 
with hall floors of tile 
and room floors of 
quartered oak. The 
third floor decorations 
are white, French gray 
and gold, with gold 
valances. The floor in 
ball room is of clear 
white maple. Complete 
ventilating and vapor 
heating systems have 
b ecu establish e d 
throughout. Entire cost 
of building was $100,- 
ooo, or 60 cents per 
cubic foot figuring from 
cellar floor' to roof. 




DETAIL FOR THEATER, PHILADELPHIA. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 

Albert E. Westover, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



85 




SELLING BUILDING, PORTLAND, OREGON. 

Built of buff speckled Norman brick made by the 

Columbus Brick and Terra Cotta Company. 

Doyle & Patterson, Architects. 

the vestibule are large plaster panels with 
tile effects also. The floor of the porch 
consists of six by nine inch roofing" tile, 
while that of the vestibule is laid in brick 
patterns. The basement provides for a 
play-room which is designed throughout 
in brick and tile paneling. 



CITY PLANNING IN SEATTLE. 

IN 1909 the Washington State Chapter 
of the American Institute of Architects 
brought about the organization of the 
Municipal Plans League, which urged 
the importance of studying the city's re- 
quirements for years to come so effectively 
that a little less than two years ago the 
city charter was amended to provide for 
a municipal plans commission. Its pur- 
pose was to procure plans for extensions 
of the city to meet probable future de- 
mands. The law required the members 
of the commission to be drawn from the 
city government and various public com- 
missions and professional and business 
organizations, in such a way that every 
interest likely to be able to furnish use- 
ful suggestions was represented. Money 
for the work was raised by a tax of one- 
fourth of a mill on the dollar in 1910. 

The services of Virgil G. Rogue, who 
prepared the plans for the city of Seattle, 
were secured together with a large staff 
of coworkers. As a result of this work 
the city has been provided with a plan 
for its development along lines which are 



House at 
Brook li nk, 
M \ss. Plate 
42. The main 
portion of the 
house is built 
of brick cov- 
e r e (1 w i t h 
stucco of a 
natural color. 
The entrance 
and ot li e r 
brick features 
are of a cher- 
ry-red water 
struck brick, 
rough in tex- 
ture and vary- 
ing in tone 
effect. Tile 
has been used 
between the 
bricks instead 
of h e a d e r s , 
which gives a 
decided touch 
of color to the 
ensemble. In 



theoretically 

correct. The 
basic princi- 
ples u p o n 

which the work 
has been con- 
ducted are un- 
like the usual 
city planning 
s c h e m e s , 
which pay at- 
t c n t i o n to 
nothing but ar- 
tistic consider- 
ations. The 
plans provide 
in the first 
place for a 
c i v i c c e n t e r , 
where all the 
m u n i c i p a 1 
< ifficcs can be 
assembled at a 
point readily 
reached from 
most parts of 
the city, and 
which affords an 





DETAIL or BISHOP S SEAL FOB THE 

ST. STANISLAUS SCHOOL, ADAMS, MASS. 

Executed in cream matt terracotta by the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company. 

John Win. Donohue, Architect. 

opportunity for the erection of buildings 

of a character which will be suitable for 
the dignity of such an important com 
munity with the proper treatment of the 
grounds and avenues about them. A sys- 
tem of arterial highways has been laid 
out, and although the topographical con- 
ditions made it impracticable to use cir- 
cumferential streets connecting the radial 
thoroughfares running out from the 
business center, a substitute for them has 
been found in diagonal streets, a solution 
of the street problem which is decidedly 
instructive. — Engineering Record. 



v. 



DETAIL POR HEARST BUILDING, 
CHICAGO. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 

James C. Green, Architect. 



PALACE OF VERSAILLES. 

RECENT excavations have thrown 
considerable light on the original 

architecture of the famous palace of Ycr 

sailles. A number of underground 
passages dating from the time of Louis 
XIII. and carefully lined with slabs of 
stone, have been laid bare. An aston 
ishing fact is that the foundations arc 
very shallow without cellars and laid on 
a very light and unstable bed of sand. 

Large underground walls have been dis 

covered also, which do not sustain an 
weight but which connect and keep in 

position the various parts of the build- 
ing. These excavations will shortly be 
described and discussed by a prominent 
French architect who claims that he is 

now able to reconstruct the plans of the 
original exterior, none of which now 
remain. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



TO BEAUTIFY 

LONDON. 




A^ 



N ORGANIZED 
movement lias 
been instituted for the 
beautification of Lon- 
don through the com- 
bined efforts of artists, 
architects, sculptors, 
engineers, members of 
Parliament, citizens, 
etc. This new organ- 
ization is called the 
London Society." 
Its motives are to in- 
terest Londoners in 
their own city ; to sup- 
port rather than hinder 
practical and esthetic 
schemes ; and to add 
to the existing beauties 
of London until she 
becomes artistically 

worthy of her position as the capital of the world's greatest 

cm i lire. 

WORKS OF ART To ADORN PANTHEON, PARIS. 

ASFRIFS of sculptures by prominent French artists 
will be placed in the Pantheon. The vast empty 
hall will present an appearance more in keeping with the 
purpose to which it has been dedicated since the French 
Revolution. The statues will represent the country's 
great men. 

Rodin will contribute a statue of Victor Hugo. Barthol- 
ome is at work on a monument to Jean- Jacques Rousseau. 
Injalbert and Segoffin will be represented by figures of 
Mirabcau and Voltaire. Rodin's group "The Burghers 
of Calais," a replica of which was recently erected in 
Calais, will also find a place in the Pantheon. Around 
the central pillars will be allegorical figures, representing 
different epochs of art, by other leading sculptors. 



APARTMENT, RIVERSIDE DRIVE, 

NEW YORK. 

Architectural terra cotta furnished by 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

Rouse & Goldstone, Architects. 



TI IF Villa d'Este, one of the most beautiful in all Italy, 
will become the Austrian Academy of Fine Arts, eon- 
ducted on lines similar to those of the French Villa Medici. 
While this assures us that the magnificence of the Villa 



will be kept up, 
we cannot help but 
regret the fact that 
it will be practi- 
cally impossible for 
visitors to obtain 
access to this his- 
toric and artistic 
place. 



QUM UMMjmAm WMMdL > 




til im mmiaiLnuiuM 



CAPITAL BY JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, 

ARCHITECT. 

Executed by New York Architectural Terra 
Cotta Company, 



Till-: ancient 
frescoes by 

Francesco Bachi- 

acca have been 
recently discovered in the Palazzo Vecchia at Florence. 
These frescoes commissioned by the Duke Cosimo Medici 
have been uncovered and found to be practically as fresh 
as when first executed by the artist. An excellent fresco 
of the sixteenth century on the facade of the Municipal 
Palace, Yitcrbo, has also come to light as well as a deli- 
cately carved window of the twelfth century. 




MSSb 


El tt' 




■£ P ,r ■■ >]dk*i» 


a : | 






w 



DETAIL, ADOLPHUS HOTEL, DALLAS, TEXAS. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

TI I E committee in charge of the Francis J. Plym 
Fellowship in Architecture announces the second 
competition for the award of this Fellowship. The value of 
the Fellowship is one thousand dollars providing one year 
of travel in Europe for the study of architecture. The 
competition will be held in the months of April and May, 
1912, and will be open to all graduates of the Department 
of Architecture of the University of Illinois 
who will be under thirty years of age on the 
first day of June, 1M12. Further particulars 
may be obtained by addressing Professor 
Frederick M. Mann, Department of Archi- 
tecture, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 



TFRRA COTTA FOR THE VANDER- 
BILT HOTEL. 

THE architectural terra cotta for the 
Vanderbilt Hotel, New York, Warren 
ev Wetmore, architects, described in this 
issue, was furnished by the New Jersey 
Terra Cotta Company. 



CITY NORMAL SCHOOL, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Faced with Roman brick made by The Ironclay Brick Company. 

Frank S. Barnum, Architect. 



The old Continental Hotel at Broadway 
and 2()th street, New York, one of the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



87 




GLEN RIDGE VILLAGE STORES, GLEN RIDGE, N. J. 
Built of Natco Hollow Tile and faced with brick. Boring & Tilton, Architects. 



entirely in headers of the gray shade. The 
bricks were furnished by Carter, Black & 
Avers, of New York. 

The New York Architectural Terra Cotta 
Company will furnish dark limestone terra 
cotta for the new twenty-story store and loft 
building to be erected at the corner of 26th 
street and Fourth avenue. New York, 
Neville & Bagge, architects. 

C. C. Tallman, architect, has opened an 
office at 17 Dill street, Auburn, X. Y., and 
would be glad to receive manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples. 

It is proposed by the Philadelphia Chapter, 
A. I. A., to invite persons of authorit] t< 
address the Chapter Oil real estate invent- 
best known mercantile houses in the city, has been sold ments, settlements, mortgages, transfers. Hen laws, insur- 
and will soon be replaced by a twenty-story loft and office ancc, and other related subjects, — the purpose being to es 
building. tablish a closer relationship between architect and owner. 

IN GENERAL. 
The leading face brick manufacturers of * , 

the country met in convention at Chicago, 
March 8th, and organized the National Face 
Brick Association, with J. M. Adams of 
Columbus, Ohio, as president. This organ- 
ization will be composed exclusively of the 
manufacturers of face brick. It is the sole 
purpose of the organization to deal with 
freight rates, express charges, and other 
important matters which have to do with 
the handling of brick from factory to con- 
sumer. 

The apartment house, Park avenue, New 
York City, Walter B. Chambers, architect, 
illustrated on Plate 29 of this issue, was 
awarded the gold medal for 1911 by the 
American Institute of Architects. 

The bricks used in the body of the Hotel 
Vanderbilt are French gray in color, the 
face being veneered on to a buff gray body. 
No attempt was made to select them accord- 
ing to shade, and as a result a pleasing variety is shown 
in the walls. In the upper stories white bricks were used 
in connection with the terra cotta. On the westerly walls 
two panels extending about fifteen stories were constructed 





PASSENGER STATION FOB N. V. C. .V H. K. R., HASTINGS-ON-HUDSON, X. Y 
Built of Tapestry Bricks manufactured by Fiske & Co., Inc. 

Reed .V Stem. Architects. 



HOUSE AT CHICAGO. 

Roofed with Green Tile made by Ludowici Celadon Company. 

W. C, Zimmerman, Architect. 

The Second Annual Architectural and Engineering Ex- 
hibition, which was to have been held in New York. March 
25th to 30th, has been merged, and will be held in conjunc- 
tion with the New York Fire Exposition and International 
Conference, which will be held in the 

Seventy-first Regiment Armory, New York 

City, October 2d to 12th. 

The Western Brick Company, Danville, 

111., has issued an attractive booklet in 
which they treat of the product of their 
plant, which is said to he the largest brick 

plant in the world. Supplementing this 

booklet arc twenty illustrations post card 

size — of prominent buildings in which their 

brick have been used. The whole work is 

very attractively gotten up. 

The Fourth Annual Convention of the 
Texas State Association of Architects was 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



held at Forth Worth, November 13th to 15th. The asso- 11,106, having a frontage of 299,032 feet, costing 

ciation has issued a printed report of its pro c ee dings, and $105,269,700. 

also a pamphlet in which architectural competitions arc The ^ ^ upQn ^ ^^ ff ^ .^^^ rf ^ ^^ 



dealt with. The secretary of the association is E. Stanley 
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THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



APRIL 1912 



Number 4 



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CONTENTS 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



From Work by 

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HOSPITAL AT GUADALAJARA, MEXICO. 



THE COMPLETE ANGLES 

OR COMPETITIONS 
ANCIENT AND MODERN 






Bgfeeo* 




Xll'll'tTIV'rv n a u a * 7 




BY HUBERT G. RIPLEY. 
IV. 



r 



N THAT large and noble city of the (Greeks, Ephesus," 
says Virtruvius in one of his Proems on ethical cul- 
ture as practised in former times, " an old law, it is said, 
was established by the ancients ; of which the conditions 
were severe, but not unjust : for the architect, when he 
received the charge of a public building, was obliged to 
deliver an estimate of the expense, and assign over his 
goods to the magistrates, till the work should be completed. 
This done, when the expense agreed with the estimate, he 
was rewarded with decrees and honors ; also, if no greater 
sum than a fourth part more was expended in the works, 
it was added to the estimate, and supplied by the public ; 
nor was any penalty incurred : but when more than a 
fourth was expended, his goods were seized, to make up 
the sum. I wish, to the immortal gods, that this law 
were established among the Roman 
people, not only in public but also 
in private edifices, that the unskilful 
might not commit impositions with 
impunity : for those only who arc- 
skilled in the knowledge of the art, 
and are without doubt really pro- 
fessors of architecture, should be 
employed ; nor be suffered to lead 
fathers of families into profuse ex- 
penses, but be driven from among 
the good : and that architects them- 
selves, from the fear of losing their 
property, might be obliged to be 
more careful in making their esti- 
mates ; so that proprietors might, 
with what they had prepared, or a 
little more, discharge the cost of 
building. For those who can provide 
four hundred will cheerfully add 
another hundred ; but if they be 
encumbered with the addition of one 
half, or more, they lose hopes ; and 
becoming dispirited with the ex- 
pense, and loss of their property, are 
forced to desist." 

If the above, taken in connection 




FIG. XI 



Rhododaphne's Temple in the sacred grove of 
Ladon, originally designed by I'etrolius of Napthoa, 
of which only the encarpi have lasted to the 
present day. 



with the following incidents which we shall presently 
relate, collated with scrupulous accuracy and painstaking- 
exactitude, give additional zest to the student's survey of 
Hellenic Art, "a correcter and deeper insight into the 
private life, a look, as it were, behind the postscenia of a 
people whose public virtues and vices we are too apt to 
pronounce judgment on with reference solely to the 
universal history of the world and of nations" (to quote 
the words of Bottiger), we shall feel more than repaid for 
the long hours of nocturnal study and systematic research, 
necessary in a work of this character, and an enviable 
result will have been obtained. 

That the Athenian was a creature of impulse, pullulating 
with nature and vivacity, clear of wit, strong and virile, 
studious as by intuition, quick to seize whatever advantage 
the occasion offered, has been proved 
many times. ( >ratory, even in those 
days, was sometimes the deciding 
factor in carrying out important 
architectural schemes. Omar aptly 
says, "A hair perhaps divides the 
False and True " ; and this slender 
thread, this tenuous filament, sensi- 
tive to the slightest breeze, capable 
of being wafted hither and von by 
the merest zephyr, a trifle light as 
hair in fact, maybe sufficient to turn 
the scales. Undoubtedly, ./Esopha- 
gus, the orator architect, justlj 
renowned for his charming little 
Temple of the Winds, would never 
have been awarded first place in the 
competition for that building, had 
he not had such a magnificent How 
of words, such an eloquent command 
of language, such skill in delectable 
insinuation, thai the iur\ just had 
to give him the prize as the only 

logical solution of a perplexing 
situation. 

Vcu see while this, strictly speak- 
ing, was not a big competition, 



9 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



many able architects competed for it, including such 
men as Argelius, whose monograph on the Corinthian 
order is still, even in these days, regarded as a masterpiece 
of romantic imagery; Bpimachus, the wealthy Athenian 

architect, who had over sixty draftsmen in his office and 
important work under construction aggregating over one 
hundred talents: Syrophcenix, whose specialty was per- 
golas and palestra' (it was from Syrophcenix, offices, by 
the way, that Phryne came : she was his private stenog- 
rapher and very rapid, and it almost broke Syrophcenix's 
heart when she left); and Anthemion the Ladon, a young 
man of great promise and a fine judge of Chian, who 
afterwards went into partnership with Acroterius and won 
first prize in the competition for the Portico Heptaphonos. 
Besides the above, many less eminent men such as Nex- 
aris. Theocydes, Demophilos, Petrolius of Napthos, I'ollis, 
Leonides, Si Ian ion, Me- 
lampus, Sarnacus, and 
E u ph ranor submitted 
sketches.* 

.Esopha.cus got the jump 
on them all, though, by 
sending in a set of charm- 
ingly rendered drawings on 
papyrus, with a stylus per- 
spective on a large wax 
tablet, and a description 
traced with the purest 
Athenian characters in 
iambic pentameter. This 
description he insisted on 
reading himself to the jury 
in a beautifully modulated 
voice with appropriate 
gestures, and at times with 
dramatic fervor. As the 
reading went on and the 
text called for it, he became 
completely carried away 
with his own eloquence and 
the noble sound of the 
sonorous Greek labials and 
stertorous aspirates; now 
soft ami low, like the croi in 
ing of the summer waxes 
lapping the smooth pebbles 
of the Arcadian shore, now 
full and strong, soaring to 
Parnassan heights like the 
majestic eagles of Mount 
Pentelicus, again keen 
and swift with telling 
effect, like the javelins 




lie, . Nil. 

Philo's scheme for the port of Rhodes partially restored by Potage 
Conde, showing the ruins of the Portico Heptaphonos in the foreground. 



Of 



the Spartan hoplites. 

The jury sat as if spellbound. The professional advisor 
became hot and cold by turns, and great beads of perspira- 
tion stood out on his forehead and rolled unheeded down 
his neck inside his chiton. Slowly the eloquence worked 
its magic spell until the listeners began to grow numb 
around the hips, and as the peroration ended the buzzing 
of a fly seemed like a brutal interruption to the hushed 
silence that for a moment greeted the orator. Then with 
husky voice, surcharged with emotion, the chairman put 
*<-/. Charondas. apud Stub. Til. XLIV 40. 



the question. With one accord the jury shouted "/<? fiirau 
ALsophagus / " while outside Argelius, Epimachus, Syro- 
phoenix and the others gritted their teeth, bit their nails 
to the quick, and consigned ^Esophagus to the Erinnys, or 
the remotest estuaries of the Styx, preparatory to unfold- 
ing their faces and greeting the winner with hollow 
sounding congratulations. 

Virtruvius relates an incident of somewhat later date 
concerning the rise to fame of the talented and trusted 
architect of Alexander the Great. 

At the time that Alexander was conquering the world, 
Dinocrates, the architect, confiding in his knowledge and 
genius, and being desirous of obtaining the royal com- 
mendation, left Macedon, and repaired to the army. He 
carried with him letters from his relations and friends in 
his own country, to the nobles of the first rank, that he 

might thereby more easily 
gain access. Being favor- 
ably received, he requested 
to be immediately pre- 
sented to Alexander ; they 
gave him many promises, 
but made delays, pretend- 
ing to wait till a proper 
opportunity should offer. 
Dinocrates, therefore, 
suspecting that he was 
derided, sought the remedy 
from himself. He was 
very large of stature, had 
an agreeable countenance, 
and a dignity in his form 
and deportment. Trusting 
to these gifts of nature, he 
clothed himself in the habit 
of an host.t anointed his 
body with oil, crowned his 
head with boughs of poplar, 
put a lion's skin over his 
left shoulder, and holding 
one of the claws in his rijjht 
hand, approached the tri- 
bunal where the king was 
administering justice. The 
novelty of the appearance, 
attracting the notice of the 
people, occasioned Alexan- 
der also to see him, who, 
wondering at the sight, 
commanded way to be 
given, that he might ap- 
proach. Alexander then 
demanded who he was ; Dinocrates replied, ' I am a 
Macedonian architect, who comes to thee with ideas and 
designs, worthy of the greatness of thy fame ; I have 
formed a design to cut Mount Athos into the statue of a 
man, in whose left hand shall be a large city, and in his 
right, a basin, which shall receive all the rivers of the 
mountain, and again discharge them to the sea.' Alexan- 
der, delighted with the idea, immediately inquired if the 
country adjacent would produce sufficient food for the 
sustenance of the inhabitants. When he understood that 
t Glad rags. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



93 



provision must be conveyed thither by sea, he replied : 
' Dinocrates, I discern the excellence of thy design, and 
am pleased with it ; but I consider that whoever should 
establish a colony in such a place would hereafter be justly 
blamed ; for, as a new-born infant cannot be nourished, 
or gradually reared to the different stages of life, without 
the milk of the nurse, so neither can a city be peopled, 
nor can it thrive, without fertile land and plenty of pro- 
vision ; however, as I approve the design, though I dis- 
approve the place, I will have thee attend me, that 
elsewhere I may employ thee.' From that time, Dinocrates 
remained with the king', and attended him into Egypt. 
There Alexander, observing a spot which had an haven 
formed secure by nature, an excellent place for an 
emporium, the adjacent country through all Egypt being 
fruitful, and having the accommodation of the river Nile, 
ordered him to build the 
city now called from his 
name Alexandria. Thus, 
by the means of a graceful 
countenance and dignity of 
person, Dinocrates became 
eminent." 

It is not wise, therefore, 
to rely wholly upon sheer 
merit in design for winning 
competitions, nor are acci- 
dental and extraneous aids, 
adventitious and factitious 
accessories to be despised. 
While the Hellenic archi- 
tect seemed to have a 
uberous pantechnicon of 
panurgy stored within his 
bean, and from the ends of 
his facile fingers flowed a 
continuous stream of chaste 
and gracious details — "a 
happy dilitescency " of 
ideas — he did not disdain 
on occasion, when an im- 
portant commission was at 
stake, to go intocahoots with 
some gifted wordsmith. 
Omnes declinant ad ea quae 

luera ministrant 
Utque scient, discunt pauci 

plures utabundent. 
Sic te pro^tituunt, O virgO 

Scientia, Sic te. 
Venalem faciunt, castis ample- 

xibus aptam, 
Non propter te querenter, sed 

lucra pro te ; 
Ditarique volunt potius quern 

philosophari. — Ovid del ctula 

Let us digress for a moment and again quote Virtruvius 
to make brief mention of that charming little idyl concern- 
ing the three fundamental orders of great architecture. 
Most writers prefer a more sesquipedalian explanation of 
the development of style, when right at hand, at the foun- 
tain head, so to speak, we have all the data needed pre- 
sented in a simple straightforward manner, which is in 
substance as follows : 

" From the formation of the three kinds of columns, 
arise the denominations, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian; of 
which the most ancient and first invented is the Doric ; for. 




when Dorus, the sun of Ilcllenus and the nymph Opticos, 

reigned over all Aehaia and Peloponnesus, the temple of 
Juno, in the ancient city of Argos, was erected and this 
order happened to be used in the fane. The same order 
was also used in the other cities of Aehaia, before the laws 
of its symmetry were established. 

"Afterward, when the Athenians, according to the re- 
sponses of Apollo of Delphos, and the common consent of 
all Greece, transplanted, at one time, thirteen colonies 
into Asia, appointing to every colony a leader, they gave 
the chief command to Ion, the son of Xuthus and Creusa, 
whom also the Delphian Apollo acknowledged for his son. 
These colonies he conducted to Asia, seized on the terri- 
tory of Caria, and there founded many large cities, as 
Ephesus, Miletus, Myunta (which last was formerly over- 
flown with water, and its rites and privileges, by Ion, 

transferred to the Mile- 
sians), Priene, Samos, 
Teos, Colophon, Chios, 
Erythrae, Phocis, Clazo- 
menaw, Lebedus, and 
Melite. This latter, on 
account of the arrogance 
of the citizens, was de- 
stroyed in the war declared 
against it, by the unani- 
mous determination of the 
other cities, and, in its 
place, by the favor of King 
Attalus and Arsinoe, the 
city of Smyrna was re- 
e e i v e d a m o n g s t the 
Ionians. When these cities 
extirpated the Carians and 
Leleges, they, from their 
leader Ion, called that terri- 
tory Ionia. 

' There they began to 
erect fanes, and constitute 
temples to the immortal 
gods. First, they erected 
the temple of Apollo 
Panionios, in the manner 
they had seen it in Aehaia ; 
which manner they called 
Doric, because they had 
seen it first used in the 
Dorian cities. In this 
temple they were desirous 
of using columns ; but 
being ignorant of their 
symmetry, and of the pro- 
them to sustain the weight, 
appearance, they measured 



fig. xni. 



Perspective study taken from the competitive drawings submitted by 
Euphranor for the Acropolis ut Alabanda in Caria. See Figs. XIV and 
W for further studies of this same Acropolis. 



portions necessary to enable 

and give them a handsome 

the human foot, and finding the foot of a man to be the 

sixth part of his height, they gave that proportion to their 

columns, making the thickness of the shaft at the base 
equal to the sixth part of the height, including the capital. 
Thus the Doric columns, having the proportion, firmness, 
and beauty of the human body, first began to be used in 
buildings. 

"Afterward, to construct the temple of Diana, they sought 

a new order from the same traces, copying the graceful- 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




FICJ. XIV. 

"The rose and myrtle blend in beauty round Thespian love*s hypa;thrk- 
fane; " — Temple midway between the Pynx and the Agora, Acropolis of Alabanda. 



ness of women, and making- the thickness of the columns 
an eighth part of their height, in order to give them a 
taller appearance. The folds of the base they designed 
for the shoe ; the volutes of the capital for the tresses of 
hair, drooping to the right and left ; the cymatium and 
encarpi, for the locks disposed to ornament the forehead ; 
and the channels of the 
shaft for the plaits of the 
matrons' garments. 
Thus arose the invention 
of these two different 
orders : one of a mascu- 
line appearance, naked 
and unadorned ; the 
other imitating the slen- 
derness and fine propor- 
tion of women. But 
posterity, improving in 
ingenuity and judgment , 
and delighting in more 
graceful proportions, 
fixed the height of Doric 
columns at seven times 
their diameter ; and of 
the Ionic, at eight and a 
half. This latter order 
was called Ionic, be- 
cause it was first used 
by Ion. 

" The third, which is called Corinthian, is in imitation of 
the delicacy of virgins ; for, in that tender age, the limbs 
are formed more slender, and are more graceful in attire. 
The capital is reported to have been thus invented : A 
Corinthian maid, just marriageable, being seized with a 
disorder, died: after her interment, her nurse collected, 
and disposed in a basket, the toys which pleased her when 
alive, carried it to the tomb, placed it on the top, and, 
that it might endure the longer in the open air, covered it 
with a tyle. The basket chanced to be placed over the 
root of an acanthus, which, being thus depressed in the 
middle, the leaves and stalks, in the spring season, issued 
outward, and grew round the sides of the basket ; and, 
being pressed by the 
weight at the angles of 
the tyle, were made to 
convolve at the extremi- 
ties, like volutes. At 
that time Callimachus, 
who, for his ingenuity 
and excellence in the 
arts, was, by the Athe- 
nians, named Catatech- 
nos, happening to pass 
by this tomb, took notice 
of the basket, and being 
pleased with the delicacy 
of the foliage growing 
around it, as well as the 
novelty of the form, 
made some columns near 
Corinth, according to 
this model, and from 
thence established the 




MB 

FIG. XV. 
The port of Alabanda, showing how the sea formerly extended far inland. 



symmetry and determined the proportions of the Corin- 
thian order.' ' 

In those days, even as now, the truly great architects did 
not fear to employ the very best talent wherever they 
might find it, and the most competent draftsmen were 
left free to develop the personal equation. The Romans 

slipped it over the 
Greeks a little bit in 
executive ability, and 
their offices, often with 
as many as two and 
three hundred drafts- 
men burning the mid- 
night oil for weeks on 
a stretch, were excel- 
lently equipped for 
competitions of every 
character. These drafts- 
men were culled from 
every known corner of 
the civilized and uncivi- 
lized world. Here really 
for the first time in 
history there might be 
seen, peacefully working 
side by side on the same 
drawing board and steal- 
ing each others' thumb- 
tacks, the bellicose 
inhabitant of Taurica Chersoncsus, and the olive-skinned 
hematherm of Libya Occidentalis. 

The limits of a magazine article necessarily involve 
certain Procrustian operations not binding on the prag- 
matical reflections of philosophical historians. Greece 
being divided into many small states, each having customs 
and habits peculiar to itself, it would be manifestly impos- 
sible to do justice to them all, and we can but indicate in 
a general way the trend of ideas, touching lightly here 
and there on some salient point. For fuller and more 
complete information we would refer the reader to Theo- 
phrastus, Strabo, Athanams, Aelian, Diogenes, Laertius, 
Dio Chrysostom, Philostratus, and even Alciphron and 

Artemidorus, in addition 
to others already men- 
tioned. To be really 
appreciated all these 
authors should be read 
only in the original 
tongue, otherwise the 
true spirit of these times, 
the delicate nuances and 
subtle blendings of the 
Attic timbre will be lost, 
and it will be difficult to 
form a just estimate of 
"A people who con- 
ceived all that was beau- 
tiful in art and profound 
in philosophy ; who be- 
came the instructress of 
all sciences and arts ; 
the teacher of her own 
times and posterity.'' 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



95 



Design for a Heating and Ventilating System for an 
Eight-Room School Building. 



CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



THE first two articles in the present series on School- 
house Ventilation have dealt with the subject in a 
general way, showing- how to decide upon a system to meet 
the local conditions in any particular case, and giving sim- 
ple rules and formula? for determining the size of different 
parts of the heating and ventilating apparatus. In the 
present article an actual problem will be worked out in 
detail by the methods already given, showing the way of 
preparing the plans and specifications for obtaining com- 
petitive bids. 

General Scheme. An eight-room building has been chosen , 
of the general form shown in Figs I, II, and III. The 
system employed uses a centrifugal fan for the air supply, 
while the discharge ventilation is by gravity flow assisted 
by the slight pressure in the rooms due to the fan. The 
class rooms are heated by means of supplementary heaters 
or stacks placed in the airways at the bases of the fresh- 
air flues. Small rooms and entrance corridors are pro- 
vided with direct radiators. The main corridor on the 
first floor has two foot-warmers, the same being connected 
with the fan, which provide fresh air for both the lower 
and upper corridors. Basement toilets and corridors are 
heated by means of overhead circulation coils hung about 
18 inches from the ceiling. 

Plans. The heating plans are best worked out in con- 
nection with the architect's regular Vi-inch scale floor plans, 
starting them before partitions are permanently fixed, so 
that minor changes required for the best arrangement of 
flues, heating chambers, boiler and coal rooms, etc., may 
be settled upon and incorporated in the architect's draw- 
ings. Tracings are made from the regular floor plans, 
leaving out all dimensions and architectural details which 
do not concern the heating system, as these add needlessly 
to the cost of the drawings and are apt to be more or less 
confusing to the steam fitter. It is necessary in laying 
out a heating system that the draftsman have at hand a 
set of the architect's plans containing many of the details 
of construction in order to avoid conflict with other parts 
of the work, but it is not necessary to incorporate these 
details in the heating plans themselves. The simplicity of 
these plans, so far as architectural features are concerned, 
are evident in Figs. I, II, and III. The best scale for the 
floor plans is V\ inch to the foot. Sometimes in case of 
large buildings Vh inch to the foot is large enough for the 
upper floors, but basement plans should never be less than 
the larger size as there should be ample room for all dimen- 
sions and notes without interfering with the details of the 
system. Small sections, elevations, etc., showing various 
details of construction, are very useful to the fitter and 
often save much annoyance to both architect and contrac- 
tor. These may be made either Vt inch, % inch, or Y2 inch 
to the foot, according to the amount of detail to be shown. 

Order of Design. All of the more important computa- 
tions should be made before the plans are commenced. 
These include the following and may well be worked out 
in about the order given. Air supply to each room, total 
air supply, size and speed of fan, power of motor or 



engine, size of supply flues, size of vent flues, size of main 
or primary heater, size of secondary heater for each class 
room, size of direct radiators and coils for remaining 
rooms, boiler power, boiler dimensions, and details. Sizes 
of air connections between the fan and the uptake flues 
and the steam and return piping cannot be determined 
until after they have been located and drawn in. 

Computations. The various computations noted above 
will now be worked out by the general methods given in 
the two preceding articles. 

Air Supply. Fresh air is to be supplied to eight class 
rooms and two corridors. Counting the two corridors 
equivalent to one class room, and allowing 2,000 cubic 
feet of air per minute per room (fifty pupils at 40 cubic 
feet each), gives a total of 2,000 X 9 = 18,000 cubic feet of 
air per minute, which we will call 20,000 in round numbers. 

Fan and Engine. Looking in Table 1 of the second arti- 
cle in this series, it is found that a 6-foot fan running at a 
speed of 200 revolutions per minute will deliver 20,800 
cubic feet of air under the average resistance found in this 
class of work, and is the size to be used in the present case. 

The power required for driving the fan at this speed is 
given by the same table as 10 horse power. As it is de- 
sired to return the condensation to the boilers by gravity, 
without the use of pumps, the radiators must be supplied 
with steam at boiler pressure, which should not exceed 
15 pounds per square inch. This pressure calls for an 
engine having a cylinder 15 inches in diameter, with 
8-inch stroke, and running at 250 revolutions per minute. 
A horizontal belted engine is to be used, with a pulley 
ratio of 250: 200=1.25 to give the proper speed to the 
fan. The fan foundation should extend about 4 inches 
beyond the base on all sides and be 16 inches deep for a 
solid earth footing. The engine foundation should be 
32 inches in depth. 

Supply Flues. Allowing a velocity of 600 feet per 
minute in the supply flues to the class rooms, it calls for 
an area of 2,000-^-600 = 3.33 square feet, which will be- 
taken in whole numbers as 3, thus giving a slightly higher 
velocity which is easily allowable. The maximum velocity 
through the registers should not exceed 400 feet per 
minute, which fixes the minimum area in the present case 
as 2, (tOO -■- 400= 5 square feet. The actual dimensions 
used are 18" X 24" for the flues, and 24" X 30" for the 
registers or grilles. 

/ 'en/ /'lues. The area of the vent flues in a fan system 
should be approximately 5/3 that of the supply flues, 
which is 5 square feet in this case. Making the smaller 

5 X 144 

dimension IS inches, this calls tor a flue =40 inches 

in length. The area of the grille may be made 18" X 40." 
Main Heater. This is computed by the formula, 

C X 1 3 

in which C is the cubic feet of air per hour 



S 



1500 



to be raised from a temperature of to 7o degrees, and 
S the square feet of radiating surface required in the 

main heater. 



9 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



s = 



Substituting' the value of C in the above we have, 

(20,000 X 60) X 1.3 



1500 



= 1.040 square feet. If pin radiators 

1040 



arc used, rated at 15 square feet per section, 



15 



70 sec- 



tions will be required. The heater is divided into six 
separately valved groups or sections, with two of them so 
arranged that either live or exhaust steam from the engine 
may be used in them. 

Iltat /.oss. The next step is to compute the net outside 
wall and window surface for all of the rooms to be heated. 
The dimensions may be sealed directly from the drawings 
with sufficient accuracy if reasonable care is taken. The 



The second floor is a duplicate of the first, except the 
entrances No. 5 and No. 10 are replaced by the stairways 
and supply rooms No. 14 and No. L9. The wall and win- 
dow surfaces of the stairways are included in those of the 
entrances below, and all of the radiating surface placed on 
the first floor. This leaves the stair landings free from 
radiators and gives equally good results, as the warm air 
will rise readily to the upper floor through the stair wells. 
The entrance radiators are supplemented by the foot 
warmers, which also help warm the stairways and over- 
come cold drafts from the outside doors. No special air 
supply is provided for the upper corridor, the full amount 
for both floors being supplied to the lower rooms and the 




FIG. I. 



rooms should first be numbered and a corresponding list 

made with the computed wall and class surface placed 
after each, as follows: 

Wall, Glass, 

Room No. Square Square 

Feet. Feet. 

Corridor .. 120 30 

Corridor 120 3d 

Toilet ... 200 50 

Toilet .. .. 200 ^ 50 



Basement 

Floor 



First 
Floor 



j 



l 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
I 10 

I 12 
113 



Entrance 350 110 



Office 230- 

Class Room ....... 460. 

Class Room 460. 

Teachers'... 230. 

Entrance 350 

Corridor 0. 

Class Room 460 

(lass Room 460 



40 
200 
200 

40 

110 



200 

200 



stairways being depended upon to carry the fresh air to the 
upper story. 

Heating Surface. The following ratios are used in com- 
puting the heating surfaces. Basement rooms with over- 
head coils : wall 1 to 8, .class 1 to 3, and increase forty per 
cent on account of their location near ceiling. Direct cast- 
iron radiators in entrances and small rooms: wall 1 to 8, 
class l to 3. Class rooms having secondary heaters as 
base of Hues : wall 1 to 20, class 1 to 5. 

Two foot-warmers arc used of 50 square feet each, the 
total being slightly larger than for a single class room. 

The heating surfaces are increased by the following 

factors for exposure : 

Fxposure Increase, Exposure Increase, 

of Room. per cent. of Room. per cent. 

S.W. .10 N. E. 22 

X. \V. 30 S. E. 6 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 



Following- are the type and quantity of radiating- sur- 
faces for each room figured on the above basis and cor- 
rected for exposure : 



Basement 
Floor 



First 
Floor 



Room No. 

r i - 



2 _. 

3 ._ 

4 __ 

5 ._ 

6 __ 

7 .. 

8 ._ 

9 .. 
10 _. 
11 
12 
13 



Square Feet 
of Surface. 



Type of Radiators. 

Ceiling Coil 40 

Ceiling Coil 46 

Ceiling Coil 63 

Ceiling Coil 73 



Cast-iron Radiator. 

.__ Cast-iron Radiator. 

Secondary Heater.. 

. .. Secondary Heater_ 

. __ Cast-iron Radiator. 

.__ Cast-iron Radiator . 

.__ Foot-warmers (2) __. 

... Secondary Heater. 



... 85 
... 47 
... 70 
... 82 
... 56 

98 
... 100 

67 
Secondary Heater 77 



under them. There will actually be a somewhat greater 
heat loss from the second-story rooms due to the cold attic 
above, but usually the heat rising from the lower part of 
the building is sufficient to offset this unless the roof is 
very poorly constructed. In the present case no allowance 
has been made. 

Boiler Power. This is computed by the formula 

p = ( M - 1 ' 500) + (S X 400) + (C x 300) + ( R x 25 °) 
'". ' 30,000 

in which, 

M = square feet of surface in main heater. 

S = square feet of surface in secondary heaters. 

C = square feet of surface in coils. 

R = square feet of surface in cast-iron radiators. 
This gives 

_ (1,040 X 1,500) + (692 X 400) + (222 X 300) + (486X 250) 
"■"* ~ - 30~0J0 

= 67. Two 48-inch tubular boilers are used, each having 




FIG. III. 



Second 
Floor 







Square Feet 


oom No. 


Type of Radiators. 


of Surface. 


14 


Cast-iron Radiator 


45 


15 .... 


Cast-iron Radiator 


. .. 47 


16 


Secondary Heater 


70 


17 


Secondary Heater. __ 


82 


18 


Cast-iron Radiator 


56 


19 


Cast-iron Radiator __ 


52 


20 _.__ 


No Radiators. 




21 


Secondary Heater 


67 


22 .__. 


Secondary Heater 


77 



I 

Overhead Coils. These are made up of 1-inch pipe which 
requires 3 linear feet per square foot of heating surface, 
and gives the following coil dimensions for the basement 
rooms : No. 1, 5 lines 24 feet long; No. 2, 6 lines 24 feet 
long; No. 3, 5 lines 38 feet long; No. 4, 5 lines 44 feet 
long. 

Direct Radiators. Two-column radiators 32 inches high 
are used in the small rooms, and the heating surface is 
changed slightly on the drawings from the preceding- 
schedule as it is of course necessary to use a whole number 
of sections. Three-column radiators are used in the 
entrances in order to reduce the length. 

Secondary Heaters. These are made up of pin radiators 
rated at 10 square feet each, and therefore the heating sur- 
faces for the different rooms must be multiples of 10. This 
gives for the various class rooms the following : No. 7, 
70 square feet; No. 8, 80 square feet; No. 12, 70 square 
feet ; No. 13, 80 square feet. The heaters for the second- 
floor class rooms will be the same as for those directly 



forty-four 3-inch tubes, 12 feet long, and rated at 35 horse- 
power. These call for grates 42" X 54" each, and a smoke 
connection with the chimney of 640 square inches for the 
two boilers. 

Steam and Return Piping. The steam piping is indicated 
in heavy full lines and the returns in broken lines. The 
latter are carried near the basement floor in order to seal 
them, and the condensation flows back to the boilers by 
gravity. The pipes are carried along outside walls and 
inside partitions in order to avoid trenching. 

The pipe sizes are based on the following tables ; 



Square Feet. 

150 

300.... 

500.... 

700.... 

1000 

2000 



MAIN HEATER. 

Steam Pipe. 

2" .... 

2*'— . 

3" 

3K"~ 

4" 

5" 



Return Pipe. 
...AH' 

- IK" 

2" 
.... 2" 

— -ZH' 

3" 



SECONDARY HEATERS. 
Square Feet. Steam Pipe. 

r 

iK" 



40. 
70 
100 
260 
480. 
800 
1100 



-IK" 

.2" 
2'," 
3" 



DIRECT RADIATION. 

Square Feet. Steam Pipe. 

80 1» 

150 1 V 

200.. IK" 

550 .2' 

950 2K' 

1600 3" 



2300 



3>," 



9 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Steam Pipe. 
1' .... 



SIZES OF RETURNS. 

Dry Return. 
1» 



Sealed Return. 



\H'- 

v,r 

2" .. 

3'... 

3'.." 



.1'.. 

_2'__ 

_2'.,"_ 



- %' 

.1' 

.1" 

IV 
1H* 

2" 
.2' 



The piping is first laid out without regard to size, then 
the square feet of radiation of different kinds on each 
branch and main is added up and noted in pencil on the 
drawing'. The corresponding pipe size from the tables is 
then put down in ink and the pencil figures erased. When 
there are both secondary heaters and direct radiators on 
the same line it simplifies matters to call each square foot 
of secondary or indirect radiation equivalent to two of 




PIG. IV. 

Section through fan and heater rooms. 

direct and treat the whole system as direct radiation in 
determining the pipe sizes. 

The main heater is always placed on an independent 
line of piping and all computations are worked out 
separately. 

Basement Airways. The connections between the fan 
and the uptakes to the rooms are laid out by first drawing 
in the center lines in pencil, then determining the volume 
of air which is to Mow through each main and branch and 




computing the sectional area according to the velocities 
.U'iven below : 

Trunk lines, 1,000 feet per min. Branches, 700 feet per min. 
The flow through the airways is equalized by the use of 
deflecting dampers at the junctions so that the right pro- 
portion can be delivered to each flue. 

Toilet Ventilation. The toilet fixtures 
are connected by means of local vents 
with a closed 

chamber which I I jl . .. ->y V~ 

in turn connects 
with a brick flue 
surrounding the 
iron boiler stack. 
This heats the 
Hue sufficiently 
to produce a 
strong draft without the use of vent fans. 

Coat Room Vents. The wardrobes in this building al- 
located in the main corridors as shown in Figs. II and III. 
These are vented through grilles at the center on each side 
of the corridor into brick flues heated by loops of steam pipe. 

General Directions. In laying out a system of heating 
and ventilation it is neither convenient nor necessary to be 
exact in all cases. That is, heating surfaces must often 
be changed slightly to conform with the type of radiator 
used ; boilers of 



FIG. V. 

Sectional elevation of secondary heaters 
and casing. 



', <S*St 







stock size must 
be employed : 

air duets are not 

always changed 

in size every 

time a branch is 

taken off, etc. 

In making these 

changes, how- 

e v er , t h e d e - 

signer should always keep on the side of safety, by 

using the next larger size, unless the reduction is very 

small. The accompanying plans show the usual method 

of representing a system of this kind, and a following 

article will give specifications for the same. 



PIG. VI. 

Plan view of group of secondary heaters 
and casing. 




MEYER ARCADE, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. WILLIAM If. KENTON, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE COURT. 



HOUSE OF THE VETII, POMPEII. 



WALL DECORATIONS. 



Distinguished Architecture as a Precedent. II. 



C. HOWARD WALKER 



THE forms of the architecture of Rome were derived 
from the Greek orders, as far as columns and entabla- 
tures are concerned, — but there appeared early in Roman 
work a constructive factor which revolutionized design. 

The semicircular arch at once permitted larger spans 
between supports than occurred with the lintel, and the 
arch, when used, tended to destroy the regular interco- 
lumniation of colonnades. 

The arch introduced into architectural design at a large 
scale the element of the curved line which had previously 
occurred only in details, and soon made that line the 
dominant motive of the design. A circle is the most 
conspicuous of all geometric motives and the semicircular 
arch became the most conspicuous factor in Roman archi- 
tecture. Coincident with the opportunity to enlarge spans 
and areas offered 
by the use of the 
arch came the 
necessity for 
more spacious 
buildings to 
accommodate 
larger masses of 
people. The 
arch made possi- 
ble the great 
baths of Cara- 
calla and of 
Diocletian, the 
palaces on the 
Palatine Hill, 
the so-called 
Basilica of Con- 
stantine, and the 
villa of Hadrian, 
and while the 
temples in the 
Forum main- 
tained the tradi- 
tion of the 




AKCII OF CONSTANTINE, ROME. 



colonnade with lintels, that was associated with the temples 
of the past; and just as the modern ecclesiastical work main- 
tains its architectural traditions, so the secular and civic 
buildings, mausoleums, etc., were designed with the arch 
as the chief structural motive. 

The harmony of the formal repetition of one motive was 
so inherent in classic design in Greece, that no change in 
method was considered by Rome, and the arches were with 
few exceptions, one of which is the Arch of Constantine, 
the same size in any one structure — variation in the sizes 
of arches appearing in the decline of the arts in the reign 
of Diocletian. Previous to that time large opening's were 
spanned by similar arches, while the necessary smaller 
openings retained the lintels, and were of minor importance. 
The composition of the facades of Roman secular 

buildings be- 
came, therefore, 
one of combina- 
tions of piers 
and arched open- 
ings, on one, 
two, or in ore 
stories - and the 
columns and en- 
tablatures were 
often used as 
mere frames 
enclosing the 
spaces contain- 
ing the arched 
openings. The 
arcade in which 
t h e a r C h e s 

sprung from the 
abaci of the 
columns was of 
a later develop- 
ment ami ap- 
pears in Spalato. 

The fact that the 






IOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



columns and entabla- 
tures had become 
ornamental features 
unnecessary as struc- 
ture lias caused severe 
criticism of Roman 
design amongst the 



» 3* 



strafe =* -.J* : 





surfaces and mould- 
ings by carving had 
taken its place with the 
Romans. The paint- 
ing of surfaces between 
structural factors is 
evidenced in the I louse 



■f~ 



STUCCO TREATMENT, TOMIS IN THE VIA I.ATINA, ROME. 





DETAIL OF COLOSSEUM, 
ROME. 



purists — who claim that Roman 
architecture was not only veneered 
upon its surfaces — but had a 
veneered apparent structure 
placed Upon the face of its actual 
structure. 

The use of the circle in the 
plan as well as in the elevation 
was constantly more frequent 
until it reaches its height in the 
time of Hadrian, when circular 
buildings became almost a 
fashion. 

Arched structure prolonged 
produced the barrel vault, and 
whirled about a circular plan pro- 
duced the domical vault, and both 
became factors in design — inside 
and outside. Both were divided 
into compartments or caissons or 
panels to lighten the material, and later the panels were 
fused and ribs used. In the Greek ceilings the panels 
produced by the beams were rectangular. The Roman 
caissons were of 
various geomet- 
rical designs, 
often of great 
interest. They 
varied in depth 
a n d f o r m e d 
backgrounds for 
applied o ma- 
in e n t . T h e 
polychromy of 
the Greeks upon 
t h e e x t e r i o r 
of the buildings 
had largely dis- 
appeared by the 
third century 
p.. c, and the 
decoration of 




DETAIL ()F THEATRE 
OF MARCELLUS, ROME. 




DECOKATKK WALL SURFACE, POMPEII. 



of Germanicus on the Palatine 

and in Pompeii, as shown in the 
illustration of the House of the 
Vetii, and the use of marbles of 
various colors increased as the 
luxury of Rome grew. Except in 
the less important buildings the 
color of materials — bronze, gold, 
and colored marbles — took the 
place of painting, and it is in the 
use of marble mosaics in tesserae 
or small fragments in doors, and 
marble veneers in large sheets 
and borders upon walls, that 

Roman design is suggestive. In 

all cases the design conformed to 
the scale of the building. In the 
huge halls of the baths, etc., the 
panels were ample, simple, and 
broad — while in the small domes- 
tie rooms of the villas, the ornament was delicate and 
small in scale. See the illustration of a decorated wall 
from Pompeii in its harmonious design and richness. 

A method of 
obtaining low 
relief by apply- 
ing stucco with 
abrnsh — which 
is best seen in 
the tombs in the 
V i a F 1 a m i n i a 
and t h e Y i a 
La t i n a — was 
- »iii imitated in 
low relief carv- 
ing as shown in 
the illustration. 
The decorated 
keystone in the 
arch is a new 
mot i v e , a n d 
seems to have 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



101 




DETAIL, TEMPLE OF JUPITER, SPALATO. 



been used 
more to re- 
peat the tone 
of the carved 
caps in the 
same line, 
than to 
mark the 
axis of the 
openingf. 

The carved 
acanthus 
was f r e - 
(| u e n 1 1 y 
used, elab- 
o r a t e 1 y 
wrought and 
of carefully 
constructed 
plan. Its 
lobes were 
in most 
cases con- 
cave , as 
were those 
of the Greek 



acanthus, but 
they were not 
as sharp at 
the points, at 
times being 
almost circu- 
lar in profile. 
The n a m e 
given to the 
leafage — the 
acanthus 
molle, the soft 
acanthus — ■ 
indicates the 
character of 
the leaf. 

The deco- 
rated scroll is 
a favorite Ro- 
man orna- 
ment, robust 
in character, 
and leaving 
but little 
background 
evident. All 




DETAIL, TEMPLE OF AESCULAPIUS, SPALATO. 




VIEW OF THE PERISTYLITJM OF THE PALACE OF EMPEROR DIOCLETIAN, SPALATO IN DALMATIA. 



102 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




GOLDEN GATEWAY. SPALATO. 



DETAIL AT BAALBEC. 



Roman ornament up to the time of Hadrian was vigorous 
and luxuriant — during his reign the study of Greek work- 
in Athens refined and made more delieate the Roman 
motives. One of the most famous of the scrolls is from 
the Forum of Nerva. 

The rosette was frequently used, and usually in high 
relief. The Roman work is suggestive from its vigor and 
simplicity of arrangement, its luxuriant development of 
structural decoration, and the magnificent scale of its 
achievements, especially in the plans of its buildings. 
A very con- 
siderable ex- 
penditure is 
necessary for its 
accomplish- 
ment. 

The smaller 
and moredomes- 
tic work has 
been preserved 
for us in Pom- 
peii and Iler- 
culaneum. It is 
largely painted 
decoration upon 
a stucco which 
covers the struc- 
ture, and is in 
three zones, the 
dado, the wall, 
and the frieze. 
The dado is 
usual] y t h e 
darkest and is 
evidently utili- 
tarian — as a background for furniture, and subject to 
being marred and therefore kept simple. The wall is sub- 
divided into panels of color with delieate borders, and 
some small decorative subject in the center of the panel. 
The frieze acts as a top border to the room, defining the 
wall from the ceiling. The wall panels usually set the 
dominant color for the room. This method of subdivision 
of wall surface was adapted to modern conditions in the 
Empire style in 1800, and the colored walls of Pompciian 




DETAIL AT BAALBEC 



houses are but little fitted to modern environment, except- 
ing perhaps in very small rooms. 

During the second century all arts declined in Rome both 
as to character of design and skill in workmanship. 

The indiscriminate use of columns and arches of various 
sizes, the breaking tip of entablatures, and the introduc- 
tion of heavy corbel courses began the progress towards 
that absolute license in design which ignored the orders 
and made possible the development of Romanesque and 
Gothic art. When Diocletian retired to Dalmatia and built 

his enormous 
palace at Spalato 
there was great 
latitude in the 
design, as there 
was also in Baal- 
bec and Pal- 
myra, and new 
com b i nation s 
appeared. This 
later work which 
was derived 
from classic 
precedent is ex- 
tremely sugges- 
tive in the use 
of rich and al- 
most florid de- 
tail applied to 
broad mould- 
ings and to sur- 
faces, but still 
held firmly in 
rectangular or 
s e m i c ir c u 1 a r 
frames. There is no more luxuriant type of detail than 
the carving of this period, but it is orderly in arrangement 
and firmly held, and the silhouettes of the work are simple 
in character. Several illustrations of the rich detail of 
this period are given from the Acropolis of Baalbec and 
the Golden Gateway in Spalato. This detail is derived 
from the motives of the earlier Roman work ; but is used 
much more abundantly upon plain surfaces than is cus- 
tomary with either the Greeks or Romans in their best art. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 4. PLATE 43. 



» 




( ' Al^I EN J CJ\ E N LOOMIS • F.SQ 
south- orange - n- J- 

3<.vU >__: 




HOUSE AND GARDEN PLAN AT SOUTH ORANGE. N. J. 

Grosvenor atterbury, Architect. 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 44. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 45. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 46, 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 48. 




RECTORY FOR CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART. 

MANCHESTER-BY-THE-SEA, MASS. 

Matthew Sullivan, Architect. 



I I 



THE B RIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 49. 




THE LITTLE THEATRE, 240 WEST 44TH STREET. NEW YORK CITY. 
Harry Creighton Ingalls and F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr., Associated, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 50, 




TWO VIEWS OF AUDITORIUM. 

THE LITTLE THEATRE, 240 WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Harry Creighton Ingalls and F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr., Associated, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 51. 




LOUNGE. 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 52. 



n.) ..-:.:__ 



O S JO JO 




•Plan 



i 



EXTERIOR DETAILS AND PLANS. 

THE LITTLE THEATRE, 240 WEST 44-TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Harry Creighton Ingalls and F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr., Associated, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 53. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 54. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 55. 




nR&T FLOOK. PLAN 



SECTION OF FRONT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 4. PLATE 56. 





s-ioae PIA/V 



APARTMENT HOUSE, 116 E. 5STH ST., 

NEW YORK CITY. 

J. E. R. Carpenter, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Commemorative Monuments. — III. 



103 



H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLK. 



WE come now to four statues that are not portraits ; 
they are abstractions or symbols ; the first is 
Mr. French's Alma Mater in front of the Library of Colum- 
bia University by McKim, who designed the exceedingly 
simple pedestal which har- 
monizes so well with its 
surrounding's. 

The second is the colossal 
statue symbolizing the French 
Republic, in the long- and 
rather narrow Place de la 
Republique in Paris. The 
scale of the monument is in 
proportion to its importance 
as the central feature of a 
large square ; the base is 
given a richer treatment than 
is permissible in a mere por- 
trait statue. The upper part 
is circular and therefore re- 
tains the same outline from 
any point of view; it is very 
difficult to design a pedestal 
for a standing figure of any- 
where from 7 feet to 9 feet 
6 inches in height, unless the 
mass is amplified by a chair 
or other adjunct, because the 
feet take up so little room that 
it is hard to get mass enough 
in the pedestal to make it an 
adequate support; so that one 

is grateful for a square form which enlarges itself in per- 
spective. Here, however, the draperies of the figure 
provide a mass for which the circular pedestal is ample. 




vrTrrnr 

STATUE OF THE REPUBLIC, PARIS. 



The Nathan Hale illustrated in the first article has a 
circular pedestal by Stanford White, the only one in this 
country that I can recall at the moment ; but the figure is 
so slender that the two are well proportioned to each other. 

The third is one of the 
eight allegorical figures dis- 
posed at the angles of the 
Place de la Concorde, and 
represents the city of Stras- 
bourg, lost to the French in 
the Franco-Prussian war. 
The wreaths we see are placed 
here every year as tokens of 
the undying regret of the 
French nation and as visible 
symbols of the hope that some 
day Alsace-Lorraine may be 
won again to their flag. These 
eight statues occur in pairs 
at the corners of the huge 
square, each pair connected 
by a balustrade, a portion of 
which may be seen in the 
photograph. 

The fourth, one of the most 
beautiful if not the most beau- 
tiful allegorical or symbolic 
figure I know, is that of 
Bellona extending the olive 
branch of peace, as the 
Soldiers and Sailors Monu- 
ment in Jersey City. I con- 
fess to such a weakness for this monument that I give three 
views of it, and could I have secured one of the side would 
have given that as well. It is worth a pilgrimage to see, 




ALMA MATER, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. MCKINLEY MONUM ENT, PHILADELPHIA. 



COOPER MONUMENT. NEW VnKK 



104 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 



although the custodian of 
the unspeakable City Hal] 

has done his host to ruin it 
by erecting an iron fence 
around it, let into the Stylo- 
bate. 'This sort of thing 
heats hollow all the soldiers 
at parade-rest and charge- 
bayonets we are afflicted 
with all over our unhappy 
land. I have always felt 

this to he Philip Martiny's 

masterpiece. His collabo- 
rator was Albert Randolph 

Ross whose first work in 
this kind this was, I believe; 
and there is a Spring in the 
line of the pedestal that 
unites it with the big lines 
of the figure and makes 
them as nearly one mass 
as bronze ami Milford 
granite can he. 

In the Peter Cooper Mon 



V 




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'M*M 







STATUE OF THE CITY OF STRASBOURG, PARIS. 



rough loose garments of 

the statue. 

In this respect the Bryant 
Statue and its protecting 
baldachino, in the rear of 
the Xew York Public 
Library, are much better. 
Mr. Herbert Adams has 
thrown a robe over the legs 
of the aged poet, gotten 
rid <>f the trousers and thus 
succeeded in harmonizing 
his figure with the archi- 
tecture. While this has 
not yet cooled off, let us 
be bold and say that the 
vertical lines of the col- 
umns and of the cedars 
behind, with the glimpses 
one gets of the heavy 
horizontal shadows of the 
rustication of the Library, 
are disturbing and detract 
from the effect I if this beau- 




THREE VIEWS, SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, JERSEY CITY, X. J. 



ument in the little 
triangle south of 
Cooper l'n ion in 
X e w York, b y 

McKim. Mead & 
White and St. ( ran 
dens, we find that 
lack of correspond- 
ence in character 
between the statue 
and pedestal which 
has been referred to; 
each is excellent in 
itself; but the deli- 
cate classic detail of 
the pedestal and 
tablet seem quite out 
of key with the 





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f I* : 









MARYLAND ONION SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MEMORIAL, BALTIMORE. 



tiful statue ; one 
would have pre- 
ferred a solid niche 
with an extremely 
simple wall surface 
in which there would 
have been no lines 
cutting at all sorts of 
point! against the 
figure. 

Up to this point 
we have dealt with 
the single figure ; 
those that follow are 
more complicated 
compositions, the 
simplest being - the 
McKinlev Memorial 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



io 5 



at the City Hall in Philadelphia by Mr. Ross and Messrs. 
Lopez and Konti, the latter of whom took up the work 
after Mr. Lopez's death. It is not as successful as most 
of those with which Mr. Ross has had to do, the lower 
pedestal supporting: the figure of Columbia teaching' the 
child from McKinley's example, not being- satisfactorily 
united with the pedestal of the statue. The figures referred 
to seem meag-er and tinny in modeling- and surface. The 
architecture is executed in Stony Creek granite. 

In the Maryland Union Soldiers and Sailors Memorial in 
Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, Mr. Ross and Mr. Weinman 
ag-ain collaborated. The idea expressed is that of the 
young- soldier of Maryland leaving his anvil and his plow- 




MCKINLEY MEMORIAL, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

share and buckling- on his sword, urged forward by the 
Goddess of War and his mother-state. The pedestal is 
curved on the front and rear, the curved surfaces bearing 
the inscription and the coat-of-arms of Maryland, and 
on the straight sides bas-reliefs in Knoxville marble set in 
the pink granite, represent- 
ing the army and the 
navy. 

The McKinley Memorial at 
Columbus, Ohio, an unusual 
and interesting composition, 
is by Messrs. Lord and Hew- 
lett and Hermon A. McNeill. 
The sculpture is especially 
fine in modeling and charac- 
ter, and merely as a portrait 
the statue is superlatively 
good. The way in which the 
pedestal pierces or divides the 




BURGHERS OF CALAIS 
MONUMENT, 




tablet is not 
perhaps en- 
tirely fortu- 
nate, and the 
wisdom of the 
subdivision of 
so small a com- 
position into 
p r a c t i c a 1 1 y 
s e v en parts 
(the two end 
groups, the two 
portions of the 
seat, the two 
parts of the 
tablet, and the 
principal ped- 
estal) may be 
questioned ; 
but it has in- 
ter e s t a n d m 
c o lor. T h e 
stone is Federal 
Hill granite 
fro m N e w 
Jersey. In the 
background is 
the fine old Capit< 
entrance. 

We reserve to the last the group which tells the story 
of those Burghers of Calais who came forth after the siege 
of the city, starved, gaunt, and haggard, to deliver up the 
keys of the gates to the victor. This is one of those 
exceptional instances where the genius of the sculptor, 
defying every accepted canon of his art, has triumphed. 
For centuries it has been a law of composition that a group 
of figures must be composed in more or less pyramidal 
form, but Rodin has cast aside this formula and appeals 
straight to the heart rather than to the intellect and out- 
preconceived notions of sculptural composition. It is 

merely a procession of awful 
presences who impose them- 
selves on our imagination 
[telling their awful story. In 
feeble hands subjects of this 
episodical nature are apt to 
degenerate into the theatrical 
or the sentimental, and this 
is one of the very few exam- 
ples of what we may call the 
" literary idea, " that in its 
tremendous power, its deep 
personal appeal, is its own 
justification. 



BRYANT STATUE, NEW YORK CITY 



and the monument is opposite the 



CALAIS, 
I K WCE. 



io6 



THE BRI CKBUILDER. 



Insurance Exchange Building, Chicago, 111. 



CHICAGO, the birthplace of skyscrapers, possesses 
many excellent examples of buildings erected for 
commercial life. Each one portrays a definite idea as to 
the fitness of the design in conjunction with its practical 
needs. They also reveal the consistent treatment of 
architectural forms by means of the various materials most 
easily acquired and best adapted to this type of building-. 

The extreme height of fireproof structures calls for a 
substance that is light and 
absolutely lire resisting and 
at the same time conforms 
to the esthetic demands. 
The characteristics have 
been adequately met 
through the use of terra 
cotta. The ornamental, 
delicate, and weathering 
qualities of this material 
have gradually and consis- 
tently won recognition, 
and it is now universally 
used in the construction 
of all large commercial 
buildings. 

One of Chicago's most 
modern office structures is 
the Insurance Exchange 
Building located in the 
heart of the financial 
center. It is twenty-one 
stories in height, resting 
upon caisson foundations 
which extend to bed-rock. 
The exterior is of cream- 
white enameled terra cotta 
and enameled brick, lend- 
ing a perfect harmony both 
as to texture and color. 
The design, which reveals 
a serious attempt to portray 
its exclusively commercial 
aspect, has resulted in lines 
and proportions of dignified 



I). II. BURNHAM .v CO., ARCHITECTS. 

simplicity. It follows the developed type of divisions for 




structures of its kind, while the vertical lines are duly 
emphasized and the corners treated as abutments. 

The building is of steel frame construction and requires 
an unusual amount of terra cotta throughout the whole 
structure. The quality of lightness has enabled the arch- 
itect to use the minimum amount of space for walls and 
thereby enhances the value of the rental portions. This 

prevents the sacrificing of 
the eommericial value of 
the building and at the 
same time allows full free- 
dom for the ornamentation. 
Such a problem as that of 
meeting the practical re- 
quirements of the office 
type in a most economical 
manner and increasing the 
earning capacity has be- 
come a matter of much 
import, and one cannot 
help but feel that this 
structure most nearly 
approaches the proper 
solution. 

The first three stories, 
built entirely of terra 
cotta, portray the pleasing 
results obtained in adapt- 
ing the design to the 
material itself. The orna- 
mental entrances with their 
delicate detail, the columns 
with exceptionally good 
jointing and alignment, 
and the decorative panels 
in the frieze of the third 
story all demonstrate the 
effective design resulting 
from a consistent and care- 
ful handling of terra cotta. 
The unusually large Ionic 
capitals are made in one 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN — BANK FLOOR. 



FOURTH AND TYPICAL FLOOR PLANS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



107 




UPPER AND LOWER STORIES, INSURANCE EXCHANGE BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 

D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



io8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



in 



and economy, which always seem to speak for themselves. 
The brick house looks so much more substantial than the 
frame house that we now are using brick every time. 

' The brick house is much cooler in summer than the 
frame house and we have tested the heating - in winter and 
find that it takes thirty-three per cent more fuel for a frame 
house than for a brick house." 



AMALGAMATION OF AMERICAN SCHOOLS 
IN ROME. 

)ROF. JESSE BENEDICT CARTER, Director of the 
American School of Classical Studies, says in his 

annual report that the 
amalgamation of the 
American School of Class- 
ical Studies with the 
American Academy, form- 
ing together a great and 
unique institution of Amer- 
ican learning in the Eter- 
nal City and placing it on 
one of the most beautiful 
spots on the top of the his- 
toric Janiculum, is the 
realization of the organiza- 
tion's most cherished ideal. 
Professor Carter also an- 
nounces in his report that 
another nation may soon 
follow the American ex- 
ample of amalgamating its 
schools in Rome. He ev- 
idently refers to England, 
who has already made ar- 
rangements for trans- 
ferring the British School, 
now at the Palazzo Odes- 
calchi, to the beautiful building erected to house the col- 
lection of paintings for the exhibition last year. To the 
British School, which so far has dealt with archaeology 
and classical studies, will be added work in the fine arts. 

An interesting passage of the report is a quotation from 
the Librarian, Mr. Van Buren, who says that in the last 
year the number of volumes in the library grew from 6,896 
to 7,350, while the periodicals have increased from 54 to 79. 




COAT OF ARMS OF CANADIAN 
PROVINCES. 

Executed in buff terra cotta by 
the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company 
for the Herald Building, Montreal. 

David R. Brown & Hugh Vallance, 
Architects. 




vJljkA*^, 




INTERIOR ENTRANCE DETAIL. 

Executed in buff terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company for 

the Herald Building, Montreal. 

David R. Brown & Hugh Vallance, Architects. 



EXTERIOR ENTRANCE DETAIL. 

Executed in buff terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company for 

the Herald Building, Montreal. 

David R. Brown & Hugh Vallance, Architects. 

Professor Carter ends by paying a tribute to Herbert 
Fletcher de Cou, who for seven years had been connected 
with the schools, and who on March 11, 1911, was murdered 
by Arabs at Cyrene, Tripoli, concluding as follows : 

" He lies in classical soil, even as he lived his life in the 
classic world. He died for those things which he held 
sacred — the love of ancient art and the loyalty of friend- 
ship." 

FIRE LOSSES AND BUILDING LAW. 

IN discussing the fire losses in and about Boston during 
the past year the Boston Herald says, editorially: " The 
fire loss last year in the cities and towns of the metro- 
politan park district was reported at $4,000,000. By 
English or 
European 
standards this 
loss would 
approximate 
$750,000. One 
obvious reason 
for. so great a 
difference is in 
the prevalence 
of frame con- 
struction, es- 
pecially for 
housing, both 
in this district 
and through- 
out the entire 
country. For- 
eign c i t i e s 
have 1 a r g e 
areas of fire- 
proof construc- 
tion and the 
rest not infer- 
ior to our so- 
called second-class buildings, with timbered floors and 
roofs, but incombustible walls and roof covering. Thej 
cannot afford our perishable frame construction, nor can 
we much longer in our cities and suburbs at the present 
rate of destruction by fire." 




DETAIL FOR SCHOOL BUILDING, 
BROOKLYN, N. V. 

Brick, Terra Cotta <Sr Tile Company, Makers 
C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 



I 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




.ininmmniriiiiiB-ir 




CROISIC BUILDING, FIFTH AVE. AM) 26TH ST., NEW YORK. 

Body of building of Kittanning White Brick furnished by Pfotenhauer- 

Nesbit Company. Architectural terra cotta executed by 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 

Browne & Almirotv, Architects. 



NATIONAL TERRA COTTA SOCIETY. 

THIS Society was formed by twenty companies of the 
East, Middle West, and West tor the purpose of: 
Encouraging the production of the best material, and the 
maintenance of a high standard of work ; spreading the 
knowledge of the many advantageous qualities of 
good architectural terra cotta 
through the medium of adver- 
tising and the publication of 
books, pamphlets, and other 
forms of trade literature ; co- 
operating in the investigation 
and study of the more important 
technical and other problems of 
the business, and advancing 
the genera] interests of the terra 
cotta industry in every legal and 
proper way. 

The officers of the Society 
arc in the People's Gas Building, Chicago, Fritz Wagnei 
president, William I). Gates, secretary. 



43d and 44th streets. It will have a frontage of 
200.10 feet on the avenues and 215.8 feet on each 
street. The facade will be of brick, terra cotta, lime- 
stone, and granite. There will.be two large banquet 
rooms and accommoda- 
tions for about 1 ,200 guests. 
Twelve sets of tracks will 
run under the hotel, giving 
immediate access from the 
trains to the hotel without 
going to the street. The 
total height will be 305 
feet. The architects are 
Warren & Wetmore. 



TI IE town of Brookline, 
Ma^-s., proposes the 
enactment of a law which 
will put an end to the use 
of shingles for roofs. The 
shingle roof is considered a 
menace to the community 
in the case of a conflagra- 
tion. It is argued that 
tiles, slate, and other ma- 
terials available for lire re- 
sisting roofs, if not actually 
falling in price, become 
every year more nearly 
within competitive reach, 
and that even where the 
first cost of these materials 
is greater than that of 
shingles their permanency 
makes them in the long 




DETAIL FOR THEATRE. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 

Albert E. Westover, Architect. 



run quite as inexpensive. 



TERRA COTTA FOR THE INSURANCE 
EXCHANGE BUILDING. 



THE architectural terra cc 
change Building, Chicag 




cotta for the Insurance Ex- 
ago, I). H. Burnham & Com- 
pany, architects, described in 
this issue, was furnished by 
the Northwestern Terra Cotta 
Company. 



DETAIL BY JOHN D. ATCHISON, ARCHITECT 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company, Makers 



TWENTY-KIN-STORY HOTEL, NEW YORK CITY 



THE New York Central and Hudson River Railroad 
Company and the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad Company will erect a $4,500,000 hotel on architecture at 514 Smithfield street, Pittsburgh. Manu 
the block bounded by Madison and Yanderbilt avenues, faeturers' catalogues and samples solicited. 



IN GENERAL. 

The architectural terra cotta 

for the Dayton Daily News 

Building, Albert Pretzinger. 

architect, illustrated in the Plate 

Form of this issue, was furnished 

by the Atlantic Terra Cotta 

Company. 

The buildings of the new Mt. Saint .Mary's Hospital 

to be built at Niagara Falls, N. Y., will be faced 

with impervious "Bradford Reds" furnished by the 

Bradford Pressed Brick Company. More than 500,000 

bricks will be required. 

J. II. Giesey has opened up offices for the practice of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



"3 



The American Enameled Brick & Tile Company of 
New York has issued a new catalogue in which they 
describe and illustrate various sizes, shapes, and colors of 
the enameled brick which they manufacture. ( >ther valua- 
ble data relating' to the constructive uses of their bricks 
is given. 

Charles F. Wright and John G. White have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture, with offices 
at 812 New First National Bank Building, Columbus, Ohio. 




DETAIL OF POST-OFFICE, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Gray brick furnished by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

James Knox Taylor, Architect. 

The South Ambey Terra Cotta Company furnished the 
architectural terra cotta for the larger of the two restau- 
rants at Newark, N. J., illustrated on Plate 41 of The 
Brickbuildek for March. 

Carlyle Nisbct and A. Sidney Brown have opened offices 
for the practice of architecture at 311 Grand avenue, 
Macon, Ga. 

The New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company will 
furnish the terra cotta for the new High School to be 
erected in the city of Albany, Messrs. Goldwin, 
Starrett & Van Vleck, architects. 

Robert N. Cleverdon, successor to Clever- 
don & Putzel, announces the removal of his 
offices to 4 East 42d street, New York City. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, 122 Anus 
Building, Boston, announce that George C. 





Shaft nek 

h a s b e e n 
admitted to 
partnership 
in t h c i r 
firm. 

The Arch- 
itect u r a 1 
League of 
America 
announces 
that for t he- 
year 1912- 
1913 four 
Scholar- 
ships a r e 
available , 
thru e i n 
II a r v a r d 
University 
and one in 
Washing- 
ton Univer- 
s i t y , St. 
Louis. 

T h e s e 
S c h o 1 a r - 
ships en- 
title their 
holders to 
free tuition 
for one 

year, the cost of such tuition being $150. The Scholar- 
ships will be awarded to those who stand highest in the 
competitions in design to be held in May, and who fulfil 
the other requirements. The competitions will be con- 
ducted in the various cities through the organizations 
affiliated with the League. 

For further particulars apply to Albert E. Skeel, Rose 
Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The statutory registration of architects is being advo- 
cated by The Society of Architects and the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. The majority of the members of 
both these architectural bodies favor the enactment of such 
a law. It is not unlikely 
that these two architectural 
associations will eventua 
be merged in one. 

I [ubert G. Ripley has 
been appointed architec- 
tural advisor to the City 
of Boston Art Com 
mission . A m o n g 
o t h e r d u t i e 



FAIENCE WALL TREATMENT TO ENTRANCE 
OF APARTMENT HOUSE. 
Executed by the Hartford Faience Company. 
Russell F. Barker, Architect. 




DETAIL BY W. II- MCELFATRICK , ARCHITECT, 

The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



ii 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Mr. Ripley will have charge of the placing of statues in the 
Public Garden. 

Report from recent discoveries in Pompeii reveal the 
fact that the excavators arc working' in a part of the city 
that was more deeply buried by the great eruption than 
was the portion hitherto uncovered. There were in 




FIREPLACE BY GKOSVENOR ATTERBURV, ARCHITECT. 
Built "f "Tapestry" brick furnished by Fiske & Company, Inc. 

Pompeii no tall buildings, but many, perhaps the 
majority of them, had second stories with balconies and 
porticos on the more important structures. Of these, till 
now, little more than hints or traces have been found, 
owing presumably to the fact that they were for centuries 
more or less exposed to the weather or to the many acci- 
dents and robberies that a shallow covering of ashes made 
possible. The city has been a mine of priceless treasures 
both for the archaeologist and the student of the classics. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK -REG. U.S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Fireplace Page 114 

Orosvknor Atterbury, Architect. 



T=}ISKE £r COMPANY JNC 
IACE bricks; ESTABLISH 
AIRE BRICKS* ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



Clarence W. Wigington and William L. Bell have formed 
a copartnership for the practice of architecture with 
offices in the Karbach Block. Omaha, Neb. 

Holabird & Roche have removed their offices from the 
Monadnock Block to the Monroe Building', 104 South 
Michig'an Boulevard, Chicago. 



School of Architecture 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Summer Courses in Architectural Design 

For circular giving details with regard to these 
courses, apply to Professor H. L. Warren, Chairman of 
the Department of Architecture, Harvard University. 



BOILERS and RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



We.tfield, Man. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 



"5 



STANDARD 



WALL BLOCKS 



2"X I2.X 12" 



3"X I27X 12. 




Mote:- 5tamdar.d wall blocks each make 

1 5q.pt. of wall.thickne55 im wall 15 given fir.st, width im wall 8"xi2"xi2" 

second, height im wall 01llength of h0llow5, third. 8"xiz"»i2." meam5 8"thick, 12." wide 

and 1.2" hiqh. 8xlt"xfe"mean58"thick,l2."wide,6*hiqh,thv5 forming a halfblock. all size bl0ck5 made im i^and^ height5 



2' XI2"X 12" 



JAM5 BLOCKS 



HALF JAM5 BLOCKS ^TYPICAL FUTARLVI 




i i 1 1 1 * 3 ' H 







- 3"-J 

ft 




u6 THE BRICKBU1LDER. 



COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE. 

To Be Built of Natco Hollow Tile. Cost not to Exceed $4,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $300. SECOND PRIZE, $200. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is ;i small, detached house, the walls and foundations of which are to be built of Xatco Hollow Tile. 
Competitors may adopt the Bungalow type of house if they SO desire, since the material will meet readily the 
requirements of such a desij 

At least three bedrooms and ample basement room are to be provided for in the plan. Two bedrooms and bath an' to 
be on the lirst floor. The third bedroom may be on first floor "i in attic. 

The location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 

The cost of the house — exclusive of the land -shall not exceed -1, The method of heating, the plumbing, other 

fixtures, and finish, to be governed by the limit of cost. 

The cost of tlie house must be figured at $.20 per cubic foot. Measurements of the house proper must be taken 
from the outside face of exterior walls and from the level of the basement floor to the average height of all roofs. Porches, 
verandas, and other additions are to be figured separately at one-fourth (25 percent) of their total cubage. The cost of 
porches, etc., is to be included in the total cost of the house ($4,000 I. 

On this basis of figuring— the number of cubic feet multiplied by the cost per cubic foot — the jury will not consider 
any designs rt'hich exceed the limit oj cost 

AH cubage and other dimensions will be carefully checked before the drawings are submitted to the jury. 

On the drawing in a space measuring 6 inches by 5 inches — enclosed in rules — is to be given, at a size which will 
permit of two-thirds reduction, the cubage of the house multiplied by the cost per cubic loot, and the various items with 
costs which go to make up the total cost of the house. 

The particular object of this Competition is to encourage the use of Natco Hollow Tile in small houses. The cost of 
this type of construction will be found to be in most parts of the country but little over that of first-class frame construc- 
tion, and it isa fact that any mason of average ability can easily do the work. 

The one marked tendency of the times is for better construction in houses. It is a subject which is being agitated In- 
able writers in the magazines and the daily press. Insurance Companies, Hoards of Trade, and other bodies interested in 
the public welfare are giving their support to the movement. It is believed that a Competition such as this will encou 
a study of a type of construction which, although comparatively new, has, nevertheless, met all the demands put upon it 
with respect to aesthetic considerations, facility of construction, and cost. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The following suggestions arc offered as being practicable and admissible. 

First. < Hitside walls may be of Natco Hollow Tile 8 inches thick (S inches by 12 inches by 12 inches). Foundation 
walls, below grade, should not be less than 12 inches thick. The blocks being heavily scored on two sides, stucco may be 
used for an outside linish, and plaster applied direct to the block for interior finish. 

Second. The walls may be built double, using in the outside wall a 4-inch hollow tile, and on the inside a 6-inch tile. 
The treatment of the face of such a wall, and the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls, are left to the designer. 

The floors and roof need not be of fireproof construction. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one. 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. Plans of the 
first and second floors at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. A section showing construction of exterior wall with con. 
I [eights of floors to be given on section. Enough detail sketches to till out sheet. In connection with the plan of the first 
floor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. The plans 
are to be blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany the plans. The character of the exterior finish must be 
clearly indicated on the perspective and detail. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 26 inches by 20 inches. Plain black border lines are to be drawn on the 
1 inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 24 inches bj 18 inches. The sheet is to be of white paper and is 
not to be mounted. Very thin paper or cardboard is prohibited. 

The drawing is to be signed by a nam de plume or device, and accompanying same is to tie a scaled envelope with the 
no)ii deplume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

Tlie drawing is to be delivered tlat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of THE 
BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 25, 1912. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owners' risk from time they are sent until returned, although reason- 
able care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession representing different sections of 
the country. 

First consideration w ill be Riven to the fitness of the design, in an aesthetic sense, to the material employed : second — 
the adaptability of the design, as shown by the details, to the practical constructive requirements of "the material ; 
third — excellence of plan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER and the right is reserved by TUP. 
BRICKBUILDER to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will lie given 
in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have 
them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition will lie returned direct from the office of THE BRICKBL'ILDER to the 
contestants. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $300. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to every one. 

The prize and mention drawings will lie published in THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This Competition is conducted under the patronage of the National Fire] ompany. 

On the preceding page will be found examples of construction which may be helpful to competitors. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



MAY 1912 



Number 5 



PUBLISHED BY 



ROGERS & MANSON 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Boston, Massachusetts 

Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS <& MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ..... $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers ...................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada .............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

PAGE 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



BRICK ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
FIREPROOFING . 
ROOFING TILE . 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



ABRAM GARFIELD; POND & POND; SCHMIDT, .GARDEN & MARTIN; HOWARD VAN D. 
SHAW; SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE; SPENCER & POWERS. 

LETTERPRESS 

rAr.E 

CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

THE COMPLETE ANGLER OR COMPETITIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN.— V Hubert G. Ripley 119 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR A HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEM, EIGHT-RooM SCHOOL BUILDING. 

Charles /.. Hubbard 123 
LOS ANGELES TRUST AND SAVINGS BANK, Los ANGELES, PARKINSON & BERGSTROM, ARCHITECTS 127 

DISTINGUISHED ARCHITECTURE AS A PRECEDENT. — III C. Howard Walker 131 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. —IV : H. Van Buren MagonigU 135 

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE ARCHITECT'S OFFICE William O. Ludlov 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 139 

COMPETITION PROGRAM, SMALL TILE HOUSE H4 



NOTICE. The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 

mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 



^♦♦- 




CHURCH OF SAX FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO. 

The facade of this church is probably the most elaborate in Mexico, 
showing the free use of tile for decorative purposes. The dark tile 
shown in the illustration are rough red without glaze. The lighter 
tile are of various colors, usually blue with white ornament ; the 
others, solid green, orange, and blue. 



120 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



to spread his wings and soar. Eventually he suc- 
ceeds in getting on the list (way clown next to the last, to 
be sure) of some minor competition, and day and night 
are as one to him. He starts in by making thumbnail 
sketches of his " paftie " on the margin of his newspaper 
coming into the office on the train in the morning, he 
postpones writing the plumbing specifications for the alter- 
ations to Bill Jones's barn (his only job), the full size detail 



be discarded by process of elimination until tired and 
exhausted, and utterly dissatisfied, the work is laid aside 
for a short space. When it is taken up again and looked 
at with a fresh eye, it seems even worse than it did when 
first made. This does not dampen his ardor in the least, 
work is resumed ventre-a-terre, until plan and elevations 
are in Syzygy, and finally, as the time draws near for render- 
ing-, a scheme is decided upon and the final tracings started. 




FIG. XVI. FLOWER PANEL HV I'IKRRK RANSON. 



FIG. XVII. DESST7S DE PORTES BY PIERRE HANSON. 



for the skylight lays neglected 

and unfinished on the drawing 
board, and everything is pushed 
one side to work on this his first 
real opportunity. What a boon 
to the manufacturers of tracing 
paper, competitions are. Now- 
adays a competition without 
tracing paper would be most 
incongruous to say the least, as 
tons of 'this material are used 
annually in the large and small 
architect shops. Tracing paper 
has even been officially recog- 
nized by staid juries and often 
drawings are asked for, ren- 
dered on this medium in pencil, 
" with the shadows cast lightly 
in monotone and the walls 
blocked in solid on the plans." 
The enthusiastic young archi- 
tect makes "calcine" after 
"caique," and then he makes 
tracings. Idea follows 
in rapid succession onlv to 




I"IG. XVIII. TROPHEES BY JEAN-CHARLES DE LA FOSSE. 



This is a very critical time 
and everything depends upon 

intensive analysis and search- 
ing selection. Now is the 
period for reference to books. 
Perhaps, more properly, it 
should be said there are two 
periods for reference to books 
in the process of making com- 
petition drawings. At the be- 
ginning when work is started 
it is well to look carefully over 
all the back numbers of Thr 
Brickbuilder for reference 
t<> buildings of a similar charac- 
ter, and also to consult other 
standard works such as 
D'Espouy's Fragments d' Arch- 
itecture Antique, Fragments 
d' Architecture de la Moyenne 
age et de la Renaissance; Gail- 
habaud, Monuments Anciens et 
Moderne ; Haupt's Bologna, 
Pa via, Mailand, Turin, etc.: 
Cesar Daly, Rouyer, Letaroui- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



121 



elly, Sauvageot, 

Bosc, Yiollet-le-Duc, 
Verdier et Cattois, 
etc., etc. 

After the "partie" 
is decided upon and 
the general style and 
dimensions fixed, 
consult such works 
as Architecture 
Decoration et Ameu- 
blement, Epoque 
Louis XVI, M. Ru- 
dolphe Pfnor ; De 
Neufforg-e, Blondel, 
Iconologie Histori- 
que par Delafosse ; 
Percieret Fontaine's 
various works; R. 
and J .Adam;Meyer's 
Handbook of Orna- 
ment ; the Architec- 
tural Association sketch 
books, etc., for sugges- 
tions and ideas as to 
detail. A well-drawn, 
carefully studied and 
charmingly detailed 
plan and elevation has 
pulled many a loser out 
of the fire, especially if 
the ornament is drawn 
with sure precision and 
painstaking accuracy. 
Such a set of drawings 
is not only a delight to 
the eye but, when skil- 
fully presented, favor- 
ably prejudices the most 
astute jury. 

Of course all this 
means, taken in the ag - - 
gregate, an im- 
mense and incal- 
culable amount 
of labor and ef- 
fort, ninety or 
ninety-five per 
cent of which is 
without material 
recompense or 
practical result 
as far as immedi- 
ate financial 
rewards are con- 
cerned, or visual 
evidences of act- 
ual construction 
are displayed ; 
and this is the 
reason why so 
much is said in 
favor of the abo- 




mm 



FIG. XIX. 
COMPOSITION PITTORESQUEBY 
JEAN-CHARLES DE LA FOSSE. 




FIG. XX. 

DECORATIVE FIGURES BY 

CHEVALIER GIOCONDO ALBERTOLLI. 




FIG. XXI. 
GRILLE BY CAILLOUET. 





FIG. XXII. 
CLOCK BY AUBEKT PARENT. 



PIG, .win. 
VASE BV CHEVALIER EDMOND PHTITOT 



lition of competi- 
tions. Does any one 
suppose for a minute 
that there would be 
any howl against 
competitions if every 
body was given a 
capital prize? Hut 
how about the excel- 
lent schooling and 
the splendid train- 
ing in the solution 
of actual live pro- 
b 1 e m s t h a t the 
serious study of 
competitions gives ? 
That is surely worth 
while, and we know 
from the experiences 
of the past that in 
no other way could 
architecture have 
reached its present de- 
velopment. When we 
enter upon a competition 
and put our best effort 
and study into it, we 
are simply paying back 
the debt we owe to the 
past and keeping alive 
the highest traditions of 
our profession. 

All architects at the 
beginning of their career 
realize this even if later 
on they fall away from 
sonic of their high ideals. 
It is but natural that 
they should ; contact 
with the world is not 
always gentle and the 
knocks and whangs, as 
the years roll on, 
are apt to leave 
their cicatrices 
and their susurri 
of gall. " The 
bee and the 
spide r s u c k 
honey and poison 
out of the same 

flower." 

Perhaps from 
the very nature 
of things impal- 
pable, the pro- 
fession of archi- 
tecture is freer 
from this rancor 
than any other 
tailing. The 
architect is natu- 

•'rallv of the most 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




FIG. XXIV 



BRAS DE CHEMINEE BY 



JEAN FRANCOIS FORTY 



confiding and 
trusting disposi- 
tion. He is a 
simple soul be- 
lieving good of 
everybody and 
seeing only the 
ideal, and this is 
as it should be 
and we arc all 
glad of it. 

What to do with 
our unsuccessful 
competition draw- 
ings after they 
arc returned with 
a polite note of 
thanks is worthy 
of some conside- 
ration. If they 
are mounted on 
cardboard, as 
oftentimes they 
are, it is well to 
preserve them 
carefully as these 
cardboards come 
in very handy from time to time to mount other sketches 
on, or to make mats for framing some favorite drawing 
for exhibition purposes. If the drawings are good ones 
and well worth while, as they oftencr than not are, they 
should be given the widest publication in the professional 
press. Our confreres, the French, know what to do with 
their unsuccessful concours. They publish them, and 
give them the widest circulation. There are very many 
beautiful volumes and portfolios of plates of all sorts and 
kinds of buildings that have never been built and never 
will be built, and they are anion-' the most valuable works 
an architect can have in his working library. Some of 
these books contain so many beautiful plates that it makes 
an ordinary man -asp for breath and choke with emotion. 
as he reverently turns over their glittering and scintillating 
pages, and wonders if ever he will attain to one tenth 
part of the proficiency here so prodigally displayed. It 
is true we have not any- 
where near the ability as a 
body that the old Greek 
architects, for example, 
had, and our work would 
make but a poor showing 
stacked up against the con- 
ceptions of Jetinus and 
Carpion and Ctesiphon, 
even if we placed our best 
beside the least of their 
efforts ; but when our most 
skilful and talented archi- 
tects and draftsmen strive 
for weeks and months on a 
problem and then turn out 
something that is really fine 
and noble and beautiful, 
and the jury or professional 



adviser, with the most sincere and dispassionate judgment, 
turns it down, it is a shame to let all that effort be lost, 
and never sec the light of day in enduring material. 

Think what glorious dream cities could be built from a 
judicious selection from the unsuccessful competition draw- 
ings of the last twenty-five or thirty years even, to go back 
no farther ! What splendid boulevards, parks, capitols, 
city-halls, libraries, colleges, schools, museums, dwellings, 
and a host of minor buildings would go towards the 
making of such a city as never was. And every building 
in that city would be a perfect gem, complete, harmonious, 
beautiful. Lone; streets of the most interesting and 
fascinating facades, noble vistas with just the right 
thing to look at on the axis, quaint picturesque bits un- 
expectedly happening on the view, beautiful gardens with 
all the environment and furnishings that would make them 
clysian; in fact such an ideal place would certainly put it all 
Over any modern city, and even give Rome, in the height 





FIG. XXVI. TEMPLE OF JUNO MONETA FROM BUHLMANN 
AND WAGNERS RUNDGEMALDE OF ANCIENT ROME. 



FIG. XXV. CHENET F.V JEAN FRANCOIS FORTY. 

of its glory, a run for first money. All that one would have 
to do to realize this is to look at Buhlman's panorama of 
Ancient Rome, which gives a faint conception of how a 
modern city composed as per above would look. 

Think, too, how happy all the poor old chaps who got 
second and third and fourth places would be. Of course 

some of the designs that 
look so fine on paper might 
turn out punk, but then, 
some of the winners aren't 
so wonderful even now as 
it is. .Still, on the whole, 
we feel that the experiment 
would be well worth trying, 
if the scheme were properly 
financed and a little put 
aside each year as a sinking- 
fund. What it really all 
comes down to is this: The 
value of competitions is not 
to be measured by the suc- 
cess or non-success of the 
drawings rendered. And 
their value, won or lost, 
cannot be overestimated. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



123 



Specifications for a Heating and Ventilating System 
for an Eight Room School Building. 



CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



THE following simple specifications are for a heating 
and ventilating system, the design of which was 
given in the preceding article. They may be enlarged 
upon in any way the architect deems advisable, and, by 
suitable changes, be made to answer for quite a variety of 
buildings of this general type. 

General Conditions. The term "Owners," as used in 
the following specifications, refers to the first party to the 
contract under which these specifications shall be executed . 

The term " Contractor," as used in the following speci- 
fications, refers to the second party to the contract under 
which these specifications shall be executed. 

The words " approved," " satisfactory," and others of 
similar meaning used in these specifications, shall be un- 
derstood to have reference to the judgment of the architect 
regarding the material or work alluded to. 

All materials are to be new and of the best class in every 
respect, and the most approved of their respective kinds. 

No departure from plans and specifications shall be 
made without a written order therefor from the Architect. 

In case any change is made involving the use of material, 
apparatus or labor costing less than that specified or 
shown, the owners shall receive the benefit of the differ- 
ence in cost, and if such changes cost the Contractor more 
than the corresponding material or labor called for or 
shown, the owners shall pay to the Contractor the differ- 
ence in costs, plus a commission not exceeding twenty per 
cent (20%) on the cost difference. 

The Contractor is to guarantee all labor and material for 
one year from the acceptance of his work, and is to put and 
keep the same in repair, unless such defects as may de- 
velop are clearly the result of faulty usage of the apparatus 
by employees not under his control. 

The right is reserved to prepare detail drawings for all 
parts of the work. The drawings are made a part of these 
specifications, and all writing - thereon is to be followed in 
the same manner as though herein specified. 

Where sizes are not plainly marked on plans, the sizes 
marked for the corresponding parts are to be followed, or the 
architects will determine the sizes when entirely omitted. 

The intent of these specifications is to cover and include 
all material and labor required to install the entire appara- 
tus in all of its several parts, so that, when finished, it 
shall be complete as a whole, and perfect in all its details, 
both in construction and in operation. Any minor items 
in the matter of material to be furnished, or of work to be 
done, or minor changes to be made in order to complete 
the apparatus and to equip it for its intended use, though 
such details are not specially noted in the specifications nor 
shown on the plans, are to be furnished by the Contractor 
without extra charge. 

I'pon the completion of the work the Contractor shall 
furnish a competent man to test and adjust the entire ap- 
paratus under the direction of the architect, to the entire 
satisfaction of the latter. 



BOILERS. 

Type and Genera/ Dimensions. The boilers two (2) in 
number, are to be of the horizontal tubular type with full 
overhanging fronts, and all parts and pieces must be de- 
signed accordingly. The shells are to be thirteen feet four 
inches (13' 4") long outside, and forty-eight inches (48") 
in diameter. The heads are to be twelve feet' (12' o") 
apart outside. The size and description of the other parts 
are to conform substantially to the details usually furnished 
by the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance 
Company for boilers of this size. 

Materials: Quality and Thickness. Shell plates are to be 
three-eighths of an inch (*/&") in thickness of Open Hearth 
Fire Box Steel, having a tensile strength of not less than 
fifty-five thousand (55,000) pounds, nor more than sixty 
thousand (60,000) pounds per square inch of section. 
Heads are to be one-half inch ( l i") in thickness of best 
Open Hearth Flange Steel. 

Riveting. Longitudinal seams are to be of the standard 
double riveted, butt-joint type, with rivets staggered. 
They must be arranged to come well above the fire line of 
the boiler, and must break joints in different courses in the 
usual manner. 

The transverse seams are to be single riveted, with rivets 
of the same diameter. 

The rivet holes must be drilled, and must be neatly 
chamfered one thirty-second of an inch (\U-j" ) on the fay- 
ing side of all plates. 

Braces. Each boiler is to have eight (8) solid steel 
diagonal braces on each head, each brace having a sec- 
tional area of not less than one square inch in its weakest 
part. They are to be riveted to the heads and shell with 
rivets of a strength equal to the body of the brace. 

Tubes. Each boiler is to have forty-four (44) best lap 
welded tubes three inches GS" ) in diameter and twelve feet 
(12 ) long, set in vertical and horizontal rows with a 
clear space between them vertically and horizontally of one 
inch (l">, except the central vertical space which is to be 
two inches (2"). 

Manhole. Each boiler is to have one manhole eleven by 
fifteen inches Ul" x 15") with a strong internal frame and 
cover. It is to be located in the shell on top of boiler. 

Handhole. Each boiler is to have one handhole four by 
six inches (4" x 6") with suitable plate, yoke, and bolt, 
located in each head below the tubes. 

Brackets and Wall Plates. Each boiler is to have four ( 4 ) 
east iron brackets, two ( 2 > on each side, securely riveted 
in place, twelve inches (12") long with a projection of ten 
inches (10 ) from the boiler. 

Cast iron wall plates twenty inches ( 2(>") long, ten inches 
(in") wide, and one and one half inches ( 1 V 2 " ) thick must 
be furnished for each bracket to rest upon, and three 
rollers, each one inch (l") in diameter and nine inches 
(9") long, must be furnished for each of the rear brackets 
to rest upon, to allow free expansion of the boiler. 



124 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Noz :hs. Each boiler is to have two < 2 > cast iron nozzles, 
one four inches (4") in diameter for steam pipe connection, 
and one four inches (4") in diameter for equalizing pipe 
and safety valve connection. 

Smoke Opening- Each boiler is to have an opening ten 
by thirty-two inches ( Id" x 32") cut out of front connection 
on top for the attachment of uptake or bonnet. 

Feed Connection. Each boiler is to have a hole tapped to 
receive a one-inch <l") feed pipe, ending in an elbow 
looking down between tubes and shell. 

Blow-off. The boilers are each to have a circular plate 
of the same material as the shell, tapped to receive a two 
and one-half inch (2j4") blow-off pipe. These pipes are to 
be extra heavy with extra heavy fittings, and are to be 
protected in the combustion chamber by cast iron sleeves 
packed with mineral wool. 

Fusible Plug. The boilers are each to be provided with 
a low-pressure long fusible plug in the back head, with its 
center two inches ( l" ) above the top of the upper row of 
tubes . 

Fittings. Furnish and properly conned to each boiler as 
directed, one steam gauge with eight inch (8") dial, iron 
body and nickel-plated rings, graduated for indicating 
pressures up to a maximum of sixty (60) pounds. 

Furnish and connect to each boiler one (1) three and 
one-half inch ($Yi" ) pop-safety valve of best make, set to 
blow at a pressure of twenty-five (25) pounds. 

Provide suitable chain and pulley attachment for lifting 
the safety valves and carry the pull chains to some con- 
venient point for use. 

Furnish and connect with each boiler one combination 
box with three-fourths inch < ? i"> gauge glass and gauge 
cocks ; using brass pipe outside the bonnet, and iron inside. 
A three-fourths inch ( %") brass drip pipe with valve is to 
be carried to the ash-pit. Set the water gauge at such a 
line that there shall be two inches ( >' ') of water over the 
tops of the tubes when the water disappears from the glass. 

Castings, Doors, Grates, Bolts, etc. Each boiler must be 
provided with a cast iron front ; with all necessary anchor 
bolts ; two (2) close fitting furnace doors with liner plates ; 
two (2) close fitting ash-doors ; and back connection door. 

(irate bars for plain grates, fifty-four inches (54") lon^r 
by forty-two inches (42") wide, with suitable bearer bars 
for the same. 

Arch bars for back connection and all buck staves, with 
the necessary bolts or tie-rods; and all other castings or 
iron work of any description necessary for the proper set 
tfng of the boilers complete. 

General. The size and description of parts are to con- 
form substantially to the details usually furnished for 
boilers of this description and size, and during the process 
of construction all the material and workmanship are to be 
subject to the inspection of, and after erection to be 
approved by, the architect and by a satisfactory Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, and the 
hitter's insurance policy for one (1) year for Four Hun- 
dred Dollars ($400.00) on each boiler from the completion of 
setting, is to be furnished by the Contracted" to the owners. 

Tests. Before leaving the construction shops the boilers 
shall be tested under a hydrostatic pressure of one hundred 
and fifty (150) pounds to the square inch, and all joints 
and all connections made tight at that pressure. 

Boiler Foundations and Settings. The settings are to be 



built substantially as shown on plans. Inside brick arc to 
be light hard : exposed or outside bricks are to be of the 
best quality hard burnt. Furnace and bridge walls and 
rear arch arc to be lined with A No. 1 fire brick. All 
red bricks arc to be laid in freshly made cement mortar of 
best quality. Fire bricks arc to be laid in either a mixture 
of fire clay and ground fire brick, or pure cement with 
very close joints. 

The boiler tops are to be covered with one layer of light 
burnt brick, laid loose on side, care being taken to leave a 
clear space above rivet heads ; and an outer cover similarly 
laid in cement mortar. 

Smoke Connections. Smoke connections are to be of 
No. 12 American Gauge black iron of sizes indicated, and 
arc to run as shown on basement plans. Cleanout doors 
are to be provided as indicated or directed. 

In each uptake or bonnet a damper for hand regulation 
is to be placed and suitable means for adjusting ami 
securing it in any desired position are to be provided. 

Furnish and place in main pipe a balanced damper of 
No. 10 iron, closing at forty-five degrees (45°). This 
damper is to be connected with a damper regulator to be 
described later. 

Feed Pipe. The feed pipe to boilers shall be of heavy 
brass and fittings one inch < l") in diameter. Each branch 
to be furnished with a check-valve and a gate-valve. A 
one-inch <l") connection shall be made with the feed pipe 
for supplying water direct from the mains. 

Fire Tools. Furnish two complete sets of heavy fire 
tools, including tube cleaners, also two large size steel 
scoop shovels, and furnish a suitable rack for holding the 
above tools when not in use. 

Furnish one (1) set of three (3) brass oil cans and 
tray, and two (2) ten ( 10) gallon tanks, labeled to indicate 
contents, and provided with suitable draw faucets and 
brass trays. 

Furnish a hardwood stand properly designed to accom- 
modate the oil tanks and having a shelf between the 
floor and top of stand to hold tray. 

Provide also one coal barrow of three hundred (300) 
pounds capacity. 

BIou'-oJJ 'lank. Furnish, place and connect in a proper 
and complete manner a cast iron blow-off tank, twenty- 
four inches (24") in diameter, and forty-eight inches 
(48") deep. 

Waste ripe. The waste pipe from the blow-off tank is 
to be two and one-half inches ( > l / z " ) j n diameter of XX 
heavy pipe. It is to connect with the main drain outside 
of the building. 

Exhaust Pipe. This pipe is to be carried to the roof 
and about six inches (6") above the top of the flue through 
which it is run. It is to drip through a siphon trap to the 
blow-off tank. 

Damper Regulator. Furnish and properly connect to 
steam drum and to balanced damper a hydraulic damper 
regulator of latest pattern, locating the regulator within 
the boiler room at such point as the Architect shall direct. 

Engine. Furnish, set and connect one belt-connected 
fifteen by eight inch (15" x 8") low pressure horizontal 
engine. 

Furnish and connect a sight-feed lubricator of one pint 
capacity, and all necessary or usual oil cups, valves, and 
attachments for steam, exhaust, and drips. All drips are 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



12 5 



to be connected and carried to the sewer through the drain 
from the blow-off tank. The engine shall be provided 
with a throttling- governor, set to give a speed of two hun- 
dred and fifty (250) revolutions per minute. 

Engine Foundation . The Contractor is to cause the 
engine to be erected and connected substantially as 
indicated by the engine builder on a solid concrete founda- 
tion to be built by the Contractor in conformity to a plan 
furnished by the makers and approved by the Architect. 

Sound Deadener. The engine is to be furnished with a 
sound-deadening layer, to consist of two inches ( l" ) of 
hair felt placed between an upper and lower sheet of lead, 
the whole to be brought down hard with screw bolts. The 
lead sheets are to be made sufficiently large to allow the 
edges of the lower sheet to be turned up and the edges of 
the upper sheet to be turned down over the whole. 

Fan. Furnish and erect one (1) six-foot (6') double 
inlet steel plate fan with full housing, top horizontal 
discharge. 

The fan is to be provided with pulley, shafting, belt, 
bearings, supports, large oil cups, oil drips, and all other 
needed fittings and attachments for its erection in the 
manner indicated on plans. The pulley to be of such size 
that in combination with the engine the fan shall be given 
a speed of two hundred (200) revolutions per minute with 
the engine running at two hundred and fifty (250) revolu- 
tions per minute. 

Solid brick or concrete foundations are to be furnished 
for the support of the fan casing" by the Contractor, who 
will do all excavating in connection with the same. 

The fan and engine are to be erected complete for running 
by the manufacturers at the expense of the Contractor. 

Main Heater. This is to be made up of seventy ( 70 ) 
sections of the School Pin Indirect Radiator, rated at 
fifteen (15) square feet per section. The sections are to 
be grouped, piped, and valved as shown on plan. Two ( 2 ) 
groups are to be piped and arranged with valves in sup- 
plies and returns so that they can be used singly or 
together, either for exhaust or live steam. 

The sections are to be supported on four-inch (4") 
I-beams resting on three six-inch (6") cross-beams set in 
the brick walls at the sides of the fan chamber. The 
condensation from the live steam sections is to return to 
the boilers by gravity, while the return from the exhaust 
sections is to drain to the overflow from the blow-off tank 
through a trap, a connection being made for returning the 
condensation to the boilers when live steam is used. 

Piping. The main supply and return pipes arc to be of 
the sizes marked, and are to run as nearly as practicable 
in the directions indicated. They are to be carefully 
graded in such manner as to cause a concurrent flow of 
steam and water, and are to be supported with adjustable 
hangers. 

Returns. These are to be run as indicated on plans, 
partly at the ceiling of the basement story, but mostly 
near the floor. 

All overhead return pipes shall have a grade of one 
inch O") in ten feet (10'), and all sealed returns a grade 
of one inch (l") in twenty feet (20') toward the boilers. 
A one-inch (l") drain connection is to be made between 
the main return near the boilers and the blow-off pipe ; a 
similar connection is to be made with the return from the 
main heater. 



Sleeves, Floor Plates, tie. Where risers or other pipes 
pass through floors or partitions, they are to be protected 
through the full depth of flooring, etc., by galvanized iron 
sleeves, one inch (l"> larger than the outside diameter of 
the pipes, and secured concentrically with regard to the 
pipes by nickel-plated floor plates. 

Sleeves of wrought iron pipe of suitable length are to 
be furnished wherever the pipes pass through brick walls. 

Heating Surface. This is to be of the quantities and 
character indicated on the plans, and is to be distributed 
as there shown. 

All ceiling coils are to be of one inch (l") pipe as 
indicated. They are to be securely supported on rolls and 
in a manner satisfactory to the Architect. 

Foot-warmers are to be of the indirect pin, rated at ten 
( 10) square feet per section, and are to be erected in stacks 
of the size marked on the plans. 

Direct radiators are to be two-column, except in the 
entrances, where they are to be three-column. All are to 
be thirty-two inches (32") in height and have a single pipe 
connection. 

The secondary heaters for the eight < <S ) class rooms are 
to be made up of indirect pin radiators rated at ten <1<>> 
square feet per section. 

The amount of surface for the different rooms shall be 
as follows : 



A'oo/u 


No. 


No. 


of Sections 


7 






7 


8 






8 


12 






7 


13 






8 


16 






7 


17 






8 


21 






7 


22 






8 



These heaters are to be supported at the bases of the 
flues in the position shown in detail on plans. 

Valves. All valves in mains and branches are to be of 
the gate pattern suitable for low-pressure work. Radiator 
valves are to have wood wheels, rough body, and are to 
be nickel-plated. All valves on radiators having single 
pipe connection are to be either high-lift angle or offset. 

Air Valves. Each direct and indirect radiator and coil 
is to be furnished with an automatic self-cleaning air valve. 
All are to be connected for drip through a three-eighths 
inch < -V) pipe and three-quarter inch( ; 4 ") main, run to the 
boiler room sink. Each group of heaters in the main coil 
is to be provided with a self-cleaning air valve of lat 
size, placed as shall be directed by the Architect, and 
brought OUt to an accessible point by means of pipe 
connections. 

Steam Gauges. Furnish in addition to those already 

specified in the boiler room, a six-inch (6") steam gall 
for the exhaust sections of the main heater. 

Thermometer. Furnish and place in the main air-way, 
where directed, an eight-inch (8") dial thermometer of 
approved make. 

Bronzing and Painting. All radiators, coils, and exposed 
overhead pipes and risers, drops and fittings outside the 
boiler, coal and fan rooms, are to be bronzed or painted as 
the Architect shall direct, and all exposed supply and 



126 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



return pipes in the boiler, coal, and fan rooms, and all 
returns near the floor, and in duets, of whatever size, 
are to be covered with two < 2) coats of silica graphite 
paint. 

The smoke connections are to be painted inside with two 
coats of the same paint. All other iron work, except 
galvanized iron, is to be covered with two coats of such 
protective paint as may be directed. 

Covering. The smoke connections shall be covered with 
one inch (l"> of plastic asbestos, smooth finished and 
without cracks. All overhead steam piping in boiler and 
coal rooms are to be covered with Air Cell or Asbestos 
Magnesia sectional covering, all to be put on in the best 
possible manner. Fittings to be covered with moulded 
covering, smooth finished. Valves not to be covered. 
Paint all covering exposed in the corridors two (1) coats 
as directed. 

Automatic Control. The Contractor executing these 
specifications is to furnish a complete pneumatic service 
for the automatic control of the steam supply and return 
to direct and indirect radiators, as may be directed by the 
Architect as follows. The secondary heaters for eight I 8 I 
class rooms and two (2) foot-warmers, and the direct radia- 
tors in office and teachers' rooms. All indirect heaters to 
haw diaphragm valve on both supply and return. The 
foot-warmers will be controlled by two < 1 > thermostats, 
and class rooms and small rooms by one ( 1 ) each. 

All air piping, water air compressor of latest pattern, 
tank, thermostats, valves, and all material and labor 
necessary to complete an efficient heat-regulating plant, 
are to be furnished and erected by the Contracting Com- 
pany in a manner satisfactory to the Architect, and said 
Company will guarantee that the system will do its work 
properly and cost the Owners nothing to maintain such 
performance for one year from the date of its acceptance. 

GALVANIZED AND OTHER [RON WORK. 

General. Galvanized iron will be required to form the 
main air-ways and branches connecting the fan with the 
fresh air uptakes, as shown on the plans ; all fresh air 
uptakes and all connections between the uptakes and the 
inlet registers; casings for secondary heaters, and all 
required stops around main heater and other heaters, 
foot-warmer casings, sleeves and collars ; dampers ; and 
deflectors. Vent flues will be of brick and furnished 
under another contract. 

Fresh Air Inlet. The hinged windows will be provided 
under another contract, but the Contractor shall provide 
fastenings for the same, also heavy chains and large full 
guarded pulleys for operating the windows from the fan 
room floor. If found necessary the sashes shall be 
weighted as directed by the Architect. 

Main Air Duct. The main overhead air-way and all 
branches connecting with the uptakes are to be made of 
galvanized iron complete, with tight joints, and are to be 
securely hung from the ceiling. They are to be made 
smooth on the inside, and of the dimensions given on 
plans. They are to be firmly and neatly supported in 
their several positions, and are to make tight connection 
with the other work to which they are attached. 

. lir inlets to Rooms. The bottom of all air inlets is not 
to he less than seven feet (?'), nor more than eight and 



one half feet (8j4') above the floor. The inlets to all 
class rooms are to be provided with diffusers suited to 
their respective positions. Floor registers, where shown, 
shall be of heavy cast iron, black japanned and without 
valves. Wire grilles satisfactory to the Architect are to 
be placed in all wall inlets for fresh air. and are to be of 
the sizes shown on plans. 

Vent Outlets. The vent outlets from rooms shall be 
furnished with wire grilles similar to those in the inlets. 
The Contractor shall provide them with gossamer check 
valves, backed with galvanized wire grating of one-inch 
(l") mesh. 

Dampers. Large and easily operated pan dampers are 
to be placed in the two (2) main vent flues which discharge 
through the roof, and arc to be furnished with ready and 
approved means for operating them from the basement, 
and securing them in any desired position. These dam- 
pers are to turn on roller bearings of approved design. 
Denectin.e; dampers are also to be placed in the main air 
ducts and branches where shown on basement plan. They 
are to be provided with approved holding devices for 
adjustment. 

Foot-warmer and Secondary //eater Casings. The foot- 
warmers and secondary heaters will be enclosed in casings 
of Xo. 24 galvanized iron neatly constructed in a manner 

to be easily removable for access to the heaters. Place a 
slide door in the bottom of each casing. 

Toilet Room Vents. The main basement toilet rooms 
are to be vented through a brick uptake, surrounding the 
boiler flue as shown. Connection is to be made between 
the uptake and the closed space back of fixtures as shown 
on basement plans. 

Diffusers. For diffusers. use nothing lighter than Xo. 
11 iron, hemming the edges of the vertical plates, and 
wiring the edges of the upper and lower plates. They 
are to be painted or otherwise finished as the Architect 
shall direct. 

Deflectors. Adjustable deflectors are to be placed in the 
main air-way where judged necessary by the Architect, or 
shown on plans. These are to be rigid and are to have 
approved means for adjustment. 

Gauge of Iron to be Used (unless otherwise sped lied). 
Pipes having a cross-sectional area of less than 120 square 
inches to be of Xo. 26 gauge : more than 120 and less 
than 300, of Xo. 24; more than 300 and less than 450, 
of Xo. 23 ; more than 450 and less than 750i of Xo. 11: 
more than 750 and less than 1500, of Xo. 20; and more 
than 1500 square inches, of Xo. IS. 

Cutting and Repairing. All cutting for steam and air 
pipes through walls, floors, or partitions, other than that 
shown on the original plans, ami not included in the 
building contract, will be done at the expense of the 
Heating Contractor, and in a manner satisfactory to 
the Architect. 

Blowing (h/t and Testing. The whole system of pipes 
and radiators is to be blown out through a temporary two- 
inch (l") connection before returning any condensation to 
the boiler, and is to be made clear of all debris to the 
satisfaction of the Engineer. All steam piping is to be 
tested and made tight at a pressure of thirty (30) pounds 
per square inch. Fuel for testing will be furnished by 
the Owners, but all labor incident thereto is to be fur- 
nished bv the Heating Contractor, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



127 



The Los Angeles Trust and Savings Bank, Los Angeles, Cal, 



PARKINSON & BERGSTROM, ARCHITECTS. 






■1 ■ 1 ■ am ■" b ■ ■ « ■ ■ ■■■■«*■ n 



IN the Los Angeles Trust and Savings Bank Building, 
the architects have freely handled their problem of 
exterior design without regard to the material of which 
the building was to be built. In their interpretation of the 
architectural requirements for the housing of a great 
fiduciary institution with- superimposed office structure, 
they have felt no limit in architectural form and propor- 
tion, through thought of restriction in the medium of 
expression. 

This is indeed the triumph of a material which has been 
regarded by many as capable of use only in connection 
with some other so-called 
constructive medium; for 
here we find a great com- 
mercial structure in its 
freedom of composition and 
detail calling for a solution 
of all of the problems of 
exterior design and con- 
struction from base course 
at the grade line to the 
coping of the parapet ab< >ve 
the entablature, in white- 
matt enamel architectural 
terra cotta. The architects 
have designed, with perfect 
freedom as to form, a build- 
ing which they specify in 
architectural terra cotta, 
acknowledging- through 
this expression the fact that 
they are emancipated from 
an}' restriction in the use 
of this material. 

The lower portion of the 
building is monumental in 
character, of the Corinthian 
order, clearly indicating the 
semi-public purpose of the 
institution which it houses ; 
while the third story forms 
an interesting pedestal to 
the well proportioned shaft. 
The shaft of the building is 
textured with horizontal 
bands in low projections at 
each story, while additional 
interest is given to the 
service mass by the panels, 




DETAIL OF UIM'KR STORIES. 




TTTW I -T-l 

n . n . . n . , n . ., n , H . . H . , n , .-u ] 

COZ.Z/OOJZ. 

-T T T" T ~F T T" 'T T" Tf 

j_i~i 1 i±±i 1 Li 

TYPICAL PLAN, FOURTH TO TENTH FLOOR. 



modeled in low relief, occurring in the Spandrel sections 
beneath the openings. 

The upper two stories naturally compose the entabla- 
ture ; the cornice carried on colossal but well proportioned 
caryatids, with the ornamental panels between the win- 
dows, form an enriched frieze, well studied for scale in its 
detail for both height and with relation to the cornice 
above. 

The end piers of the building are unusually strong and 
well balanced to the mass, a great relief in these days of 
undue sacrifice to light area. Vet this important require- 
ment is amply provided for 
through the openings in 
the piers, which, however, 
in no sense detract from 
the solidity of the buttress 
from the fact that they are 
absolutely plain and raised 
sufficiently above the story 
demarcations and in no 
way affect the mass of the 
pier. The moulded forms 
throughout are simple and 
in excellent scale, while the 
ornament and modeling is 
carefully studied and exe- 
cuted with a fine regard to 
the surrounding elements 
and masses. Particularly 
good and architectural in 
feeling are the lions' heads 

which form the punctua- 
tions 011 the corona of the 
cornice at the second story. 
In this building, simple, 
dignified, well proportioned 
and balanced, thoroughly 
interesting in detail, we 
find one of the best ami 
most sane solutions of the 

office-building problem. 

The jointing of the plain 
ashlar facing of the main 
piers is entirely easy and 

restful, the blocks ranging 

from one and three 
quarters to twice their 
height in length, and being 
practically true in form 





HE 

1 — 1 1 \ rtu 






'I Nnr -Tmiiriin 



1 • ■ .__ 

3 . ^ 






LU.U1.U4 



?E ?^ ^^ ^' ^^ 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST 1'I.OOK PLAN. 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




Terra Cotta Details. 



Los ANGELES TRUST AND SAVINGS BANK, LOS ANGELES. CAL 



Parkinson & Bergstrom, Architects. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



129 




ELEVATION of IOTH S 11™ gTORY 
MAIn'cORNICE. 




ELEVATION of 3«P STORY: 



-•_- u 



2 -* 9 • 1 O • 10 11 12 15 M 



-I 



aCALE FOR ELtVATlONO. 



' 



Lllilllillll 



SCALE FOR SECTIONS. 



-L= 



J FT. 




SECTIONS. 



Terra Cotta Details. 



Parkinson & Bergstrom, Architects. 



LOS ANGELES TRUST AM) SAVINGS BANK, LOS ANGELES, CAL 



i 3 o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Such anchors, 
tics, straps, 'and 
hangers as were 
necessary for 
the proper and 
safe securing of 
the material to 
the structure 
were accurately 
located and de- 
veloped on the 
structural steel 
drawings, and 
shown with pro- 
per descriptions 
as to size and 
weight on archi- 
tects' large scale 
working details. 
A few techni- 
eal points of 
c o n s t r u ctio n 
and jointing, of 
more than com- 
mon interest, arc- 
worthy of note 
in this building. 
In all of the 
w or k f t h e 
lower stories 
the material was 
made full in 
size , allowing 
for the rubbing 
of the joints, 
which insured 
close joint work. 
This has proven 
effective in the plain work of the second- 
story cornice, and peculiarly so in the great 
fluted columns and pilasters of the main 
story. 

On the arris between the flutes a second- 
ary member has been introduced, enabling 
a back joint at the line of this secondary 
member, as illustrated by Fig. I. My 
rubbing this joint 
w i t h a n e m e r y 
wheel, the pieces 
join so closely as to 
be almost hidden, 
giving to the col- 
umns with drums 
the effect of single 
pieces. Ashlar be- 
tween pilasters is 
run in behind the 
return of the pilas- 
ters, partially ob- 
scuring - the joints. 
Wherever the plain 
ashlar abuts 
moulded forms the 





DETAIL AT THIRD STORY 



ashlar is rebated 
b e h i n d s u c h 
mouldings. In 
the capitals and 
ornamental pan- 
els the joints are 
lost in the con- 
tours of the 
modeling. 

W h e r e v e r 
practical, t h e 
main anchor of 
the more heavily 
li r o j e c t i n g 
courses is set 
high in the piece 
and drawn down 
to the support- 
ing girder, giv- 
i n g g r e a t e r 
leverage and 
carrying power. 
A framework 
attached to the 
structural steel 
supports the 
pediments over 
windows at the 
fourth story, 
while anchors 
and ties still 
further secure 
the units to the 
structure. 

The ceiling's 
to vestibules to 
both bank and 
office building 
are in terra cotta, hung from girder and 
cross beam; the ceiling slab carrying over 
the beam covering; and thus hiding the joint. 
It is to be regretted that space will not 
permit of a detailed illustration of the smaller 
vestibule ceiling-, which in the form of a cove 
reaches a moulding forming' the border to 
an oval panel in single piece, which as 
a key forces the 
entire ceiling into 
solid construction. 
As an example of 
architectural and 
t e C h n i c a 1 e x C el - 
lence, the building 
well warrants the 
thought bestowed 
upon it by archi- 
tects and manu- 
f a C t u r e r , a n d 
d e m oust r a t e s 
again the fitness of 
architectural terra 
cotta for buildings 
of this type. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 5. PLATE 57. 




CITY CLUB, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



Pond & Pond, 
architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 5. PLATE 58. 




FIREPLACE IN MAIN DINING ROOM. 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR MEZZANINE. 




BOILER BOOM 



□ 



B>luar.d Room 



1- 



-I - 






FOURTH FLOOR PLAN. 



FIFTH FLOOR PLAN. 





THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



THIRO FLOOR MEZZANINF 



CITY CLUB, CHICAGO, ILL. 
Pond & Pond, architects. 




BASEMENT FLOOR. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



FIREPLACE IN LOUNGE 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 59. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 




HIGBEE STORE BUILDING, 
CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Abram Garfield, Architect. 



q 



. • 



■ sptsi/v 



.111.11111 J 

:rnTTiiTi 



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^1 - * - Jt'- • a - -* 



tu 




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rLooePLsw 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 61. 




o i- 

Q. U 

UJ 

=8 t 





E 1 








D 
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X 



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h O 

a: 

< 

a. 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 62. 




^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 63. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 64. 



V 




r/B3T fLOpe PL^/£ 

ec^ct n »■ — i i =i n 



stco/vn rwoepiA/v 



HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Architects. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 65. 




HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIOGE, ARCHITECTS. 



fcfc. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 5. PLATE 66. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 5. PLATE 67. 





F 



I i 

ai/i/iBce ]LZ .J 





4*-a- 



SECCW/] 
riC0£K/f/Y 



"mm 




HOUSE AT LAKE MINNETONKA, MINN. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



rresr 




nooe/L^yY 



^^. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5 PLATE 




4W 4E 



||«* HllvM ' Mtlt', 





"**■= II, — I. iWlll 









HOUSE AT LAKE M1NNETONKA, MINN. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 5. PLATE 69. 





HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Howaro Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 5. PLATE 70. 




■ ■ m- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



131 




MAIN FACADE. 



BASILICA DI S. MARCO, VENICE. 



THE INTKKIOK. 



Distinguished Architecture as a Precedent. Ill 



C. HOWARD WALKER. 



THE change from the intellectual and formalized art 
of the Classic orders to the Byzantine art of the East 
and the Romanesque art of the North is an ethical chang'e 
which is outside the scope of these articles. It is enough 
to notice that semi-civilization is responsible for both, and 
semi-civilization is usually spontaneous in its expression 
and but little trammeled with conventional observances. 
Both were derived 
from Roman ante- *j, 

cedents, but the 
capabilities of work- 
manship with the 
Byzantine differed 
much from those of 
the north e r n i n - 
vaders. The builder 
in the East main - 
tained traditions of 
skill and worked com- 
paratively undis- 
turbed, while in the 
North churches arose 
upon the wreck of a 
civilization by the 
hands of workmen 
who were learning in 
the process. It is to 
be expected, there- 
fore, that the great 
Byzantine monu- 
ments should always 
possess skilful work- 
manship and the 
beauty of efficient 
craftsmanship, while 
the first of the 
Romanesque build- 
ings should be virile 
but crude. Two other 
influences appear — 




SIXTH CENTURY CATHEDRAL, ATHENS. 



first that of race, second that of climate. The tendency 
of thought of the Oriental is for subtle, intricate expres- 
sion, that of the Northman for incisive, clear demonstra- 
tion. The climate of the East and South stimulates desire 
for color by the example of nature, that of the North makes 
strong color inharmonious and impertinent. The archi- 
tectural student, therefore, while enamored with the mosaics 

and the lace like carv- 
ing of the Byzantine 
detail, finds that in 
northern conditions 
they become some- 
what exotic, and de- 
mand occasions for 
unusual splendor to 
warrant their adop 
tion. The glory of 
the Byzantine art has 
somewhat a task 1 of 
barbarism despite the 
delicate appreciation 
of Creek workmen. 
It blazed in metals 
and jewels, enamels 
and rich marbles, and 
formed a background 
for a people in multi 
colored costumes. 
But as an exponent of 
splendor in color and 

material, it is replete 

with inspiration — 

especially in its mosa- 
ics. The Byzantine 

of the Greeks in tin' 
city of Constant ine 
was classic in its 
architecture and re- 
sembled Rome, but 
within two hundred 



132 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




INTERIOR OF THE CAPELLA PALA 

years the distinctively Byzantine 
work of Justinian had replaced to a 
considerable extent the classic type. 
A new religion usually prefers a new 
expression, and the precedent for 
the great churches was sought in 
the small Syrian Christian buildings 
rather than in the pagan temples. 
The structure was Roman vaulted 
anil domed, and the pendentive 
appeared as a valuable addition to 
structural form. But the chief deco- 
ration was upon the interior of the 
buildings instead of upon the exte- 
rior as on the temples, and, with 
the exception of the low domes, 
Byzantine architecture has little new 



to suggest for exterior work. < >n the interior of the building 

and in the detail of the carving there is much to observe. 

The walls are covered with great rectangular sheets of 
marble veneer the grain of the marble reversed to make 
a pattern ; around these are narrow borders of contrasting 
tone. The carved caps and panels partake of the Oriental 
quality of flat carving, in two planes, depending more on 
the silhouette of the ornament Upon the ground than on 
the modulations of surface. The spiny acanthus is used 
everywhere, with the lobes of nearly equal size and with 
V cut surfaces, and the ornament covers the ground, the 
Held appearing only in the interstices of triangular forms 
which in themselves make a pattern. The Bowing lines 
and scrolls of the leaves deserve careful study. The 
ornament, while firmly held by its borders, has great 
freedom within those boundary lines. The barrel vaults 
and domes are covered with rich mosaics, which are of 
several types. First the mosaics with deep blue -rounds 
such as are on the tomb of Gallia I'lacidia in Ravenna and 
in St. Sophia in Constantinople. These are of the sixth, 
seventh, and eighth centuries. The mosaics with pale 
sea-green grounds, like those in S. Apollinare in Clas-c 
and in S. Vitale at Ravenna, of the seventh century, 
and finally the gold ground mosaics of the Capella l'alatina 
in Palermo, and St. Mark's in Venice, which appear after 
the ninth century. The mosaics are large in texture and 
simple and conventional in drawing, with a much larger 
proportion of field than ornament, therein being the 





!C ORGAN GALLERY. RAVENNA. 



MARBLE MOSAIC FLOOR, 

reverse of the carving, and conform to the limitations of 
the material and have never been surpassed. 

The Byzantine Style is adaptable for interiors in which 
the walls are covered with marbles or mosaics or both, and 
therefore is frequently used in memorial chapels, crema- 
tories, oratories, etc., in cloistered courts, monumental 
staircase halls and the large halls of public buildings, 
such as libraries, railway stations, etc. It is formal and 
grandiose, and ill-fitted in most cases for the interiors of 
private buildings, though even in such buildings certain 
of its characteristics can be adopted, especially in baths 
which are of sufficient importance and have architectural 
treatment. 

The application of Byzantine motives to marble wall 
surfaces can be made extremely interesting ; for instance, 
the marbles may be selected for their -rain and used in 
large panels around which borders of mosaic are placed in- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*33 




ST. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE. 



stead of mouldings, 
or, as in the walls of 
Monreale, rich vertical 
lines of mosaic may 
alternate with widths 
of marble. This work 
is especially adaptable 
to public rooms in 
which it is desired that 
few mouldings should 
occur. In the Cosmati 
work in Rome, con- 
temporaneous with the 
Byzantine work, the 
flutes of columns were 
filled with geometric 
mosaics. The intro- 
duction of the mosaics 
in the marbles produces 
brilliant effect of color 
contrasted with fine- 
stone work. Arched 
and domed forms cov- 
ered with blue and gold 
and green mosaics 
create an impression of 
great splendor, which 
is consistent with 
theaters and sumptu- 
ous public halls. 

The advantage of 
Byzantine work is that 
no studied orders of 




INTKKIOK OF ST. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE 



architecture are neces- 
sary in its use. It is 
essentially a decoration 
of plain surfaces, and 
can he fitted to -any 
space. Its detail, like 
most Oriental detail, is 
in planes and in small 
scale, giving the effect 
of intricacy and elab- 
orate design, while as 
a fact it is extremely 
simple in arrangement. 
For these reasons, any 
architectural work in 
which the structure by 
its conditions is irregu- 
lar, but maintains 
simple surfaces, and in 
which it is desired 
that rich effect should 
be gained without the 
use of formal orders, 
can he treated admir- 
ably in the Byzantine 
style. Its range of 
color can be from white 
and silver and black, 
as in one of the chapels 

• ■ t Westminster Cathe- 

d r a 1 i n L o odon , 

t h rough rvd , black . 
and gold to the <.\t\'\> 



x 34 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




SOUTHERN GALLERY. 



INTERIOR DETAILS, ST. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE. 



NORTHWEST GALLERY. 



est greens and blues, and its 
carved detail can be devoid 
of all but one simple mould- 
ing and yet enrich every 
variety of surface. The leaf 
which is most frequently 
used, with its V cut lobes, is 
so simple that it requires 
only moderate skill except- 
ing in its arrangement . 
Pierced stone grills are espe- 
cially line when designed in 
the Byzantine manner. 

In churches and chapels, 
and elsewhere, openings 
through which but little 
light is required, often re- 
quire a more robust treat- 
ment than can be obtained 
by any system of muntins or 
by leaded glass. The inser- 
tion in these openings of 
perforated -rills designed 
with the stems and leaves 
and patterns suggested by 
Byzantine work 
maintains the 
surfaces and 
color of the wall 
at the same time 
that it embel- 
lishes the open- 
ing. The same 
is true of hi 
ing and ventila- 
ting openings, in 
which brass or 
bronze grills 
would produce 
spots in t h e 
general design, 
while s t o n e 
grills would har- 
monize with 




CAPITAL IX S. VTTALE, RAVENNA. 




CAPITALS IN s. VTTALE, RAVENNA. 



their surroundings. Byzan- 
tine capitals are compact and 
strong, but little of the 
material being cut away, 
and though quite as elabo- 
rate and rich as those of the 
Corinthian order, they seem 
cainible of supporting 
greater weight. They are 
equally adaptable to col- 
umns, piers, anil pilasters, 
and subject to great variety 
of design. The marble 
Hours of Byzantine work 
have always been famous, 
and differ from the Roman 
mosaic floors in that they 
are not made up of small 
pieces of one size, but of 
pieces of various sizes, the 
foci being of large pieces of 
marble which are sur- 
rounded by geometric pat- 
terns and borders of smaller 
pieces. In Roman mosaics 
the designs are 
built up of small 
tesserae of equal 
size, as are the 
Byzantine wall 
mosaics, but the 
Byzantine floor 
mosaics arc built 
up of separate 
pieces of vary- 
ing sizes, cut to 
geometric units 
and fitted to- 
gether to form 
the pattern. The 
floor mosaics 
are of marble, 
the wall mosaics 
largely of glass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Commemorative Monuments. — IV. 



J 35 



H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLE. 



WE begin the equestrian series with the rather tire- 
some figure of Napoleon bidding- farewell to 
France, at Cherbourg-. If there is one quality that should 
inform an equestrian statue it is spirited repose ; and 
arrested action, the perpetuation of a momentary pose, 
grows very wearisome. 

The same qualities are to 
be seen in the Jeanne d' Arc- 
in the Place du Martire at 
Orleans, published in article 
No. II; it does not possess 
a tithe of the charm of the 
dismounted figure at the 
foot of the staircase of 
the Hotel de Ville ; but at 
least it is so placed that 
the streets converge upon it. 
Compared with Fremiet's 
Joan, the Orleans eques- 
trian is poor indeed ; this 
superb monument stands 
in a little square, a sort of 
backwater in the stream 
of traffic along the Rue de 
Rivoli, surrounded by the 
quiet arcades of that street. 

One comes rather suddenly upon it, and always with 
pleasure. It has something of the same quality as the 
Colleoni in Venice, stated in feminine terms. 

The Lafayette Monument in Paris, a gift of America to 
France, is the work of Paul Bartlett and Carrere and 
Hastings in collaboration ; the pedestal of the Colleoni i s 




STATUE OF NAPOLEON, CHERBOURG, FRANCE. 



of course the prototype of this, and it is interesting to 
compare it with the original. 

The Washington Monument in Paris, on the axis of a 
street leading to the Trocadero, was also presented to 
France by the United States, and is the work of Daniel C. 

French collaborating with 
McKim, Mead & White. 

The photograph of the 
statue of Washington, by 
Browne, in Union Square, 
New York, makes apparent 
the fact that it stands on 
the axis of Fourth Avenue, 
but this is by no means 
evident or obvious on the 
spot. It occupies a position 
corresponding to that of 
the statue of Lincoln, fa- 
cing diagonally toward the 
park. Thus, some dim idea 
of symmetry and balance 
seems to have governed the 
highly intelligent persons 
who were responsible for its 
placing. The pedestal is 
particularly good — so sim- 
ple as to attract but little attention, but on examination it 
is seen to be beautifully designed. 

In the splendid square before the National Museum in 
Berlin is the elaborate monument to Frederick the Oreat ; 
it carries out the principle touched on before — that the 
lines of the pedestal should build up in such manner that 




WASHINGTON MONUMENT, PARIS. 



LAFAYETTE MONUMENT, PARIS. 



JEANNE D \KC MONUMENT, PARIS. 



i 3 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the composition is a unit, although the groups around the 
pedestal nearly spoil it. 

The famous statue of Henri I V on the Pont Xeuf is 
interesting chiefly on the historical side, being one of the 
monuments of Paris that 
have suffered the vicissi- 
tudes of changing political 
conditions. It has been 
pulled down and put up 
again more than once. 

Frederick MacMonnies 
and MeKim. Mead iV White 
produced the spirited Slo- 
cum Monument in Brook- 
lyn : the recall of bronze 
in the pedestal helps to 
unite the pedestal and the 
statue. 

One cannot claim much 
for the setting of Dona- 
tello's Gattamelata in the 
great square at Padua; it 
seems to just happen very 
much as things do around 
here ; the pedestal is queer 
enough and the horse looks 
strange to American eyes 
accustomed to a finer bred 
type. Hut to carry a cap- 




5LOCUM MONUMENT, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



St. Gau dens' Sherman in the Plaza in New York may 
fairly be classed, I think, as one of the great equestrian 
statues of the world. Just as the ponderous horses of the 
Gattamelata and the Colleoni moving slowly forward seem 

to express the leisurely 
progress of campaigns con- 
ducted by mercenaries, so, 
t<> me, this whole composi- 
tion typifies the swift march 
from Atlanta to the sea. 
The sense of movement 
seems to be gained by ex- 
pressing the rush of air 
against the garments rather 
than by any violent mus- 
cular action, and this gives 
a subtle quality of repose 
to the whole composition ; 
it moves and yet it does not 
give one the feeling that it 
will move from the ped- 
estal. The bronze is gilded 
as many of the antique 
statues were, and, harsh 
and glaring at first, it is 
growing mellow and dirty 
and beautiful. Here is a 
solution of the problem of 
bronze sculpture with a 




STATUE of HENRI IV. PARIS 



IKK CITY. 



tain of the Renaissance it would seem that such an animal 
as this was needed ; the statue is of historical interest as 
the first modern specimen of bronze casting of heroic size. 



background of trees. The fine pedestal is of red granite, 
polished, with gilded bronze wreaths in low relief inlaid 
on the sides; the cornice has a restrained projection that 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1.3! 



avoids the us- 
ual unpleasant 
shelf and deep 
shadow ; it is 
b y M e K i m , 
Mead & White. 
I h a v e r e - 
served what is 
considered by 
most j u d .14' e s 
the f i nest 
e (j u e s t r i a n 
statue in the 
w o r 1 d for 
the last of the 
e q uestrian 
series— the 
portrait of 
Bartolommeo 
Colleoni b y 
Verrochio, the 
teacher of 
Leonardo da 
Vinci, in the 
little piazza be- 
side the Church 
of SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo 
in Venice. Colleoni, like Gattamelata, was one of the great 
soldiers of fortune who captained the armies of Venice, and 
we may be sure that in this we have the man ' ' in his habit 




/Mfc"*- 



MONUMENT TO FREDERICK THE GREAT, 
BERLIN. 



as he lived"; 
it completely 
visualizes for 
us the ruthless 
warrior of the 
period. The 
pedestal was 
designed by 
another hand 
and is the pro- 
totype of the 
Lafayette ped- 
estal in Paris. 
The bronze 
frieze is an 
important fac- 
tor in the effect 
of the whole. 
This band, of 
the same color 
as the sculp- 
ture, in t h e 
shadow of the 
cornice, ties 
the two to- 
gether per- 
fectly. The 
scale of the 

architecture seems small, but upon measurement one is sur- 
prised at the size of the members; and the ornament recalls 
in its delicacy the beautiful decorative trappings of the horse. 




MONUMENT TO CONDOTTIERE 
GATTAMELATA, PADUA. 




THE COLLEONI MONUMENT, VENICE. 



THE SHERMAN MONUMENT, NEW YORK CITY 



I3 8 THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Scientific Management in the Architect's Office. 



WILLIAM O. LUDLOW. 



ONE morning, in the drafting- room of a certain archi- 
tect's office, the following conversation took place : 

Member of Firm. — I want to look at the three-quarter 
scale drawing you made of the facade of that little brick 
church. Let me see, how many hours were you on this ? 

Draftsman. — Forty hours, sir. 

Memb. of Firm. — Forty hours, and your salary is sixty- 
two and a half cents an hour ; that makes $25, and adding 
overhead chare.es or the usual proportion of the general 
office expenses, makes this drawing cost $4(>. 

Draftsman. — I suppose so. sir, I never thought of it in 
just that way before. 

Memb. of Firm. — Now, just what is the purpose of this 
drawing ? 

Draftsman. — Why, to show the contractor how to build 
that facade and give us a basis for full size drawings. 

Memb. of Firm. — This, then, is not an exhibition draw- 
ing to hang up on the wall or to publish in an architectural 
magazine ? 

Draftsman. - No, sir, but it's the kind I always make, 
and nearly all draftsmen make. 

Memb. of Firm. — All right, now let's see just how 
much of this will be of actual use in the construction of the 
building, for you must remember that a drawing of this 
kind is an instrument of service — a means to an end — 
not an end. 

I notice you have drawn out in pale ink about five hun- 
dred brick with their joints — fifty would have served to 
show the bond, and the vertical dimension line you have 
there gives the modulus of height. So you have wasted 
about ninety per cent of the time you took in drawing 
bricks. 

Now 1 see on this rose window you have drawn in the 
ornament on the terra cotta architrave half way around. 
If you had fully drawn a quadrant, you would have shown 
the contractor all he wanted to build by and all you will 
want in full sizing. You wasted then fifty per cent of the 
time vim spent on this. 

On the eaves line you have drawn the ends of all the 
roofing titles ; that gives the drawing a whole lot of inter- 
est and snap, but if you had indicated about three tiles and 
put on a label. " Spanish Tile Roofing," you would prob- 
ably have deprived yourself of a whole lot of fun, but 
would have told the contractor all he needed to know and 
saved the firm about ninety per cent of your salary on 
" Spanish Tile." 

Now, finally, another thing I notice is that this facade is 
symmetrical about a vertical axis, so that you might have 
drawn just one-half and lettered " This side repeats." Of 
course it wouldn't have looked like a real building then, 
but you would have given the contractor all the informa- 
tion he wanted and saved about forty per cent on the total 
time consumed. 

So this drawing, costing the firm $4o, might have been 
made at a cost of about $20. In other words, you have 
wasted $20 of the firm's money because it is much more 
interesting to make this kind of a drawing and because this 
is the way draftsmen customarily do it. 

The Member of Firm went back into his private office 



and got to thinking over the wicked waste of time and 
money in the average architect's office, due simply to 
a lack of scientific management. His thoughts transcribed 
would have read something like this : 

"No wonder the average architect complains of small 
returns from the practice of his profession ; no wonder he 
sometimes gets less than his head salaried man." 

" When a professional man of any sort employs men and 
runs an office, he has a business proposition on his hands 
which must be conducted on approved business methods — 
no waste — esprit de corps — every man suited to his job 

— maximum efficiency of men and instruments of service 

— and all those things which go to make up what we popu- 
larly call scientific management, which is nothing more or 
less than the substitution of brains for tradition and fail 
faire." 

The Member of Firm invited the entire force to lunch 
with him that day and asked them if they wouldn't all like 
to be members of the firm. As there seemed to be no vio- 
lent objection he started out by telling them what scientific 
management had done for "commercial business" and 
how, and stated that he was firmly convinced that the 
same principles applied to " professional business " would 
increase the profits at least twenty-five per cent. 

Further, he observed that as the success of such methods 
in an architect's office would depend largely on the appli- 
cation of them by the draftsmen themselves, he proposed 
to make them all members of the firm in the sharing of the 
additional profits so far as they were produced by their 
own industry and foresight in carrying out these princi- 
ples. For instance, the usual cost of the production of the 
work by an architect's organization is one-half of the gross 
income, and whatever amount this cost falls below the 
mark can legitimately be considered additional profits, and 
the firm can well afford to share part of these additional 
profits with those whose added effort and industry make 
such profits possible. 

The Member of Firm then retailed the conversation of 
the morning, pointing out that the greatest expense of an 
architect's office is the draftsmen's salaries, and how every 
man connected with the production of drawings could by 
the application of "gray matter" eliminate largely the 
unconscionable waste of useless drafting. He further sug- 
gested that the method of scientific management applied to 
drafting was just this : Size up your problem ; just exactly 
what information is this drawing to give : what is the 
clearest and most concise way to give it, and then don't 
put on a single line that doesn't subserve these purposes. 

This provoked a general discussion of other ways and 
means of economy, such as : the leaving to the office boy 
everything an office boy can do, instead of having a $30 
draftsman spending his time in getting out drawings, 
sharpening lead pencils, bordering plans and the like ; the 
most efficient card catalogue system for drawings and 
plates, and the latest and most approved filing system for 
documents, papers, etc., for the first cost of the best sys- 
tem, is made Up a hundred times over by the saving often 
of the most valuable time in the office. 

"But right here," said Member of Firm, "I want 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*39 



to point out one danger. This office is not a plan fac- 
tory and we are never going- to make it such. Our call- 
ing we believe is of a little higher grade than commercial 
business ; our success depends on the imagination, the 
inspiration, the personality and the ethical and spiritual 
qualities which we put into our work. We are not trading 
in material things — we are creating — and I beg of you 
not to think for a moment that I advocate machine-like 
processes ; quite the contrary ; the whole thought of this 
scheme is more individuality, more personal initiative, 
more brain. These things cultivate the imagination, the 
spirit, while mere tradition and laissez-faire deaden our 
best instincts." 

The Member of Firm didn't say, but he thought and 
believed, that the motive power behind his scheme was the 
awakening of incentive, first by the prospect of reward and 
second by an esprit de corps and loyalty which surely fol- 
lows the partnership feeling, for with the instilling of these 



feelings disappear largely many of the abuses in an archi- 
tect's office, which rules and regulations will not cure. 
Loafing, curtailing of hours of work, lack of interest would 
now cut two ways. 

The system was installed and worked, and why shouldn't 
it, for it is nothing more nor less than applying the well 
recognized principle of co-operation and profit-sharing as 
an incentive, and then by laying down the principles 
whereby the incentive can be turned to practical account. 

Often when I look over architects' drawings or see their 
time-honored and cumbrous pigeon-hole document boxes, 
their inadequate and therefore costly systems of recording 
and filing drawings, I am struck with the wanton waste of 
the architects' precious substance, and am almost forced to 
believe that next to our professional friends, the lawyers, 
we are, like the traditional shoemaker, most prone to pro- 
vide good shoes for our customers, but let our own 
children go barefoot. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 
City Club, Chicago. Plates 57-59. The chief motive 
in the general design of this building was to give expres- 
sion to the relationship existing between the City Club and 
the modern social and civic aims. The building, 50 x 95 
feet, has a height of 93 feet above the sidewalk and 12 feet 
below reaching to 
the basement 
floor. The con- 
struction is fire- 
proof throughout, 
the outer walls 
being of solid 
masonry on pile 
foundations, and 
the floor arches of 
hollow tile. The 
floor in the lobby 
is of quarry tile, 
in all halls and 
corridors of com- 
position, in the 
toilet rooms of 
marble and ce- 
ramic tile, and in 
the principal 
rooms of cork or 
maple. The trim 
and finish is quar- 
tered sawed oak 
up to and inclu- 
ding the main 
dining room, while 

all above is of select birch. The cost of the building, 
ready for decoration, was approximately $145,000. 




COURTYARD OF HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Roofs of Imperial Spanish Red Tile made by Ludowiri-Celadon Company 
Abram Garfield, Architect. 



FILTRATION OF SWIMMING POOLS. 

THE result of several years' investigation by German 
experts on the filtration of water tor swimming pools 
has recently been edited by Drs. Kistcr and Fromme of 



Hamburg, Germany. The tests, which were very exten- 
sive and complete, included waters purified by aeration 
and filtration as well as water not artificially purified. 
Chemical and bacteriological analyses were taken at regu- 
lar intervals from tanks varying from 2.4 to 10 feet deep 
of 20,000 cubic feet capacity, and 7 to 9 feet deep holding 

10,000 cubic feet. 
1,050 cubic feet 
of fresh water was 
poured into the 
s m a 11 e s t t a n k 
e v e r y t w e 1 v e 
hours from pipes 
above the water 
level, while the 
larger tank was 
supplied by a pipe 
at the low point 
of the bath and 
flowed one-half 
hour twice a day, 
forcing a continu- 
ous overflow of 
the surface water. 
The experiments 
revealed the fact 
that the germs do 
not increase in 
proportion to the 
number of bathers 
but have a ten 
dency to sudden 
increases and de 
creases. Chemically there was little change except in the 
oxygen consumed and the increase of ammonia. 

The purification plant employed consisted of eight coke 
beds, 7 inches thick, over which water was sprayed, and 
two sand filters 20 and 40 inches thick with an area of 
42 square feet. The water after being filtered through 
the plant was forced back to the tank bj a pulsometer and 
centrifugal pumps. At the end of twenty-one days the 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE FIRE COMPANIES BUILDING, 80 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK CITY. 
The modeled ornament of the entablature is in white against a background ( I" green, executed by the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company. The arrow indicates a novel use of bronze terra cotta for panels between 
window courses. 1). II. Burnham K: Co., Architects. 



water was transparent to a depth of 10 feet and had a 
better color than originally. 

The summary of the experiments showed that a 40-inch 
sand filter is sufficient in itself for all purposes, and also 
that tank water, if filtered continuously, can be kept 
hygienically clean for three weeks. 



AMERICA'S GREAT FIRE WASTE. 

IN view of the great fire losses during the 
few months, Roger \V. Babson, the statisticia 
Wellesley Hills, Mass., prepared for the New 
Tillies the following data on America's enormous 
waste : 

"Twelve months of fire losses like 
those in January of the current y 
would affect the American 
people, together with the 
insurance companies doing 
business in this country, in 
a manner not pleasant to con- 
template. The percentage of 
loss to premiums received 
that month ranged from 80 to 
118, compared with a normal 
in recent years of k-ss than 
ier cent. 

For the United States and 
ida the estimated loss by 
fire that month was $35,653, 450, and to multiply that by- 
twelve would give results quite appalling — over $427,01 10, - 
000 against an average of $234,1 ,1 for 1911 and 1910. 

Assume that the total losses for the United States in 
L912 shall approximate the amount indicated bv the Ian- 




nary figures and there is no 
parallel to be found in any- 
past year except in 1906, the 
year of the earthquake and 
fire in California, when the 
footing was $518,611,800. 

It will be noticed that only 
$68,000,000of the loss in the 
United States for the year 
specified was on buildings of 
brick, stone, and other slow- 
buming construction ma- 
terial, whereas the loss on 
frame buildings was almost 
exactly twice as much or 
$146,000,000." 

Mr. Babson was particu- 
larly emphatic in driving 
home the personal side of 
this great problem of fire 
waste. " Remember that the 
average loss to-day in the 
United States is $2.82 per 
capita for protection and 
$2. 54 per capita for fire, or a 
total of $5.36 per capita or 
S-<>. s<> per family per year. 
Remember that these 
figures for Europe are only 
$0.57 and So. 48 respectively, 
with a total of only 51 .05 per capita or $5.25 per family. 
Assuming that with European fireproof construction our 
buildings would be 10 per cent more expensive, and this 
would make rents 5 per cent higher ( which is very liberal >, 
fireproof construction would still enable a money saving 
of over $10 per year for each American family, besides 
saving thousands of lives, with untold misfortune, 
enience." 



XT HOTEL IX BERLIN. 

first apartment hotel conducted on 

> has been erected recently in 

The plans provide for single 

and suites for bachelors and 

s. The features of importance 

include a sanatorium and 

elaborate set of baths. The 

building is limited to five 

stories and covers an area 

equal to a full American city 

block. 



DETAIL FOB AN APARTMENT BUILDING. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers 
Mulliken & Moeller, Architects. 



T 



DISCOVERIES IX 

MESOPOTAMIA. 
HE Oerman expedition 
under the direction of 
Baron Oppenheim has made 
some important discoveries 
at Tel Ilalef in Mesopotamia. In addition to many 
examples of sculpture there has been unearthed the foun- 
dations of a royal palace. The fragments of the walls 
contribute a series of some seven hundred stone reliefs 
with sculptured groups and single figures in a perfect state 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of preservation. The elab- 
orately carved corner- 
stones of the palace towers 
tog-ether with the gate- 
way, guarded by two colos- 
sal figures of animals, have 
also been excavated. 



TERRA COTTA FOR 

THE LOS ANGELES 

TRUST AND SAVINGS 

BANK BUILDING. 

THE architectural terra 
cotta for the Los 
Angeles Trust and Sav- 
ings Bank Building, 
Parkinson & Bergstrom, 
architects, described in 
this issue, was furnished 
by Gladding, McBean & 
Company, San Francisco. 




FIREPLACE 



EXECUTED BY 
COME 



IN GENERAL. 

In a limited competition 
held in Washington recently for the " All Souls Unitarian 
Church and the Edward Everett Hale Memorial Parish 
House," Wood, Donn & Deming's design was selected. 



I 4 1 
of the new publication 

which will be published 
under the direction of the 
School of Architecture at 
1 [arvard. The first num- 
ber contains articles and 
illustrations of unusual 
merit, and all the material 
is splendidly presented. 
The subscription price is 
#1 .50 per year. 

A. A. Ritcher, architect, 
announces the removal of 
his office to Reading, Pa. 

Spencer & Powers, arch- 
itects, announce the re 
moval of their office to the 
Otis Building, LO South 
La Salle street. Chicago. 



George S. Mills, George 

V. Rhines, Lawrence S. 

Bellman and Charles M. 

Nordhoff, architects, announce that they have formed a 

partnership under the firm name of Mills, Rhines, Bellman 

& Nordhoff with offices in the Ohio Building, Toledo, Ohio. 



THE ROOK WOOD POTTER\ 
ANY. 




DETAIL FOR ADOLPHUS HOTEL, DALLAS, TEXAS. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

The Rotch Traveling Scholarship for this year has been 
awarded to Charles Cameron Clark, a special student at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The second prize 
for students in architectural drawing was awarded to Ralph 
J. Batchelder, who won first prize in The Brickhuildek's 
competition for a bungalow. 

The Third Annual Exhibition 
A. I. A., was held at 
the Art Institute, In- 
dianapolis, from May 
10th to 31st. The 
exhibit will be trans- 
ferred to South Bend, 
Indiana, for a period 
of two weeks. 

The Architectural 
Quarterly of Harvard 
University is the title 




HOUSE AT BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

Buil't of Golden Full Range Tapestry Brick, manufactured by Fiske 

& Company, Inc. W. C. Weston, Architect. 

Leenhouts and Guthrie, architects, announce the re- 
moval of their offices to 424 Jefferson street, Milwaukee. 

The entire facade of the Apartment House, 116 Fast 
58th street, J. E. R. Carpenter, architect, illustrated in 
The Brickbuildek for .April, was in white matt and 



polychrome terra cotta 
erra Cotta Company. 




furnished by the Atlantic 
The Ashlar blocks of the 
first two stories are 
delicately modeled in 
low re lief: t h e 
entrance and its 
attendant features, 

second-story licit 

courses and third- 
story balcony, are 
boldly modeled and 
t reated w i t h old 
go Id, blue, a n d 
green. 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY O. W. KETCHAM 
TERRA COTTA WORKS. 



Carter, Black 
& Ayres, New- 
York, will sup- 
ply 800,000 
Harvard brick 
for the new 
Bellevue Hos- 
pital Build- 
ings, New York 
City, McKim, 
Mead& White, 
a rchitects; 
plain and moulded Harvard brick for the Noah Porter 
Memorial Gateway, Yale University, Howells & Stokes, 
architects ; 300,000 Harvard and 300,000 white enameled 
brick for the new German Hospital, New York, I. E. 
Ditmars, architect, and Harvard brick for seventeen new- 
Fire Department Houses, New York City, Hoppin & Koen, 
architects. 

Oswald C. Hering and Douglass Fitch, architects, an- 
nounce the removal of their office to southwest corner 
Madison avenue and Thirty-first street, New York. 

Sayre & Fisher Company furnished the brick for the 
house at South Orange, X. J., Grosvenor Atterbury, 

architect, which was illustrated in The Brickbi-ilder 
for April. 

The architectural terra cotta for the Hi.srbee Store Build- 
ing, Cleveland, Ohio, illustrated in this issue, was fur- 
nished by the Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company.. 

The Bradford Pressed Brick 
Company will supply over 
500,000 "Bradford Reds" 
brick for the new Mount St. 
Mary's I lospital to be erected at 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., William 
P. Ginther, architect. 



The Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company will supply the archi- 
tectural terra cotta for the 
f< >]]< wing new buildings: Union 
Central Life Insurance Build- 
ing— 33 stories, almost entirely 
of terra cotta — Cass Gilbert, 
architect; Masonic Temple, 
Colon, Panama — white matt 
and polychrome — II. P. 
Knowles, architect ; Fidton 
County Courthouse, Atlanta, 
Georgia, A. Ten Eyck Brown 
and Morgan & Dillon, asso- 
ciated, architects; Hotel El 
Paso Del Nort, El Paso, Texas, 
Trost <£: Trost and Mauran, 
Russell & Crowell, associated, 
architects; McGill Street 
Building, Montreal, Canada, 
R. E. Bostrom, architect ; St. 
Columba Church, Philadelphia, 
Henry I). Dagit, architect. 




W. Gibbons Uffendell and Nicholas II . Holmes, archi- 
tects and engineers, have opened offices at 1328 McCor- 
mick Building, Chicago. 

Charles M. Hart and Mott B. Schmidt announce the 
opening of an office for the practice of architecture at 43 
Cedar street, New York City, under the firm name of 
Hart & Schmidt. 

Falch & Knoll, architects, announce the opening of an 
office for the practice of architecture in the Hearst Build- 
ing, San Francisco, Cal. Manufacturers' catalogues and 

samples desired. 

Considerable interest is being manifested in Germany's 
newest and largest railway station, which has been in pro- 
cess of construction at Leipsic for the last nine years. The 




DETAIL BY 

C. B. MEYERS, 

ARCHITECT. 



The New Jersey 

Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 



station takes rank as the biggest in Germany and repre- 
sents a cost of $34,oOO,ooo. The Central Station at 
Frankfort has hitherto held that honor, while Hamburg's 
new Hauptbahnhof is also notable for its size. 

The governor of Illinois has rendered a notable service 
to conservation by setting aside October 9 as Fire Preven- 
tion Day, the idea being to encourage efforts toward the 
prevention of fires and the lessening of waste from this 
cause, rather than the fighting of fire once it has started. 

The significance of the date designated by the governor 
of Illinois is that it is the anniversary of the great Chicago 
(ire, which started on that day just forty years ago, in 1871. 






DETAIL BY WM. LESLIE 

WELTON, ARCHITECT. 

The Northwestern Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 











DETAIL FOR BROKEN PEDIMENT OVER MAIN ENTRANCE BY 

WALLIS & GOODWII.LIE, ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by the American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



H3 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new 72 page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



Architectural Post Cards 

Detailed views of American Architecture. Reproduced by 

the Double Collotype Process. 

More convenient and more durable than photographs. 

10 COMPLETE SERIES 

Send for descriptive circular and sample cards 

Architectural Post Card Co., 5540 Catharine St., Phila. 



COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN 
South Carolina and Georgia 

A series of the choicest examples of pure Colonial Architecture 
found in the South. Showing some of the best and most interest- 
ing examples of American Colonial work, many of which have 
now disappeared. 

Illustrating exteriors, interiors, and numerous details; entrances, 
doors (interior and exterior), mantels, halls, staircases, interior 
trim, mouldings, wrought iron work, furniture, etc. 

Compiled and Photographed by 
E. A. CRANE & E. E. SODERHOLTZ 

52 plates, \2i x 16 in. In portfolio. $10.00 
Descriptive circular upon request 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

64 East 12th Street, New York, N. Y. 



ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — THE TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
MANSON, BOSTON. 



School of Architecture 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Summer Courses in Architectural Design 

For circular giving details with regard to these 
courses, apply to Professor H. L. Warren, Chairman of 
the Department of Architecture, Harvard University. 



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Westfield, Mats. 
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New York 
Boston 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Birmingham, Ala. Page 141 

W. C. Weston, Architect 



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JLlRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



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foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
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to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 
Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
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A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
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Continuously in this business for 93 years 






144 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE. 



To Be Built of Natco Hollow Tile. 



Cost not to Exceed $4,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $300. SECOND PRIZE, $200. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a small, detached house, the walls and foundations of which are to be built of Natco Hollow Tile. 
Competitors may adopt the Bungalow type of house if they so desire, since the material will meet readily the 
requirements of such a design. 

At least three bedrooms and ample basement room are to be provided for in the plan. Two bedrooms and bath are to 
be on the first floor. The third bedroom may be on first floor or in attic. 

The location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 

The cost of the house — exclusive of the land — shall not exceed $4,000. The method of heating, the plumbing, other 
fixtures, and finish, to be governed by the limit of cost. 

The cost of the house must be figured at $.20 per cubic foot. Measurements of the house proper must be taken 
from the outside face of exterior walls and from the level of the basement floor to the average height of all roofs. Porches, 
verandas, and other additions are to be figured separately at one-fourth (25 per cent) of their total cubage. The cost of 
porches, etc, is to be included in the total cost of the house ($4,000). 

On this basis of figuring — the number of cubic feet multiplied by the cost per cubic foot — the jury will not consider 
any designs which exceed the limit of cost. 

All cubage and other dimensions will be carefully checked before the drawings are submitted to the jury. 

On the drawing in a space measuring 6 inches by 5 inches — enclosed in rules — is to be given, at a size which will 
permit of two-thirds reduction, the cubage of the house multiplied by the cost per cubic foot, and the various items with 
costs which go to make up the total cost of the house. 

The particular object of this Competition is to encourage the use of Natco Hollow Tile in small houses. The cost of 
this type of construction will be found to be in most parts of the country but little over that of first-class frame construc- 
tion, and it is a fact that any mason of average ability can easily do the work. 

The one marked tendency of the times is for better construction in houses. It is a subject which is being agitated In- 
able writers in the magazines and the daily press. Insurance Companies, Boards of Trade, and other bodies interested in 
the public welfare are giving their support to the movement. It is believed that a Competition such as this will encourage 
a study of a type of construction which, although comparatively new. has, nevertheless, met all the demands put upon it 
with respect to aesthetic considerations, facility of construction, and cost. 

CONSTRUCTION.! 

The following suggestions are offered as being practicable and admissible. 

First. Outside walls may be of Natco Hollow Tile 8 inches thick (8 inches by 12 inches by 12 inches). Foundation 
walls, below grade, should not be less than 12 inches thick. The blocks being heavily scored on two sides, stucco may be 
used for an outside finish, and plaster applied direct to the block for interior finish. 

Second. The walls may be built double, using in the outside wall a 4-inch hollow tile, and on the inside a 6-inch tile. 
The treatment of the face of such a wall, and the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls, are left to the designer. 

The floors and roof need not be of fireproof construction. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. Plans of the 
first and second floors at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. A section showing construction of exterior wall with cornice. 
Heights of floors to be given on section. Enough detail sketches to fill out sheet. In connection with the plan of the first 
floor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. The plans 
are to be blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany the plans. The character of the exterior finish must be 
clearly indicated on the perspective and detail. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 26 inches by 20 inches. Plain black border lines are to be drawn on the sheet 
1 inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 24 inches by 18 inches. The sheet is to be of white paper and is 
not to be mounted. Very thin paper or cardboard is prohibited. 

The drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the 
nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of THE 
BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 25, 1912. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owners' risk from time they are sent until returned, although reason- 
able care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession representing different sections of 
the country. 

First consideration will be given to the fitness of the design, in an .esthetic sense, to the material employed ; second — 
the adaptability of the design, as shown by the details, to the practical constructive requirements of the material ; 
third — excellence of plan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER and the right is reserved by THE 
BRICKBUILDER to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will be given 
in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have 
them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition will be returned direct from the office of THE BRICKBUILDER to the 
contestants. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $300. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everv one. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This Competition is conducted under the patronage of the National Fire Proofing Company. 

On the preceding page will be found examples of construction which may be helpful to competitors. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



JUNE 1912 



Number 6 



PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS C8, MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba $5.00 per year 

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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



PAGE 
II 
II 



BRICK ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
II and III FIREPROOFING . 
Ill ! ROOFING TILE . 



PAGK 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 
J. MILTON DYER; JARVIS HUNT; GUY LOWELL; LUDLOW & PEABODY; 



HOWARD .VAN D. SHAW. 



LETTERPRESS 

PAGK 

DETAIL, CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

ENGLISH BRICKBUILDERS — ERNEST NEWTON, A.R.A A\ Randal Phillips 147 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. --V //. Van Bun tn Magonigle 155 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUPLEX APARTMENTS. — I. EARLY TYPE E. Harris fanes 159 

THE FEDERAL LIFE BUILDING, CHICAGO, MARSHALL & FOX, ARCHITECTS 162 

FOUR MERCANTILE BUILDINGS, CHICAGO 166 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 167 



NOTICE. — The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 




DETAIL OF THE FACADE, CHURCH OF 

SAX FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO. 

The entire surface is covered with glazed tiles, and in 
some cases they have been moulded to tit the various 
places where they are to be laid The columns and 
some mouldings are built up of curved tiles, to j;ive 
the required form. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



JUNE, 1912 



VOLUME XXI. 



NUMBER 6. 



English Brickbuilders Ernest Newton, A.R.A. 



R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 



AMONG English domestic architects no one is doing 
better work than Ernest Newton. His work is so 
thoroughly sane that it completely satisfies. And yet it 
abounds with freshness and virility. It is no mere replica 
of old motives, but expresses modern requirements in a 
modern spirit. There is no admixture of the simplicity of 
an agricultural people living many hundreds of years ago 
with the cultured complexity of to-day. 

Looking around at some houses of our own time, we 
find ample evidence of the danger, often the absurdity, of 
identifying " simplicit}' " with the " farmhouse tradition." 
Roughly adzed oak, coarse wobbly plaster, cavernous fire- 
places, and an exterior naive sometimes to the verge of 
childishness, have of course a certain charm, the charm of 
the sampler and 
the little story 
in words of one 
syllable. It is 
a form of art 
which makes a 
very direct ap- 
peal to the 
homely emo- 
tions, and it is 
quite legitimate, 
so far as it goes ; 
but for all that 
it is, or should 
be, strictly lim- 
ited to small and 
really simple 
houses. It is 
wilfully curtail- 
ing our powers 
of design, and 
altogether too 
easy, just to take 
the cottage form 
and blow it out, 
like a bladder, 
for a bigger 
house. There are a good many people who like this 
kind of thing, but there is something a little pathetic in 
the spectacle of an ordinary large commonplace Briton 
sitting, rather forlorn, in a sort of kitchen with a gritty 
stone floor and a ceiling so low and heavily beamed that it 
only wants the dangling hams to prevent his standing up- 
right. And there is also that other incongruity of such 




things as a huge chimneypiece in brickwork, not even 
rubbed brickwork, around which it is considered appropri- 
ate to forgather after sitting at a table with the most fin- 
ished refinements. No, there is a gulf between crude 
brick and Chippendale furniture, and it is not bridged by 
an artistic craze. In the houses of Mr. Newton you never 
see this sort of thing. If he is building a residence for a 
client with taste and education, he makes the house fit the 
man. We see chimneypieces of chaste design executed in 
wood or marble ; we see plasterwork or leadwork which 
proclaims the revival of an ancient craft ; we see rooms of 
ample height with windows big enough to let in plenty of 
air and sunlight ; we see the most careful planning, the 
most modern fittings, and every evidence of the twentieth 

century, instead 
of the seven- 
teenth. All this 
is the outcome 
of his training 
and the outlook 
which this gave. 
Mr. Newton 
was born in 
London in 1856, 
and was edu- 
cated at a pre- 
paratory school 
at Blackheath, 
afterwards pro- 
c e eding to 
U p p i n g h a m , 
which famous 
public school he 
left in 1872. In 
1873 he was ar- 
ticled for three 
years to Nor- 
m a D S li a w , 
R. A., and at 
the conclusion 
of his t c r 111 
stayed with Mr. Shaw for a further three years, after which 
he commenced to practice on his own account. 

He has been particularly identified with movements tend- 
ing to the better education of architects and the public. In 
his early years of practise he was a member of the Archi- 
tectural Illustration Society, the object of which was to 
raise the standard of work selected for illustration in the 



SWITHIN S CHURCH, HITHER GREEN, LONDON 



148 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



technical papers : for at that time the building papers pub- 
lished most things sent up to them, without much regard 
to artistic merit in the buildings depicted. The method 
of the society was to invite illustrations of good work from 
various architects, and under the imprimatur of the society 
to publish them as plates in one of the weekly journals. 
This arrangement contin- 
ued for some years, and 
was not without its educa- 
tional effect, both on archi- 
tects and editors. 

Mr. New ton was also 
closely identified with the 
formation of the Art Work- 
ers' Guild, which began in 
quite a small way in the 
early eighties. It grew out 
of a society known as the 
St. George's Art Society, 
and was originally limited 
to architects, the meetings 
being held in Mr. Newton's 
offices. Later, followers of 
other arts and crafts were 
admitted, and it is now a 
flourishing organization 
with headquarters at Clif- 
ford's Inn Hall. 

Being thus prominently 
associated with architectural 
and kindred movements, it 
is natural to find in Mr. 
Newton a good conversa- 
tionalist and an incisive 
writer. When he takes up 

the pen, many a poignant criticism finds expression, but 
there is never any touch of bitterness, never any hard 
cynicism. And throughout there abounds sound sober 
sense mixed up with liveliness. 

Take, as an example, some observations of his on a 
matter already referred to. "I am inclined to think," he 
says, " that we use the farmhouse as a source of inspira- 
tion rather too indiscriminately. It is very sweet, very 
homely, and very English, but it is not for universal appli- 
cation, and for people who live 
in a ' big way ' it seems a little 
incongruous to find the dining 
room with a kitchen chimney 
— complete almost to the hang- 
ing cooking-pot — a blunder- 
buss and a sampler hanging 
over the valanced shelf, and 
an oak settle from a village 
ale-house to sit on. There is, 
of course, a sentiment attach- 
ing to all this which is 
mirable in its way, but in a big man's house the whole 
thin-' is a little artificial. Possibly we may not approve 
of a -rand manner of living, and this is our little sermon 
on the vanity of would-be greatness ; but it is our business 
to deal with life as it is, not as it might be." Here 
we see what is the basis of Mr. Newton's outlook 
a frank recognition of actualities, and we have only to turn 




INTKKIOK, ST. SW1THIN S CIU'KCII, LONDON. 




- FOX COURT - 
PLAN OF " DAWN HOUSE," WINCHESTER 



to his work to see that, while accepting those actualities, 
the most charming results are possible. But he is not an 
ultra-modernist to the degree of neglecting the study of 
old work. We have no inherited traditions, and it is only 
by this study that we can acquaint ourselves with the 
methods of the old builders; but Mr. Newton thinks we 

are perhaps too much in the 
habit of catching the super- 
ficial expression while fail- 
in- to analyze the processes 
that go to make up this ex- 
pression. To quote him 
( mce more — and he is worth 
quoting when, on rare oc- 
casions, he leads himself 
into print — " The house 
builder of former times was 
faced by all sorts of prac- 
tical difficulties, and it was 
his success in getting over 
them in the right way that 
made architecture- It is 
our business as architects to 
meet the difficulties of our 
own day, not necessarily in 
the same way, but in the 
same kind of way, and, as 
we have not a stock of ready- 
made experience, we must 
acquire it by a careful 
consideration of building 
methods and of the best and 
most architectural uses of 
all legitimate materials. I 
don't mean to say we must 
begin all over again with rough shelters and gradually 
evolve a new building system, but that we should be 
thoroughly familiar with the whole history of building, so 
that when faced by the problems of our own age we 
should be able to meet them with understanding. So far 
the study of old work is not only advisable but necessary ; 
but there is another study which is also necessary yet 
almost entirely neglected, and that is the study of con- 
temporary building. We are all aiming at the same thing, 

and it is surely a mistake to 
ignore what others similarly 
circumstanced are doing to that 
end. It is too much the custom 
for architects to pursue their 
own individual methods with- 
out regard to all that is being 
done by others. No art which, 
like architecture, is dependent 
on continuity of idea and the 
concentration of many minds 
on a given point, can grow and 
develop if it is practised in isolation. To be convinced of 
the truth of this we have but to examine other construct- 
ive arts — varying only in degree from architecture — 
such as shipbuilding and engineering of all kinds. In 
these we have concentration and continuity. No ship- 
builder in a fit of arcrueological enthusiasm would build 
a modern ship on the lines of the ' Great Harry.' although 



THE BRICKBUI LD ER. 



149 




GARDEN FRONT OF " FOURACRE," WINCHFIELD, HAMPSHIRE. 




DAWN HOUSE, WINCHESTER 



STEEP HILL, JERSEY. 



THREE EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

Ernest Newton, A.R.A., Architect. 



i5o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





i VIEWS OF REDCOCRT," AT HASLEMERE, StJREEY, ENGLAND. 

Ernest Newton, A.R.A., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



151 




TWO VIKWS OF 



LUCKLEY, AT WOKINGHAM, BERKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 

Ernest Newton, A.R.A., Architect. 



l S 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT EWHURST, SURREY. 




UPTON GREY MANOR, HAMPSHIRE. 



Wo EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

Ernest Newton, A.R.A., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*53 





TWO VIEWS OF " ARDERUN PLACE," SURREY, ENGLAND. 

Ernest Newton, A.R.A., Architect. 



*54 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PLAN OF LUCKLEY, 
1. Dining Room. 17. Hall. 

19. Studv. 20. Billiard Room. 



all that was in ships of that date is in the most modern 
vessel of to-day ; the growth has been natural and logical, 
and consequently easy. And so 1 believe it must be 
eventually with our houses ; an individual architecture, 
more or less archaeological, has 
no real vitality. It is at once 
the difficulty and the opportu- 
nity of the architect that he 
has to build as well as to dream. 
Hut art pursued under natural 
conditions and in a natural way 
will have both style and beauty, 
and while familiarity with con- 
struction will stimulate the 
imagination, imagination itself 
will open up fresh fields for 
construction." 

Having thus indicated the 
motives that animate Mr. New- 
ton, a few particulars, in con- 
clusion, may be given of the 
houses shown by the accom- 
panying illustrations. 

"Redcourt," Haslemere, is a bold brick house in the 
midst of Surrey. It will be seen to be perfectly straight- 
forward in every particular, extremely logical in its treat- 
ment, and, though based on simple lines, relieved from 
the commonplace by a score of skilful touches — such as 
the stone lintels over the windows on the entrance front, 
and the lozenges and brick string on the garden front. 
On the latter, too, attention is drawn to the bay with its 
east leadwork, and the lead gutter above. Mr. Newton is 
a lover of the crafts, and he introduces them into all his 
houses. The entire shell of " Redcourt " has an air of 
breadth and distinction about it, and throughout the 
interior there is refinement of design. " Dawn House," 
Winchester, "Luckley," Wokingham, and the house at 
Ewhurst are smaller, but bearing the same stamp of indi- 
viduality. The dressings are of a darker brick than the 
general walling, and the woodwork is painted white. 
"Luckley" is an especially pleasing example of Mr. 
Newton's work. 

Steep Hill," Jersey, 
stands on highground overlook- 
ing St. Heliers. It occupies 
the site of an old house, and 
so enjoys the advantages of an 
old garden. It is built of 
brick, rough-cast, with a red 
tiled roof. Inside there is a 
good deal of oak paneling. 
"Upton Grey," Hampshire, 
was originally an old farm- 
house which had been rather 
ruthlessly altered from time to 
time, and when Mr. Newton 

took it in hand for his client the place was being used 
partly as a farmhouse and partly as two labourers' cottages. 
Most of the old work was in a bad condition and required 
very careful handling ; many of the walls were patches of 
brick, tiles and timber thrown together at various periods. 
The final result on the exterior may be judged from the 
illustrations here reproduced. Referring to the general 




WOKINGHAM. 
is. Drawing Room. 




PLAN OF 



UPTON GRF.Y 
HAMPSHIRE. 



view of the entrance front, the porch and gable and all to 
the right are new, and in comparison with the old it will 
be admitted that the work has been very skilfully carried 
out. To the left of the gable, part is old, but has been 

remodeled, while the piece be- 
tween that and the porch is 
quite new. On the garden 
front there is a bay similar to 
the one on the entrance front, 
but carried down solid to the 
ground level, where a good 
window is provided. The work 
is designed and executed in a 
traditional manner with many 
elaborate mortises anil tenons 
in the timber framing. All 
the main timbers are S inches 
by S inches, and to prevent 
wet driving through the half- 
timber construction, slates in 
cement are bedded on a brick 
filling between the timbers, a 
space being left, and the face 
lathed and plastered. This makes a thoroughly sound job, 
and is a good example of the manner in which Mr. Newton 
carries out his work. " Ardenrun Place," Blindlev Heath, 
is the most elaborate house carried out from Mr. Newton's 
designs. There is a considerable amount of carving about 
it, more especially within, where a very rich staircase 
is seen. There is a certain stately magnificence about this 
house, but the essential qualities of English domestic 
architecture are preserved. It is formal, but not in the 
least cold. And it is just in this ability to expand his 
manner to meet the requirements in hand that Mr. Newton 
excels. He does not repeat the small house on a large 
scale, as we may well see by comparing "Ardenrun Place" 
with " Fouracre," Winchfield, Hampshire. Vet the latter 
has just as much charm, in its way, as the former. It is 
indeed a delightful English house, and while referring to 
it we may draw attention to the pattern work on the gables 
and on the wall surface between the wings. This is exe- 
cuted in plain projecting bricks, 
the diaper <>n the chimneys 
being carried out with flare 
ends. 

Mr. Newton, for the most 
part, is an architect of brick 
houses, but not exclusively so, 
and that he is no less success- 
ful in other kinds of buildings 
we have St. Swithin's church, 
Hither Green, London, to 
testify. For other prominent 
buildings not illustrated in this 
article may be cited Martin's 
Bank at Bromley, Kent, tower 
and spire of St. George's Church at Bickley, and the chapel 
at the House of Retreat, Clerkenwell, London. 

Throughout all his work there is the same mark of sanity, 
knowledge, and culture, combined with abundant fresh- 
ness of design. It was gratifying, therefore, to see him 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1911 : a 
distinction full well merited. 



MANOR, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



J 55 




ffjjMufMJiiLLLLLLlJLi Mi 






B *y 




PLACE DE LA CONCORDE, PARIS. 



Commemorative Monuments. — V. 



H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLE. 



THE column and the obelisk are cousins descended 
from the phallus, that ancient symbol ; the descent 
may be traced through the dolmens and menhirs of Britain 
and Brittany. And since the obelisk is in the direct line 
of succession (which, in common with most lineages, is on 
the male side) we may compare the one in the Place de la 
Concorde, marking" the cross axes of the square, flanked 
by fountains and in every way treated like a gentleman, 
with that called rather hilariously Cleopatra's Needle, 
perched on a rocky eminence in Central Park in New York 
and absolutely unrelated to anything whatever in its 
vicinity. The Lincoln Monument in Springfield is illus- 
trated as a hor- 
rible example ; 
but the forth- 
right simplicity 
of the Washing- 
ton Monument, 
its great height 
of 555 feet and 
its excellent 
proportion, 
make it one 
of the most 
beautiful monu- 
ments in the 
world ; it has 
been left alone ; 
it has not been 
teas e d a n d 
made trivial by 
over-treatment, 
but just stands 
for itself. 
When the great 
plan for the 
Mall of the 
Capital City 
Lincoln monument, SPRINGFIELD, ill. shall have been 




carried out there will be a wonderful formal garden 
around the monument to give it the setting it should 
have. But even now, anyone who has not come into 
Washington in the early morning and seen this great 
finger of stone, rosy in the rising sun, has something yet 
to live for. 

As the first example of the rostral column we may take 
the Column of Victory in Berlin, heavy and clumsy as 
many German things are, but with merits we will touch 
upon later. The colonnade around the base undoubtedly 
gives scale to the column itself. 

There is one essential principle of design that must not 
be overlooked 
in these votive 
columns. In 
the first place, 
the proper busi- 
ness of a 
column is that 
of support and 
we are familiar 
with it in that 
relation. As a 
support! n g 
member in a 
building, it 
has received 
through hun- 
dreds of years 
a certain form 
and propor- 
tion peculiarly 
adapted to its 
place and the 
work it has to 
clo. When, 
h o w e V e r , it 
ceases to be a 
component part Cleopatra's needle, new york. 




i56 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of an architectural composition, is magnified many times 
and caused to become a votive emblem, it is to be expected 
that it shall receive a new treatment to fit it for its new- 
function. It is not sufficient merely to take a classic 
column designed in strict accordance with the laws of 
proportion as laid down. by Vignola and other worthies. 

We expect it to be 
modified to meet the 
new conditions. Let 
us examine the Nel- 
son Column in Trafal- 
gar Square with this 
view in mind, and we 
find here nothing but 
the consecrated type 
of Corinthian Column 




base is beautifully proportioned and the approach is ex- 
tremely monumental. 

Our next example, the Column of July in Paris, differs 
from all these others in its material. It is of bronze and is 
given an appropriate treatment. It marks the site of the 
P.astile and commemorates its fall. In panels on the base 
are lions in bas-relief 
by Barye, the great 
animalist. 

I wish to recall what 
I said in a former 
article upon the domi- 
nance of the horizontal 
line in Paris, and of 
the dignity and calm 
that results from its 



NELSON COLUMN, LONDON. 

with which we are familiar, 
surmounted by a statue and 
resting upon a pedestal that is 
somewhat out of proportion to 
it. In this respect, and it is a 
vital one, the Column of Victory 
in Berlin is much its superior. 
This Nelson Column is un- 
doubtedly more graceful and 
pleasing from one point of view, 

but the German column is right in principle and this is 
wrong. 

The Duke of York's Column in London is much more 

satisfactory judged by these standards. It is treated 

more as a cylindrical mass of masonry, unfluted, the abacus 

nes a balcony protected by a light railing, and the 

e of the Duke surmounts a circular drum which 

carries the form of the column above the capital. The 





WASHINGTON MONUMENT, WASHINGT1 »N 



COLUMN OF JULY, PARIS. 

use. We find it excellently 
exemplified in this view of the 
Place Vendome ; and while I 
had in mind a richer monu- 
mental composition than that of 
the Vendome Column, never- 
theless the principle is still 
active even in the ease of so 
simple a form. The value of 
its vertical line is much en- 
hanced by the long lines of the cornices of the buildings 
which bound the Square : these lines are of uniform height 
throughout, and the result is restful and dignified. At 
the same time the column recalls the vertical subdivisions 
of the surrounding architecture. As to the column itself. 
it is treated as many of the ancient Roman columns were, 
with a triumphal procession carved in low relief, wind- 
ing in a spiral toward the summit. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



*57 



In the Piazza 
Colonna in Rome 
stands one of these 
ancient columns — 
that named of Mar- 
cus Aurelius. The 
Column Vendome is 
a distinct improve- 
ment upon it in 
point of proportion, 
diminishing more at 
the top as it does ; 
the A n t o n i n e 
Column seems to be 
larg'er at the top 
than at the bottom. 
Two distinguished 
American examples 
of rostral columns, 
both by McKim, 
Mead & White, are, 
first, the West Point 
Monument, an 
adaptation at a 

greatly enlarged scale of the columns in the courtyard of 
the Cancelleria in Rome ; the base is much better than the 
capital and upper part. 

The second is known as the Prison Ship Martyrs' Monu- 
ment to the unfortunate Americans who died in the British 
prison ships in New York bay during the English occupa- 
tion in the Revolution. The Borough of Brooklyn is to 

be congratulated upon 
the possession of one 
of the best monu- 
ments in this kind to 
be found anywhere. 
The column is sur- 
mounted, not by a 
figure as usual, but 




PRI.SON SHIP MARTYRS MONUMENT, BROOKLYN. 




by a tripod of the 
sort used in olden 
times before the 
altars of sacrifice, 
and is peculiarly ap 
propriate here. 

The other three 
illustrations are of 
monuments that are 
rather difficult to fit 
into our classifica- 
tion. 

The first is a 
pur el y fu ne real 
monument, a ver- 
sion of the stele or 
Greek tombstone. 
It is the Whitney 
Monument in Wood- 
lawn Cemetery by 
McKim, Mead & 
White, of dark 
polished granite, 
beautifully propor- 
tioned and simple as all good things are. 

The next is the Parkman Monument in Jamaica Plain 
near Boston, the work of Daniel Chester French and Henry 
Bacon. It is a curious conception and belongs partly to 
the pylon and obelisk family and partly to the tombstone 
group. In the tall slab is half buried the figure of an 
Indian ; at the base is a bas-relief of Parkman. 

The third is the 
Shaw Monument by 
Augustus St. Gaudens 
and McKim, Mead & 
White, on the edge of 
the Boston Common 
and opposite the State 
House. It is admi- 




COLUMN OK VICTORY, HKRI.IN. 



DUKE OF YORK S COLUMN, LONDON. 



VEND! IME COLUMN, PARIS. 



i 5 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



r'ably placed and 
so designed that 
the two great elms 
were deliberately 
made a part of the 
composition. The 
relief is in bronze 
and the architec- 
ture is in warm 



Milford granite. 

S h a w w as the 

Colonel of a colored 
regiment in the 

Civil War and he 
is represented as 
r i d i n g b e s i d e a 
d e t a c h m en t of 

his men. 




PARKMAN MONUMENT, BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 6. PLATE 71. 




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VOL. 21. NO. 6. PLATE 72. 




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KANSAS CITY STAR BUILDING, KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Jarvis Hunt, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 73. 













EXTERIOR DETAILS. 

KANSAS CITY STAR BUILDING, KANSAS CITY, MO. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 74. 







CHURCH OF 

THE 

HOLY TRINITY. 

153D STREET. 

NEW YORK CITY 



LuDlOW & Peabody, 

ARCHITECTS 



/v&sr rwuji pi^i/v 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 21, NO. 6. 



PLATE 75. 







VU^m^**. 



SECTIONS AND MAIN ENTRANCE 

CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY, 
I53D STREET. NEW YORK CITY. 

Ludlow & Peabodv, Architects 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 76. 



v^CCTlOH 



Pitoh orQoor is sX" to i-o" 



<o>>QlOtSA A.HD feJoiHTi.— Ifc" 




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EXTERIOR DETAILS. 

CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY, 153D STREET. NEW YORK CITY. 

Ludlow & Peabody, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 6. PLATE 77. 




GALLERY 

HOUSE AT GLENCOE, JLL. 
Howard Van D Shaw, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 78. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

^OL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 79. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO 6. PLATE 80. 






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THE B RICK BUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 81. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 82. 




UPPER LOCK GATE HOUSE FOR THE 
PARK RIVER BASIN COMMISSION, BOSTON, MASS 

H. A. Miller, Engineer. Guy Lowell, Consulting architect. 









BOAT HOUSE FOR THE 

PARK RIVER BASIN COMMISSION, 

BOSTON, MASS 

h a Miller, Engineer 

Guy Lowell, Consulting 

architect 



/■nssr-Twae pla^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 83. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 6. PLATE 84. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 159 

The Development of Duplex Apartments. — I. Early Type. 



ELISHA HARRIS JANES. 



THE general opinion is that the duplex apartment is 
the most modern type of apartment house building - . 
It is spoken of as the newest thing - , as it were, the last 
word. Yet if we go back forty or fifty years we find the 
duplex apartment with all of the salient features of to-day; 
and still stranger, when we look into the cause which 
brought about their introduction then and now, we find it 
was the same general purpose ; the desire to attract the 
wealthier class. But this cause acted in different man- 
ners. In the older development we find that what was 
accomplished was along logical lines and for good econom- 
ical reasons ; in the recent ones it has been far more due to 
a study of human nature 
and a resultant catering to 
its whims and fancies. 

The causes for apartment 
house building and its devel- 
opment we can all under- 
stand, as there were many 
different conditions which 
compelled people to change 
from houses to apartments. 
There was that great por- 
tion of the public who 
through necessity had to 
submit to the inevitable ; 
those who found they could 
not afford to live in houses 
on account of the high ren- 
tal, or on account of the 
large and ever increasing 
expense of maintaining the 
same ; those who were 
forced to reduce expenses 
and live in smaller quarters, 
or whose families being 
reduced in number found 
a house too large ; those 
who feared the vexatious 
troubles of the unsettled 
servant problem or who 
from the misfortune of ill 
health were unable to stand 
the anxiety, responsibility, 
and annoyance of running a 
house. 

All of these had more or 
less been taken care of. 
They had to take what was 
given them. The only com- 
petition which existed in 
apartment house building, 
and which caused improve- 
ment, was the competition 
in getting the highest rental possible for a given space. 

It should be remembered that with very few exceptions 
all this work was done by speculative builders, employing 
architects who were such in name only, who would give no 




thoughts to improvements. Any advancement or change 
really depended upon a very few progressive builders, for 
as soon as one improvement was made, like a flock of sheep 
the rest of the speculative builders would rush to copy it. 
It was not until they sought to reach that class more 
blessed with the worldly funds; those who could well afford 
to live in a house, but simply for convenience or on ac- 
count of a small family might be persuaded to discontinue 
the house ; that they realized the difficulty of reaching them 
with the ordinary buildings. This, though, made the game 
more interesting and attractive for the results would be 
worth while, as the higher price necessary to charge for 

the experiment would count 
for little with this class. 

It has always been, and 
probably always will be, 
difficult to persuade all of 
the public to change any of 
their manners and customs, 
whether it be the smallest 
detail of the routine of daily 
life, use of utilities, or their 
mode of living and environ- 
ments. Whenever anything 
is suggested, any ideas ad- 
vanced or put into practice, 
instead of seeking the ad- 
vantages or good points, is 
it not human nature to look 
for the weak points ? This 
same thing applied to the 
introduction of apartments, 
and it was necessary to over- 
come this antipathy and to a 
great extent to humor 
human nature and cater to 
the whims and fancies of 
the last mentioned class. 
As the builders sought to 
spread their field to accom- 
modate and to attract people 
from the private houses, 
they found that numerous 
obstacles had to be over- 
come in order to tempt this 
class to drop some of the 
existing prejudice. 

We all recall how, in the 
majority of apartments built 
a generation ago, upon en- 
tering to go to the parlor, 
one would usually see the 
doors of every room in the 
apartment; possibly would 
have to pass a number ; and at times the bath room or 
kitchen door would be opposite the parlor. Tin's, of course, 
was very objectionable to people who had always been 
accustomed to living in private houses where, upon enter 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 
FIG. I. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



REZ-DE-CHAUSSEE. 



FIG. II. 



ing, the parlor door was immediately to the side of the 
entrance door. Then there was the objection that the 
servants had to enter the same way as the family did. 
These two prominent objections, it is strange to say, took 
a long time to be eliminated, although it simply meant a 
matter of rearranging the rooms. But the third and 
more serious objection at 
the time was the ceiling 
heights ; for in the private 
houses, the parlor and din- 
ing room ceilings were 
usually from 12 to 15 feet 
high. Rather than make 
every room of that height 
tile duplex apartment was 
started, and in the few 
examples built we find all 
of the logical modifications 
but none of the illogical 
and unreasonable ones of 
today. 

A mong the ea rliest 
attempts to overcome the 
difficulties was the Florence 
Apartments at 18th street 
and Fourth avenue, just 
recently torn down to make 
room for business build- 
ings, and the Knicker- 
bocker Apartments, at 28th street and Fifth avenue. In 
these the living rooms, that is, the parlor, library, din- 
ing room, kitchen and pantries, were grouped on one 
floor, and high ceilings used ; on the floor above, the 
chambers and bath rooms were arranged with lower 
ceilings. The two stories were then connected with a 
private staircase. Then came several apartments on 
Central Park- 
South, among 
them the Dal- 
housic Apart- 
ment, which is 
still standing, 
and a m o r e 
prominent ex- 
ample, the 
Nevarra Apart- 
ments, at 59th 
street an d 
Seventh ave- 
nue. In the last 
they went a step 
further, for after 
giving the par- 
lors and dining 
rooms ceilings 
15 feet high, it 
seemed a great 
waste of space 
t o h a v e the 

kitchen and pantries with the same high ceilings: yet if 
two stories were placed within that height, the ceilings 
would be 7 feet high, which was too low. This resulted 
in the clever idea that, for every two stories of living 




PREMIER ETAGE. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 
PIG. III. 



rooms, which were all placed in the front and amounted to 
.}<> feet, they would build three stories in the rear of 9 or 
in feet each. Thus the apartment on the second floor would 
have two-thirds of their sleeping rooms in the rear on the 
same level with the living rooms and the balance on the 
second Moor mezzanine. The apartment on the third floor 

would have a portion of the 
the sleeping rooms on the 
second floor mezzanine, 
and the balance on the 
third floor rear, which 
would be on a higher level 
than the third floor front; 
in other words, some of 
their rooms would be down 
a half flight and the balance 
up a half flight. 

As with all innovations 
though, the originators had 
their difficulties in gaining 
patronage. To make it 
more attractive they had 
even offered to sell instead 
of renting an apartment, 
and this was the start of 
the co-operative apartment 
scheme. It did not meet 
with a great amount of 
success, but finally changed 
hands and slowly became popular. 

Some of the apartments were taken by a few who were 
induced to abandon their houses, but the majority were 
taken by people who had country houses and used the 
apartments as town houses, or by people who were just 
coming to New York to live. 

A- they encountered so much difficulty in gaining ten- 
ants, notwith- 
standing that 
they had been 
built on such a 
generous scale 
of planning as 
to the size of 
rooms, court 
space, corridors, 
etc., no builders 
could be per- 
suaded to fol- 
low these ex- 
amples, with 
the result that 
duplex apart- 
ment building 
died out, with 
the exception of 
a few isolated 
examples. 

Perhaps the 

most elaborate 

is the one that was built for 

72d street and Madison avenue, 




duplex apartment house 

Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, at 

designed by McKim, Mead & White about twenty-five 

years ago. This was arranged to accommodate three 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



161 



families, and to-day still contains the largest and most 
generous apartments that have been built. Fig. I shows 
the plans of one of the apartments. Each consists of 
two full stories, each floor covering, together with the 
court space, an area of 75 x 100. To a builder of to-day 
the extravagance of space given to the halls and grand 
stairways would seem a crime. In this building see how 
they have used the features of the present day duplex 
apartment, the difference being only in the scale. The 
two-story studio feature of to-day shows itself in a magnif- 
icent dining room running through two stories. In this 
room rather an odd feature is carried out in that one 
whole wall is devoted to three fireplaces. They have the 
private stairs from the first to the second floor, but the 
stairway is so different and on such a large scale that it 
might almost be called " monumental," being all finished 
in marble and mosaic. It starts from a spacious hall, 
allows a wide stair well and ends in a very large hall on 
the second floor, which is used as an upstairs sitting room. 
And finally the ceilings of the first story are much higher 
than those of the second story. All of which features are 
used at present. 

The duplex apartment is not even uncommon in the 
older French apartments, but their use was not quite from 
the same cause which has introduced them to America. In 
France the slow introduction of the elevator caused this 
peculiar condition in the apartment houses ; the apart- 
ments on the first and second floors were built quite large 
and commanded high prices, while on the upper floors, 
according to the distance the tenants had to walk, the 
apartments were smaller and arranged for a poorer class 
of people. Fig. II shows one of the types of duplex apart- 
ments built in Paris about thirty years ago. This also 
may be called a studio apartment, as it chances to be the 
apartment of an artist, having his studio on the first floor, 



but not extending through two stories. The ceiling height 
is considerably higher than the other rooms, as on the 
first floor they were able to keep the level of the floor with 
that of the entrance. This again shows the features of the 
present day duplex apartment. 

Another type was that caused by many apartment houses 
having a carriage entrance on the ground floor, and a part 
of this floor would be connected by a private stairs to the 
second floor, forming a duplex apartment. 

Similarly in this country, a number of the former apart- 
ment houses were built in streets which had steep grades. 
This would leave a considerable part of the basement well 
above the curb. In this portion the servants' rooms, 
kitchen, and dining room would be placed and connected to 
the apartment immediately over on the first floor, making 
a so-called duplex apartment. Then there were a few 
duplex apartments brought about by the improvement of 
a small plot or the changing over of a single house to 
apartments, where the area was too small to be suitable for 
a single apartment to each floor. Fig. Ill illustrates a 
house on a 25-foot lot so altered to duplex apartments, 
although in this case the owner was fortunate in having an 
easement for light and air. The plan of this apartment 
approaches about as near to that of a private house as it is 
possible, being very similar to the second and third floor 
of many houses, which have the foyer or stair hall in 
between the parlor and dining-room. 

But beyond these examples which have been mentioned, 
there was no real activity on account of the lack of demand, 
and the designing of this type of duplex apartment practi- 
cally ceased. Yet when we compare all of these apartments, 
especially the one of Mr. Tiffany's, with the duplex apart- 
ments of to-day, we find all of the logical features, show- 
ing that this type is not a novelty of the twentieth 
centurv. 





NEW LONDON, CONN. 



KATONAH. N. V. 



TWO ENTRANCES HY CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT. 



162 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Federal Life Building, Chicago. 



MARSHALL & FOX, ARCHITECTS. 



THE early examples of the tall building' were domi- 
nated by practical requirements and exterior designs 
were often displeasing to the esthetic sense. Later archi- 
tects realized that buildings of this character must be 
made attractive, and their work shows a consistent and 
intelligent attempt in this direction. 

The problem which confronted the architect of yester- 
day, and which presents itself to-day, is the proper 
relationship of the esthetic properties to the economical 
conditions. Development along this line has given us 
what may be considered the " tri-part " type, or base, 
shaft and capital. In many buildings of this style vertical 
lines are brought out prominently and the ornamentation 
somewhat confined to the lower and upper stories. 

A recent example of this type is the Federal Building, 
Michigan Boulevard, Chicago. With a narrow frontage 
of 48 feet and 12 stories in height the building is typical 
of terra cotta and steel construction. The entire main 
facade is of cream white enamel terra cotta and is note- 
worthy for its quiet and restful expression. The rear of 
the building is similarly treated to the front but somewhat 
modified in design. The strong vertical lines of the steel 
frame arc evidenced by the four 
piers extending with little interrup- 
tion from the sidewalk to the cor- 
nice. The more important features 
have been subordinated in order to 
accentuate others, bringing the en- 
tire facade into one harmonious 
whole. 

The opportunities or architec- 
tural expression have been fully 
appreciated and effectively em- 
ployed by the architects in this 
building. The vertical members 
in conjunction with the horizontal 
bands furnish a frank expression 
of the skyscraper problem and show 
an honest and effective handling of 
the material used. The ornamen- 
tation is kept in scale throughout 
while the design calls for sufficient 
repetition in the various patterns 
to make it both economical and 
logical. The terra cotta has been 
used in accordance with its own 

peculiar characteristics and conveys at once its adaptability 
in clothing a skeleton of steel framework. 

The exterior, unfortunately, is so encompassed that it is 
practically impossible to obtain a good view of the ensem- 
ble. The first story is open and designed with a view 
of attracting one's attention while passing by. The tra- 
cers at the entrance is an extremely delicate pattern and 
affords a splendid example of the symmetrical and decora- 
tive result which a skilful modeler may obtain by working 
with a plastic substance and following the original idea of 
the architect. The second and third stories while con- 



EU 



UNDIVIDED 

FLOOR PLAN. 



forming to the general lines of the design are one of the 
distinctive divisions of the building. The moulded mullions 
and panels enrich the enclosures between the pilasters 
while they in turn remain uniform throughout their 
entire height. This decorative feature together with 
the ornamented cornice over the third story also demon- 
strate the finished effect of careful workmanship and fine- 
jointing. 

The shaft of the building has an unusually decorative 
treatment between the various stories. These do not 
detract, however, from the effective mass of the shaft since 
the horizontal courses are uniform in design. The pilas- 
ters of unbroken surface convey the eye to the " capital " 
or two upper stories. Here is a more elaborate use of 
terra cotta and portrays at once the qualities of lightness 
and decorativeness, which characteristics are enabling this 
material to mould modern American commercial architec- 
ture. Here, at least, terra cotta is the logical substance 
for a building of this height. Such a mass of ornamenta- 
tion could only be executed in plastic clay and give this 
appearance of strength while still making possible the use 
of a light steel construction. 

The cornice treatment is an- 
other evidence that no high build- 
ing needs a heavy projecting course 
to shed the water from the main 
walls. It furnishes a fitting cap 
to a successful design and does 
not darken the narrow street 
below. It also affords the eye, 
which has been gradually lifted 
from the first story to the crown, 
a restfulness and lends to the 
imagination an opportunity to 
think freely of future possibilities, 
without being hampered by a dark 
and frowning cornice. 

The interior woodwork is of 
mahogany finish throughout. The 
hallways have mosaic floors and 
marble base. Four large ele- 
vators with the latest safety de- 
vices have been installed. The 
structure is of strictly fireproof 
construction and rests on cais- 
sons extending to the required 
depth necessary for permanent safety. In addition to the 
front and rear light the upper six floors have windows on 
all four sides. 

The general appearance of the building is a frank expres- 
sion of the fact that terracotta is the facing and no attempt 
has been made by color or otherwise to imitate any other 
material. The prevalent idea was to make it appear from 
every point of view as a normal and natural product of a 
steel and terra cotta construction erected in an essentially 
modern way to house certain branches of our present-day 
commercial activities. 




TYPICAL DIVIDED 
FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 




164 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



IV FL 




SECTION ELLVATIOAI OF EAJTfcA/NCE 

SCALE. tdLUj ] i - j ' — ' 



PLAN AT A-A" 
PLAAS 



Terra Cotta Details. 



THE FEDERAL LIFE BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 



Marshall & Fox, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



165 



PIER 
5 LCTlO/4 




LLEVATIOA OF TOP' 

SCALE. ULlA.1 . .—U^=J I 



WIADOW 
SLCTIO/N 



Terra Cotta Details. 



THE FEDERAL LIFE BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 



Marshal] & Fox, Architects. 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



167 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 
Buildings for Park River Basin Commission, Bos- 
ton. Plates 82-84. The Upper Lock Gate House is 
used as a shelter for the lock gate with necessary machinery 
and the operating- stands for the two large sluice-gates. 
The cost of the building was $10,400. The Stable and Boat 
Houses were built under one contract and cost $46,540. 
Both buildings are of gray-brown brick and granite with 
green slate roofing. The interior finish consists of buff 
brick and long-leaf yellow pine. The stable accommodates 
four horses, miscellaneous vehicles, tools, and harness, 
together with suitable arrangements for the keeper, stor- 
age, hay, grain, etc., on the loft floor. The boat house 
provides for three slips accommodating five boats, and a 
loft plan with locker rooms, toilet, and supply room. The 
Lower Lock Gate House cost $37,300. This building con- 
tains two 50 horse-power tubular boilers which furnish heat 
to the buildings, lock-gates and sluices. An attic is planned 




DETAIL FOR A THEATER, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 

Executed by the South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

Brown & Von Beren, Architects. 

$30,000. The method of cubage was based on the area 
and the height from basement floor to one-third point up 
on the pitch roof. 




FOUNTAIN IN COURTYARD AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Roof of Imperial Spanish Red Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Abram Garfield, Architect. 

for the storage of patterns, tools, etc., while the top of the 
tower contains the switch room for the drawbridge and 
various gates. 

Church of the Holy Trinity, New 
York. Plates 74-76. The building was 
designed as a Mission Church, and will 
include a four-story parish house on the 
rear of the lot, with the open air passage 
at the side of church forming the exit. 
The exterior is executed in red brick with 
white stone trimmings. Moulded terra 
cotta bricks are used in the cornices and 
bands, matching the main body of brick 
both in color and texture. Upon the in- 
terior the auditorium has a rough floated 
plaster wall and oak woodwork stained 
brown. The basement contains a Sunday- 
school room, gymnasium, showers, toilets, 
and kitchen facilities. The cubical con- 
tents of the portion of building erected are 
127,483 cubic feet, and the total cost 



DESIGN FOR THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL. 

WALTER BURLEY GRIFFIN, Chicago, has been 
awarded the first prize offered for the best design 
by the Commonwealth of Australia for the capital city of 
the Australian Federal Government. The plan provides 
for a city of twenty-five square miles to be built upon a 
site which is now a wilderness. The Australian capital, 
which has not yet been named, will be the first city since 
Washington, D. C, to be planned in detail before a shov- 
elful of dirt has been removed from its site. In planning 
the Australian capital, with centers and radial avenues, 
Mr. Griffin has followed the plan generally held by archi- 
tects to be the ideal one for cities of the future. The gen- 
eral arrangement provides for an immediate population of 
75,000, with ample provision for the growth of the city as 
gauged by the increase in population of other foreign cap- 
itals. The plan covers everything that the city will need — 
street railway system, steam railway line, business and 
manufacturing districts. The central district of the city 
will contain three centers — a center devoted to government 
buildings, the municipal center, and the mercantile center. 




PUI5LIC SCHOOL, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Faced with Mohogany Ironspot brick made by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

E. A. Christy, Architect. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The outlying 

district will 
contain f i v e 
additional 
centers, three 
of which will 
be agricultural 
centers, one a 
manufacturing 
center, a n d 
another a sub- 
u rhan resi- 
dence center. 
The city will 
h a v e m a n y 
features un- 
known to the 
modern city. 
The residences 
built upon the 
streets connect- 
ing the great 
radial avenues 
w ill e n j o y 
quiet and se- 
cluded park- 
like atmos- 
phere and at 
the same time 
n e v e r b e 
further re- 
moved from 

main business thoroughfares than four blocks. Another 
unusual feature is that the city will have but one railroad 
entering it. 




JOHNS-MANVILLE BUILDING, 

NEW VOKK CITY. 

Built of brick furnished by Sayre & Fisher 

Company. 

Augustus N. Allen, Architect. 



ANNOUNCEMENT has recently been made of the 
appointment of Austin W. Lord, of the firm of Lord, 
Hewlett & Tallant, as professor of Architecture and Direc- 
tor of the School of Architecture of Columbia University. 
Mr. Lord's position in the architectural profession, 
together with his record as the first Director of the 
American Academy in Rome and his prominent identifica- 
tion with the splendid educational work that has been 
carried on by the Beaux Arts Society during the past 
fifteen years, combine to make this appointment most 
acceptable to all the friends of broad architectural educa- 
tion throughout the country. Further than this, it empha- 





DETAIL FOR ONION TRUST BUILDING, WINNIPEG, CAN. 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company, Makers. 

sizes the growing recognition of the fact that training in 
the practice of a vital modern art must be directed by an 
active practitioner in that art, as it is only in this way that 
some of the traditions of the old apprentice system, under 
which the greatest artists of the world were produced, can 
be preserved under modern conditions. 



A 



PROPOSAL To REPEAL THE TARSNEY ACT. 
X AMENDMENT to the sundry civil appropriation 



■■■■■ 

DETAIL F()K APARTMENT BUILDING, NEW YOKK CITY. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 
I>. Everett Waid and J. E. R. Carpenter, Associated, Architects. 



bill recently reported in the 1 louse of Representatives 
proposes the 

repeal of the 

Tarsney Act. 

a law passed 
some fifteen 
years ago em- 
powering the 
Secretary of 
the Treasury 
at his discre- 
tion to obtain 
plans in com 
petition from 
architects in 
private prac- 
tice for public 
b u i 1 d i n g s 
erected by the 
Treasury De- 
partment. As 
a large ma- 
jority of the 
Federal Gov- 
ernment build- 
ings come un- 
der the juris- 
diction of the 
Treasury De- 
partment, the 
importance ol 
this law has 
bee n v c r y 
great, and the 
effect has been 
to bring about 
a large im- 
provement in 
the architec- 
tural design 
of our public 
buildings. 




I. ICON PELLMAN BUILDING, 

NEW ORLEANS, I. A. 

Terra Cotta furnished by Northwestern Terra 

Cotta Company. 

Emile Weil, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 




James Riely Gordon ; La Farge & Morris ; 
H.Van Buren Magonigle ; McKim, Mead & 
White ; Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield ; 
Trowbridge & Livingston ; York & Sawyer. 
The judges of the competition arc Robert 
S. Peabody, Boston; Frank Miles Day, 
Philadelphia; John Lawrence Mauran, St. 
Louis. 



T?R( 
r q 



STABLE AT GREENWICH, CONN. 

Built of " Natco " Hollow Tiles furnished by the National Fire Proofing Company 

James E. Ware & Son, Architects. 



The repeal of the Tarsney act does not appear to have 
been asked for by the Treasury Department, nor urged by 
any public body, and the prospect of a return to the system 
of designing public build- 
ings "by the yard," with 
much more than a prospect 
of a return to a stereotyped 
and unworthy form of archi- 
tectural design, should 
arouse an emphatic protest 
from the people of the 
United States. Entirely 
apart from the injustice of 
excluding members of the 
architectural profession 
from the wider opportunities 
of Government service, the 
proposed repeal is a back- 
ward step making for the de- 
terioration of architectural 
taste. 



Canada, 
favor of 



MISSOURI 

STATE CAPITOL 

COMPETITION. 

THE state of Missouri 
through its commis- 
sioners has asked the American Institute of Architects 
to give its approval to the revised program to govern the 
competition for the new Capitol Building. 
By action of the board of directors of the 
Institute this approval has been given. The 
program as first announced did not meet 
with the endorsement of architects generally- 
The new program provides conditions which 
will undoubtedly meet with the approval of 
those architects who are amply qualified to 
execute a commission of this importance. 




SOUTHERN PACIFIC R. R. BUILDING, HOUSTON, TEXAS 

Built of Gray Speckled Norman and Standard brick made by the 

Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Company. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 



LICENSING ARCHITECTS. 
ROM a very carefully selected list of 
[uestions submitted to the various 
examining boards in the states of Illinois, 
California, New Jersey, Colorado, Louisi- 
ana, Utah, as well as Manitoba and Quebec, 
the following reasons have been deduced in 
licensing architects. Architects in states where 
such laws exist are unanimously in favor of it. The law 

has helped the profession by 
removing the "architect 
and contractor," the "archi- 
tect builder'' and t h e 
"architect and engineer." 
Many state universities and 
technical schools have, since 
the advent of the architects' 
license laws, revised their 
courses to meet the de- 
mands. The law has cre- 
ated a higher moral stand- 
ard as well as competency 
in planning and designing. 
The preparation for a license 
examination is highly bene- 
ficial to the applicant. The 
law furnishes a standing for 
the licensed architect and 
reveals to the people the 
unlicensed and question- 
able man. The salutary 
effects towards better archi- 
tecture where such laws 
exist is immeasurable, resulting as it has in the elimina- 
tion of inexperienced and incompetent men. 



COMPETITION FOR COURT HOUSE, 
NEW YORK CITY. 

THE following named firms have been 
invited to submit designs for a new 
County Court House to be erected on a 
site north of the Hall of Records near City 
Hall Square, New York City : Arnold W. 
Brunner ; Charles Butler and Charles 
Morris, associated ; Carrere & Hastings ; 




BUCKINGHAM APARTMENTS, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

Built of brick with Mosaic shades, gray mortar and h :avy joints, made by the 

Western Brick Company. 

Rubush He Hunter, Architects. 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



CONVENTION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE 
ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS. 



TERRA COTTA FOR THE FEDERAL LIFE BUILD 
INC. CHICAGO. 



T 



'HE fourth annual convention of the Pennsylvania 

State Association of Architects was held in Phila- 
delphia April 9th. 
A report of the ^ 

convention has 

just been issued in 

typewritten form. 

The interest that 

... "^ 

this association is 

stirring up among - ; 

members of the 
architectural pro- 
fession in the state 
of Pennsylvania 
i n m a 1 1 e r s of 
general architec- 
tural interest is 
really amazing. 
It is to be re- 
gretted that space 
will not permit of 
even a brief re- 
view of the many 
important matters 
which were dis- 
cussed and acted 
upon. Judging by 
the report, how- 
ever — copies of 
which can un- 
doubtedly be had 
by applying to the 
secretary. Rich- 
ard Hooker, of 
the firm of Alden 
cV- Harlow, Pitts- 
burgh — it is the intention of the association to let 
the people of Pennsylvania know, and especially their 
representatives at Harrisburg, that they have in their 
midst a body of men who will give of their best energies 
in behalf of a genera! uplift movement throughout the 
state. 



T 



Building, Chicago, Marshall & Fox, architects, de 

scribed in this 
issue, was fur- 
nish ed b y t h e 
American Terra 
Cotta <Sr Ceramic 
Company. 




WOOLWORTH BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

Detail of the Woolworth Building's 52-story facade of architectural terra cotta at the 

27th story canopy. Executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



J 



SUPERVISING 

ARCHITECT 
RESIGNS. 
AMES KNOX 
TAYLO R , 
supervising archi- 
tect of the Treas- 
ury Department, 
Washington, has 
resigned. Oscar 
Wenderoth has 
been appointed 
Mr. Taylor's 
successor. 



IN GENERAL. 

George M. Bry- 
son, architect, has 
r e m o v e d his 
offices to 701 Bos- 
ton Building, Salt 
Lake City. Man- 
ufacturers' cata- 
logues desired. 



A large quan- 
tity of Tiffany 
Enameled Brick will be used in the new Dime Savings 
Bank Building, Detroit; I>. II. Burnham & Company, 

architects. 

The copartnership of Connellan & Cassebeer, archi- 
tects, Rochester, N. V., has been dissolved. John B. 




HOUSE AT ST. JOSEPH, MO. 

Built of brick furnished by Fiske & Company, Inc. 
Walter Boschen, Architect. 




HOUSE AT INDIANAPOLIS, INI). 
Faced with Standard brick made by the Ironclay Brick Company. 
Foltz & Parker, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



171 




KIEFER LAND COMPANY S OFFICE BUILDING, 

DETROIT, MICH. 

Entire front from the granite foot blocks at sidewalk level up to main 

cornice, built of gray matt glazed terra cotta furnished by 

the New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 

Richard H. Marr, Architect. 

Connellan will continue to practise, with offices in the 
Insurance Building-, Rochester. 



Malcolm Leybourne and R. J. Whitney have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture under the 
firm name of Leybourne & Whitney; offices, Davis Build- 
ing', Windsor, Ont. Manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples desired. 

Elisha Harris Janes and August W. Cordes, formerly of 
the firm of De Lemos & Cordes, New York City, have 
formed a copartnership for the practice of architecture ; 
offices, 124 West 45th street, New York. 

Marshall J. Smith and Warren C. Powell have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture under the 
firm name of Marshall J. Smith & Warren C. Powell; 
offices, Candler Building Annex, Atlanta, Ga. Manufac- 
turers' samples and catalogues desired. 

The New York Society of Architects, New York City, 
has elected the following officers for the ensuing year : 
Samuel Sass, president; Constantine Schubert, vice- 
president ; Louis Berger, treasurer ; William T. Towner, 
secretary. 

The first international conference and exhibition, em- 
bracing every phase of fire prevention and fire protection, 



will be held in Madison Square Garden, New York City, 
October 2d to 12th. Official delegates representing the 
principal cities of the United States will be in attendance. 
By proclamation of the state fire marshal October 9th is 
designated as Fire Prevention Day in the state of New 
York. The purpose is to devote one day of the year for 
cleaning up and removing fire dangers such as accumula- 
tion of paper, rags, etc., from factories, warehouses, and 
other business and residential buildings. 

The architectural terra cotta for the Second National 
Bank Building, Toledo, Ohio, will be furnished by the New 
York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. D. H. Burn- 
ham & Company are the architects. 

The French sculptor, Bourdelle, has written a treatise 
on the reckless way in which the treasures of ancient 
French sculpture are allowed to perish by the official 
architects and restorers. He recounts an instance of a 
statue of David, ten feet high, which formerly stood at the 
top of the great rose window of Rheims Cathedral. Rodin, 
on seeing a cast of this work, acclaimed it as the most 
beautiful example of Gothic sculpture in existence. Yet 
the original has recently been destroyed to make mortar, 
and has been replaced by a modern work of an indifferent 
artist. It is to be hoped that such priceless relics of the 
past be presented hereafter to the principal museums of 
France. 




APARTMENT BUILDING, LEXINGTON AVE. & 21ST STREET, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Built of " Velour " brick furnished by Carter, Black & Ayers. 

Herbert Lucas, Architect. 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The competitive designs of M. E. Zimmermann, archi- 
tect, have been selected for a Swiss national monument to 
be erected at Schwyz. The designs call for a statue of 
Liberty to be placed upon a terrace directly in front of the 
main building. At the rear of the building will be a large 
open space for public resort and festivals. The wings of 

ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — Till: TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
MAN SON, BOSTON. 

THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of anew 72 page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO HE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSt >N, r,< >ST( )N. 



The University of Pennsylvania offers 
courses in Architecture as follows: 

(1) A four-year course, leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option in architectural 
engineering may be elected. 

(2) Graduate courses of one year, permitting spe- 
cialization in design, construction, or history ; 
leading to the degree of M. S. in Architecture. 

(3) A special two-year course for qualified draftsmen, 
with options in design or construction ; leading 
to a professional certificate. 

For catalogue giving complete information regarding requirements of 
admission, advanced standing, summer school and atelier work, fellowships 
and scholarships, and for illustrated year book, etc.. address DEAN OF 
THE COLLEGE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Pa. 



the main building will bear bas-reliefs of the important 
battles in the nation's struggle for freedom. Upon the 
interior, in addition to many national busts and statues 
sculptured by Swiss artists, there will be mural and decora- 
tive paintin.es illustrative of scenes and episodes of the 
nation's history and progress. 



School of Architecture 
of Harvard University 

Professional course for graduates of colleges, leading to degree of 

Master in Architecture 
Course for special advanced students, not having college degree but 
at least 21 years of age, with office experience, leading to certificate 

Design. Prof. E. J. A. Duquesne, Grand Prix de Rome. 
History. Prof. H. L. Warren, A. M., F. A. I. A. 
Construction. Prof. C. W. Killam, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Drawing. Mr. H. D. Murphy, Mr. H. B. Warren. 
Ten other lecturers and instructors. 

For circulars and other information apply to Prof. H. L. Warren. Chairman of 
the Council of the School of Architecture, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 



^ BOILERS and RADIATORS ^ 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK — REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at St. Joseph, Mo Page 170 

Walter Boschen, Architect. 



izuske 6- company jnc 
Iace bricks; establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 
Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XXI 



AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 

JULY 1912 



Number / 



PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & M ANSON - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter. March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS C& M ANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ..... $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers ... .................. 50 cents 

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To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

PAGE 
II 
II 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



II and III 
III 



BRICK ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
FIREPROOFING . 
ROOFING TILE . 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 

IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



From Work by 
BIGELOW & WADSWORTH; BLISS & FAVILLE ; JAMES PURDON ; MATTHEW SULLIVAN. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'Al.R 

BELFRY DETAIL, CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

NOTES ON HOSPITAL PLANNING — I S. S. Goldwaler, M.D. 175 

GARY HOSPITAL, GARY, IND., GEORGE L. HARVEY, ARCHITECT Illustrations 178-179 

WESSON MATERNITY HOSPITAL, SPRINGFIELD, MASS., KENDALL, TAYLOR & CO., ARCHITECTS ,, 180 

HOMEOPATHIC HOSPITAL, YONKERS, N. Y., KENDALL, TAYLOR & CO., ARCHITECTS ,. 180 

THOMAS HOSPITAL, PEABODY MASS., EDWARD F. STEVENS, ARCHITECT. ,, 181 

MEMORIAL WARD, WASHINGTON, D.C., WOOD, DONN & DEMING, ARCHITECTS ,, 181 

DEVELOPMENT OF DUPLEX APARTMENTS. — II. STUDIO TYPE E, Harris Janes 183 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. —VI //. I 'an Burnt Magonigle 187 

EMERSON HOTEL, BALTIMORE, MD., JOSEPH EYANS SPERRY, ARCHITECT 191 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 195 



NOTICE. — The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 




***&"!$ 



DETAIL OF BELFRY, CHURCH OF SAN 

FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO. 

The dark tiles laid herringbone are rough red, un- 
glazed. The small square tiles are blue with white 
ornament ; the others used in friezes, architraves, 
etc., are green, orange, and blue. Practically all of 
the cornices are formed in tile. The decorated cyma 
of the upper cornice is in stucco, picked out in color. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOLUME XXI. 



JULY, 1912 



NUMBER 7 



Notes on Hospital Planning. — I. 

S. S. GOLDWATER, M.D., 
Superintendent, The Mount Sinai Hospital, New )'ork. 



SOME three years ago, having completed a residence of 
eight years in two hospitals (one planned in 1870, the 
other in 1902), having- traveled for the purpose of inspect- 
ing hospitals, and having examined fifty or more volumes 
dealing with the principles and practice of hospital construc- 
tion and administration, I proceeded to plan a "model" 
hospital ward. I have participated since then in the plan- 
ning of sixteen hospitals, and have been invited to exam- 
ine and criticize the half-completed plans of many more ; 
but from not a single one of these exercises has the origi- 
nal " model " ward emerged, although in every instance I 
have encountered the utmost willingness on the part of the 
architect to fall in with any suggestion for which either a 
practical or a theoretical value could be demonstrated. I 
must add that while I have no fixed ideas on the planning 
of hospitals, and am by no means prepared to dogmatize 
on the subject, my general ideas upon the making of a 
hospital plan have undergone no decided change since the 
" model " ward was sketched. Why, then, one may ask, 
have I been content repeatedly to think one way and to 
plan another ? Is it not because the planning of a real 
hospital is a concrete and conditioned problem, while the 
designing of a" model ' ' ward is an abstract or uncondi- 
tioned one ? 

Real hospitals, in this country at least, are not planned 
in unlimited space. They have been so planned in Ger- 
many ; but even in Germany there is manifest to-day a 
decided disposition to get away from the text-book hospi- 
tal of many widely separated but uniform pavilions — a 
type which grew cat of the hygienic necessities, that is to 
say the unhygienic conditions and the undeveloped sani- 
tary science of forty or fifty years ago. The hospitals of 
that day represented in a large measure the understand- 
ing of engineers rather than the experience of medical 
administrators and trained nurses ; they expressed the faith 
of theoretical hygienists who, if they had been obliged to 
live in and administer the hospitals they built, would long 
ago have done what the builders of hospitals in Germany 
are now only beginning to do, namely, to substitute con- 
venience of arrangement for symmetry of design, and a 
utilization of the facts of nursing care for the too ready 
acceptance of untried or disproved theories of decentrali- 
zation and the like. 

The many-acre-covering German hospitals, which we 
love to photograph, but could not reproduce generally in 
America if we would, owing to lack of unlimited space and 



of larg'e capital for individual hospital enterprises ; and 
which we should not copy if we could, because the hospi- 
tals in question are fundamentally wrong in their over- 
whelming size and sprawling administrative plan, — these 
great hospitals are built " regardless," as the expressive 
popular phrase goes ; and this is true notwithstanding 
the fact that a learned treatise, indicating forethought and 
the careful study of numerous German examples, accom- 
panies each one. 

Perhaps I am conveying an erroneous impression. I do 
not mean to suggest that the plan of the great German 
pavilion hospital of the day disregards rules and runs to 
eccentricity; quite the contrary is the case. Such a hos- 
pital is built regardless of everything except rules. It 
conforms not only to rules but to statutes, for in Prussia 
these things are regulated by law, or by ministerial decrees 
which have the force of law, down to such minute details 
as the width of stairways, the height of stairway treads, 
etc. Germany has achieved its great success in hospital 
designing precisely because German architects work accord- 
ing to rule and always conscientiously ; but for the same 
reason the great municipal hospitals of Germany are char- 
acterized by defects which materially lessen their value to 
the hospital patient, who in this ease is the "ultimate 
consumer." 

During the great French railroad strike one of the most 
important orders given to the strikers was to " follow the 
rules of the road literally." No simpler way could have 
been found to disrupt traffic and ruin the road. In hospi- 
tal construction, as in hospital administration and in count- 
less other departments of organized human endeavor, the 
strict observance of rules formulated from partial points of 
view, and independently of each other, leads to disaster. 
Rules need to be pared and trimmed and expanded and 
adjusted so that they will fit together and interlock ; but 
their essential values must be preserved. To distinguish 
the essential from the non-essential requires, in hospital 
practice, a first-hand acquaintance with all of the intricacies 
of hospital work. This includes a knowledge of the shifting 
theories and changing methods of physiology, pathology, 
bacteriology, therapeutics and hygiene ; a knowledge of the 
principles and practice of nursing; an appreciation of the 
varying degrees of physical dependence encountered in 
hospital patients, an understanding of the capacities, apti- 
tudes and weaknesses of the average nurse ; familiarity 
with the character and tendencies of hospital internes and 



1 76 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



employees, and much besides. All of these things one must 
know and understand in the intelligent application of rules 
of planning and of construction to the making of any hospi- 
tal : and in the planning of a particular hospital one must 
reckon besides with local surroundings, with the available 
resources of tile community or of the section of the com- 
munity from which the hospital draws its support, and 
with the needs of that other section of the community 
which it is designed to serve. 

Good text-books of hospital construction are far more 
numerous than good hospital plans ; which is equivalent 
to saying that it is much easier to acquire familiarity with 
rules of hygiene and of architecture than to master the 
trick of applying them. For text-book purposes every 
question is answered, or may be answered, easily. Pick 
up any text book of hospital construction, and run through 
its table of contents: there is an infallible rule for the 
selection of the site ; the height of the buildings, and their 
relation to each other, are readily determined ; the proper 
orientation of the wards is stated; the proper ward 
dimensions, height, width, length, and cubic contents, 
arc given ; window space is scientifically determined and 
distributed ; approved methods of lighting, heating, and 
ventilation are described ; the plumbing, even, is illus- 
trated : and always, with particular unction and authority, 
all corners are rounded. Though text-books disagree in 
other particulars, there is always unanimity of opinion on 
the subject of the rounding of corners and the avoidance 
of horizontal dust catchers. 

I propose now to discuss a number of rules borrowed 
from text-books or laid down by governmental authorities. 
After showing that one may break such rules with impu- 

nit> must, indeed, play hide-and-seek with them in order 

to succeed at all in hospital planning, I shall venture to 
offer for consideration a few rules derived from my own 
experience, which I hope and doubt not will be broken in 
their turn, whenever common-sense, in given circum- 
stances, so demands. 

It is in the writings of eminent specialists, upon whose 
work the progress of hospital architecture largely depends, 
that one finds the most notable combinations of the 
scientific and the impracticable ; for it is in the hands 
of original and independent thinkers that scientific de- 
ductions find their most uncompromising application. 
William Atkinson, whose valuable contributions to the 
study of hospital orientation are so well known, recently 
published a new volume upon " The Orientation of Build- 
ings, or Planning for Sunlight"; in which volume a 
chapter on hospitals concludes with the presentation of 
a " Pyramidal Type of Ward Unit." The design, which 
is strikingly original, is the logical outcome of research 
and thought concentrated upon the subjects of orientation 
and sun-exposure. Whether the pyramidal type of ward 
unit which has been worked out with so much skill and 
Ingenuity will ever take its place in actual hospital archi- 
tecture, is doubtful; certainly it will not if all the hospitals 
of the future arc planned, as they should be planned, for 
sunlight plus other desiderata. 

Mr. Atkinson's pyramidal unit is a building of three 

ries, in which, on the first floor, there are two widely 

separated wards of ten beds each ; on the second floor, 

three single rooms and two six-bed wards (the latter far 

apart and communicating with each other only by means 



of a tortuous corridor); and on the third floor, a six-bed 
open-air ward, and a four-bed enclosed ward, or ten beds 
in all. Here are forty-five beds, with only three separa- 
tion rooms among them, arranged in a manner which 
gives practically five distinct nursing units. The super- 
vision of these wards at night cannot safely be entrusted 
to less than five nurses ; and these nurses, if properly 
posted, cannot temporarily relieve each other from duty 
for the customary midnight meal, or for any other purpose. 
An efficient and at the same time reasonably economical 
nursing scheme will never square with a ward unit so 

planned. 

If the attainment of a maximum quantity of " sun 
hours " were the sole aim in hospital planning, the virtue 
of the pyramidal unit would be at once acknowledged ; but 
maximum sunlight must not be purchased at the sacrifice 
of other weighty hospital values, when a little less than 
maximum exposure is attainable without any similar loss ; 
besides which, the assumption that the maximum of sun- 
light is desirable for all hospital patients leads to such 
absurdities as may be witnessed in the great Yirchow Hos- 
pital in Herlin, for example, where, if I am not mistaken, 
a single type of ward is called upon to fulfil the require- 
ments of general surgery and of ophthalmology. If the 
ophthalmologist of the Virchow Hospital had been invited 
at the proper time to express an opinion on this subject. 
the architect who planned the Yirchow pavilions for sun- 
light might have learned something about the relation of 
sunlight to inflamed and irritated eyes, with resulting 
advantage to thousands of patients, past, present, and 
future. Nevertheless, the great value of sunlight in and 
about a hospital building is admitted ; and it justifies 
Mr. Atkinson fully in deciding in favor of the northeast 
and southwest, or the northwest and southeast, position 
for the long axis of a typical hospital ward, on the ground 
that all outside walls are thus exposed to sunlight at some 
portion of the day throughout the year, which is not the 
case where a north-and-south or an east-and-west system 
of axes is adopted, — all of which is not the least bit incon- 
sistent with the choice of an east-and-west or any other 
position for a given ward in a given location, inasmuch as 
sensible hospital planning, first, last, and all the time, is 
planning with reference to rules, and not in accordance with 
them. 

Let us turn now to another phase of the general problem 
of ventilation, of which the subjects of exposure and posi- 
tion are aspects, — the question, namely, of space allow- 
ance for the individual ward patient. In England the 
Local Government Board makes certain suggestions with 
respect to air space, which the parish authorities, who 
direct the planning of the poor-law infirmaries and work- 
house hospitals, are expected to follow. The requirement 
for wards for adults in poor-law infirmaries, and for the 
wards of hospitals attached to work-houses, is 600 cubic 
feet per patient; for children's wards, 960 feet is called 
for, while for isolation wards 2,000 feet of air space per 
bed is authoritatively demanded. In the construction of 
military hospitals, the English War Office calls for 1,200 
cubic feet per bed in ordinary wards, and 2,000 feet in 
infectious wards. To cite a German example, Prussia, in 
its elaborate regulations for the construction of hospitals, 
demands an allowance of 30 cubic meters for each adult 
ward bed, or 25 cubic meters for each child's bed ; while 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



177 



for single rooms 40 cubic meters is set down as a min- 
imum. 

The Prussian figures just quoted are absolute ; on the 
other hand, the New York State Board of Charities, while 
registering in advance its approval of a standard space 
allowance, subsequently, by its inspectors, visits every 
hospital under its jurisdiction and issues a special permit, 
this permit being based upon the total related conditions of 
each sick-room, large or small. In Prussia, a ward is a 
ward, and no questions asked ; but in New York State one 
finds that while 1,200 cubic feet per bed is demanded by a 
general rule, 800 cubic feet may in some instances be 
tolerated where the demand for hospital accommodations 
is exceptionally heavy, and where the ward is one in which 
there exists (I quote the official language) "full and ade- 
quate means of ventilation." The writer respectfully sub- 
mits that an enlightened administration does not apply its 
rules relentlessly where their rigid application would prove 
harmful, but keeps in mind the object for which the rules 
primarily exist, and modifies its demands accordingly. 

The purpose of a rule which governs the cubic contents 
of a hospital ward is to insure an adequate supply of fresh 
air to the inmates. But room dimensions and the supply 
of oxygen do not always increase and decrease together ; 
for climatic and topographical conditions greatly influence 
natural ventilation. Is it necessary to point out that two 
wards of identical design may differ markedly in their 
exposure to favoring air currents ? Or that the opening 
of a window or transom has one effect in a clean raral or 
suburban environment, and quite another effect in the 
midst of a smoke-laden city atmosphere ? And is it not 
known that one hospital may have to do primarily with 
acutely sick persons, ninety per cent of whom keep their 
beds, while in another is found a large percentage of con- 
valescents, who spend much of their time on the grounds, 
on balconies, or in day rooms, and hence out of the ward, 
with resulting advantage to the bedridden ? 

There are countless other ways in which wards may 
differ in air-value though agreeing in dimensions. Sup- 



pose a ward to be open on three sides — so far, so good; 
the building may be hemmed in by other buildings which 
cut off the normal air currents of the locality, or it may 
stand free for every breeze that blows. Again, a munici- 
pal hospital may be subject to periods of strain which com- 
pel the lamentable overcrowding of its wards ; its neighbor, 
planned for a private hospital corporation by the same 
architect and in the same manner, is perhaps free from 
such temporary stresses. A ward may connect at its 
extremity with a corridor which is directly ventilated on 
one side, on both sides, at its end only, or not at all. A 
ward may be supplied with mechanical ventilating appa- 
ratus, or it may be without it. The separation rooms 
attached to a ward may be few or numerous ; obviously 
the availability of separation rooms for special cases has 
an important bearing upon the atmospheric purity of the 
ward. In one hospital it is the practice to admit numer- 
ous visitors for several hours each day ; in another the 
number of visitors is smaller and the visiting hours fewer. 
But it is unnecessary to pursue the subject further, for it 
must now be perfectly plain that one must consider not 
only the plan of the hospital structure, but the neighbor- 
hood, and the administrative practices and tendencies of 
the institution as well, when deciding whether the space 
allowance for each bed shall conform to standard, shall 
exceed it, or shall be permitted to fall below it. 

A few weeks ago the writer was invited to look over the 
plans of a small hospital designed to occupy a restricted 
site in the heart of New York City. The program called 
for a certain number of beds, and in endeavoring to meet 
this requirement and at the same time to conform to the 
recommendations of the State Board of Charities concern- 
ing air space and floor space, the architect had cut down 
to an utterly impracticable width the corridor adjacent to 
the wards. Under such working conditions as these a fine 
appreciation of relative values is required to decide where 
the line shall be drawn between rule and practice ; to 
render such decisions with discretion is of the essence of 
skilful hospital planning. 



Description of Hospital Buildings. 



ILLUSTRATED ON PAGES 178-181. 



Gary Hospital, Gary, Ind. Pages 178, 179. The 
hospital is built and maintained by the U. S. Steel Com- 
pany for the benefit of the siek and injured in their em- 
ploy, and consists of a main building with a three-story 
power house connected by tunnel. The exterior is built 
of brick and brown stone with a red tile roof. Accommo- 
dations are provided for 126 patients with a total of 156 
beds. Upon the interior the main entrance, reception 
room, and offices are wainscoted in Italian marble 9 feet 
high, with tile floors and bronze doors and frames. Eighty- 
five per cent of the floors are tile and marble, while the 
corridor walls are of Italian marble. The receiving room 
for patients has an encaustic tile floor ; the waiting room 
has a brick wainscoting, art-marble floor, and oak finish ; 
the sun rooms, 25 by 50 feet each, have red quarry tile 
floors, brick wainscoting 8 feet high, oak-timbered ceil- 
ings, brick mantels, and French windows ; the wards have 
white tile floors with marble base and border ; the X-ray 



room has a black marble floor and flat black walls, and 
the kitchen, together with the cold storage, stock room, 
and bakery, have red quarry tile floors and white enamel 
brick walls ; the basement provides for vegetable and drug 
storage rooms, in addition to the space allotted for ma- 
chinery; in the operating department on the fifth floor, two 
rooms, 15 by 21 feet, are provided with north light. These 
rooms are 16 feet high and have north windows running 
straight for 10 feet, then at a 45-degree angle to the ceil- 
ing. The windows are double, with heating apparatus 
placed between, insuring ample heat and protection against 
sweating rooms, frost, or air currents. The attic floor 
provides rooms for trunks and storage. The building is 
heated with a vacuum system and ventilated with the 
exhaust system which takes the air from both the floor and 
ceiling. All woodwork is of oak except in the operating 
room, where enameled birch is used. The total cost was 

$300,000, while the buildings, exclusive of the grounds or 



178 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



179 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



181 




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THOMAS HOSPITAL, PEABODY, MASS. 
Edward F. Stevens, Architect. 




FRANCIS OLIVER JOHNSON MEMORIAL WARD, 
GARFIELD HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 



182 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



furnishings, cost $200,000, or approximately Si, 570 per 
patient-bed. 

Wesson Maternity Hospital, Springfield, Mass. 
Page 180. The hospital is of the pavilion type, consisting 
of the main building or maternity pavilion, 104 by 48 feet, 
the domestic building, 42 by 32 feet, and the nurses' home, 
60 by 32 feet. The exterior is of buff brick with terra 
cotta trimmings ; the solarium of copper, the airing bal- 
cony of the nurses' home of wood, and the wide, over- 
hanging cornices of cypress stained a rich brown. The 
pitch roofs are of black slate and all flashing, ridge, and 
hip rolls of heavy copper. Accommodations are provided 
for thirty adult patients, eighteen nurses, seven female 
domestics, two male employees, and a house physician. In 
the maternity pavilion the floors are of terra cotta block, 
the partitions of plaster block, and the walls of lime 
mortar, except in the corridors, toilets, baths, diet kitchen, 
etc., where hard patent plaster 
forms a dado 6 feet high. In 
the solaria, corridors, and 
kitchen department the floors 
are of terrazzo, in the entrance 
vestibule and rotunda of white 
Italian marble, and elsewhere 
of maple with doors of veneered 
birch. The nurses' home has 
floors of maple, trimmings of 
North Carolina pine, and walls 
painted in lead and oil or fin- 
ished in white enamel. The 
heating is by indirect gravity 
system in the pavilion and di- 
rect in the other two buildings. 
The total cost of the buildings. 
including the architects' fee, 
was $175,000. There are 
529,000 cubic feet, figuring 
from the under side of cellar 
walls to one third the height 
of the pitching roofs, which 
gives an approximate cost per 
cubic foot of 33 cents. It was 
necessary to fill in the lot on 
two sides to a depth of 25 feet 
against a retaining wall which 

materially affected the cost. The furnishings amounted 
to $10,000, which is not included in the total cost. 

Homeopathic and Maternity Hospital, Yonkers, 
N. Y. Page 180. The hospital follows the urban plan 
on account of the restricted area of the site and accommo- 
dates seventy-five patients, one interne, and seven domes 
tics. The domestic quarters shown on the first floor are 
temporary until the erection of the administration and 
service buildings, which will complete the hospital group. 
The exterior is of red brick with white terra cotta trim- 
mings. Upon the interior the floor treatment varies to 
suit the needs of the different rooms; for the first floor 
linoleum is used, for the toilets, baths, operating depart- 
ment, and hydriatic room white marble terrazzo, and for 
general use wood. Finished doors and frames are of white 
ash. The rotunda has a mosaic floor, groined ceiling, and 
moulded casings. Walls of the operating department and 
labor and delivery rooms are of enamel, elsewhere of hard 




OPERATING ROOM, GARY HOSPITAL 



plaster, painted and tinted. The stairs are of iron with 
black slate treads. Gravity ventilation and direct, direct- 
indirect, and indirect radiation systems have been installed. 
The total cost was $124,000, the cubage 341,000 feet, giv- 
ing a cost per cubic foot of 36.36 cents, which figure does 
not include equipment or furnishings. 

Francis Oliver Johnson Memorial, Washington, 
D. C. Page L81. The building, which is a part of the 
Garfield Hospital group occupying more than ten acres of 
ground, is used exclusively for children and infants. The 
exterior is of dark red brick of various shades with a slate 
roof. There are four suites of rooms arranged for mothers, 
each consisting of two rooms and bath. Diet kitchens, 10 
by 12 feet, are provided on each floor in addition to the 
covered corridor which connects this building with the 
kitchen of the main building. The windows are spaced 
to permit of wall room for two cribs between. The system 

of heating for all wards is 
direct-indirect steam furnished 
from the main building. There 
are also vent registers which 
carry the vitiated air into the 
roof space from where it is dis- 
charged. Fireproof construc- 
tion has been used throughout 
the building, which is 92 feet 
long, 32 feet wide, and three 
stories in height, with an addi- 
tional two-story porch 52 feet 
by 12 feet. The floors are of 
tile block filling", the partitions 
of metal lath and plaster, and 
the stairs of iron with slate- 
treads. The total cost, exclu- 
sive of furniture, was $36,000, 
making a cost pier cubic foot of 
25 cents. 

Thomas Hospital, Pea- 
body, Mass. Page 181. The 
building is a type of the mod- 
ern suburban hospital, located 
one mile from the center of 
the town. It is built of red 
brick with artificial stone trim- 
mings of gray color and slate 
roof. The plan is of the Latin cross type with the short 
end facing north. Twenty-nine patients are accom- 
modated in wards and private rooms. Airing balconies 
extend along the south end and the southeast side of the 
administration building, while the private rooms of the 
second story have a large airing balcony over the connect- 
ing corridor, as well as over the center entrance. Upon 
the interior the finish is of ash and birch, with plaster 
walls and maple floors. The gravity system is used for 
ventilation and has the outlets near the floor, while the 
heating is by indirect radiation from radiators placed in 
plenum chambers in the basement. The north end is 
occupied wholly by the operating department and designed 
with the idea of attractiveness as well as practicability. 
The total cost of the building was $61,000, and the cost 
per cubic foot approximately >> cents. The cubical con- 
tents are 278,000 feet, figured from one foot below the 
basement floor to the average height of the roof. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



183 



The Development of Duplex Apartments. — II. StudioType. 



ELISHA HARRIS JANES. 



A REVIVAL of duplex apartments came about in an 
unexpected manner. Perhaps it should not be called 
a revival, as it was not due to copying", repeating", or seek- 
ing precedence ; but it was rather the copying of a type of 
building which had a very logical development and filled a 
decided although limited want. This type is the studio 
duplex apartment. It is this same type which also brought 
the return of the co-operative apartment in a changed form. 
Fifteen years ap;o there were very few really satisfactory 
studios. One or two studio build- 
ings had been erected, but these 
buildings were rather old and 
did not completely fill the want. 
Other studios were over stables, 
in back yards and loft buildings ; 
many in out of the way places, 
with few conveniences if the art- 
ists wished to live in connection 
with them or near them. This 
resulted in a group of artists 
under the leadership of Mr. 
Henry Ranger meeting and all 
agreeing to rent studios in any 
building erected for that special 
purpose. Such a building would 
be in the nature of a specialty, 
therefore they could not persuade 
a speculative builder or investor 
to see the advantage of such an 
undertaking, as he did not care 
to pioneer. The artists then de- 
cided to raise the funds them- 
selves, build and be their own 
owners. A company was formed 
and duly incorporated and each 
one contributed a certain amount 
toward the cost of the building, 
and received in return bonds and 
certificates of the company to- 
gether with the exclusive right 
of occupancy of one of the studio 
apartments, or the right of sub- 
letting the apartment and collect- 
ing the rent. On the other hand, 
he was proportionately liable ac- 
cording to the value of his hold- 
ings for the running and opera- 
ting expenses of the building. 
Instead of gathering the same 
number of owners as there were 
apartments, a certain number of 
apartments were left for general 

rental, the income of whirl) would be divided proportion- 
ately among the owners. Thus an owner would save in 
his rental the profit usually paid to the owners and holders 
of apartment houses, and in addition would receive his 

proportionate share of profits from those apartments rented 
to the public. 




TH'RD FLOOR PLAN 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 

IMC. IV. 



This was the second start of the co-operative apartments 
in only a slightly different form than a generation ago : 
and, strangely, the term has been so closely allied with the 
duplex apartment since then that to many people they are 
synonymous ; although many duplex apartments have been 
built by private investors and many co-operative apart- 
ments have been built without duplex apartments. 

Fig. IV shows one of the first of the studio type of 
apartments to be built. It was clear to see that in order 

to have a successful studio with 
good light it was necessary to 
have a room 18 to 20 feet high, 
but the smaller living rooms, 
bath rooms, kitchens, with such 
ceilings would be out of propor- 
tion and unsightly. This led to 
the suggestion of the mezzanine 
floor to each studio, keeping the 
dinine; room, reception room, 
and kitchen on the floor with the 
studio ; and the chambers and 
bath rooms on the mezzanine floor 
and reached by a small staircase. 
As each owner had separate ideas 
to carry out, many were the in- 
teresting varieties which took 
place in the smaller details — in 
the decorations, stairs, and small 
balconies from the mezzanine 
hall looking into the studios. 

All of the early types were 
practically the same as this plan, 
and when built on the narrow- 
streets as the first ones were in 
67th street, they violated the 
tenement house law, because the 
heights of the buildings were 
more than one and one half times 
the width of the streets. By the 
placing of a public dining room 
and kitchen on the first floor, they 
were allowed to be classified as 
apartment hotels for a short 
time, until the authorities became 
stricter and decided hereafter to 
term them "tenements." This 
prevented the repetition of these 
studios on the narrow streets. 
The building was termed seven 
stories, as the seven studios on 
the facade would show, when in 
reality it was fourteen stories in 
the rear. To bring it within the required limited height 
(if L50 feet and still keep the required 9 feet in the 
height of the ceilings, it was necessary to use the thinnest 
of floor construction and minimum depth of beams. It 
was allowed to measure from the floor to the ceiling proper, 
not counting any beams projecting below, so by usin 



184 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





VIEWS OF TWO STUDIOS. 



flat arch at the top of the beams and allowing the beams 
to show, considerable space was saved ; and the plan was 
arranged so that the beams occurred in partitions or were 
symmetrical in the rooms. 

Tli- first of these buildings proved so successful that 
mane were erected within the next tew years after the first 



one was started. These apartments rented readily to 
artists, musicians, literary people, and those who enjoyed 
having receptions requiring large rooms, yet were willing 
to live in smaller low ceiling rooms. 

The north side of the street was selected in the earlier 
building, which required that the studios be placed in the 




TYPICAL MAIN AND MEZZANINE FLOOR PLANS. 
APARTMENTS, 130 w. 57TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



Pollard & Steinam, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



185 



rear. The plan shows how compactly it has been worked 
out, showing two sets of apartments with studios running- 
through two stories, and in the rear two studios on each 
floor with low ceilings. 

A larger apartment built by the same architects at 130 
West 57th street was on a much larger scale than any 
erected previous to that. At the same time it shows how 
the studio dominated the entire plan. In the first illustra- 
tion we see how everything has been subordinated to the 
studio, which is placed in the rear of the 
building, and in the front we have the w 

kitchen and dressing rooms, the position 
of which would make the speculative 
builder cry with horror. 

In the second illustration, as the 
building was placed on the south side 
of the street, they were able to place 
the studios in the front of the building, 
and the smaller rooms to the courts or 
rear. Here two complete duplex studio 
apartments have been arranged, facing 





This building being on the south side of the street, all the 
studios had to be on the front, therefore the plan has com- 
bined studio apartments with smaller ones in the rear. 
By referring to the plans, one will see how successfully and 
with what little space the stairs to the upper floors were 
arranged, and the chance which was given for the high 
ceiling room and the effective balcony. This plan, though, 
by not having kitchens, came under the head of a hotel 
and was not subject to the tenement house law. This 
admits of an entirely different plan from 
the others that have been shown. 

Perhaps the largest, handsomest, and 
most successful of the real studio apart- 
ments is that designed by Charles A. 
Piatt, at 66th street and Madison avenue. 
The building has no outward sign upon 
the facade to indicate that there are 
studios, for the reason that the build- 
ing is on the northeast corner, there- 
fore all the studios had to he in the rear. 
As the studios were the principal fea- 
ture, he allowed them to dominate the 
plan, placing them with the north light; 



TYPICAL FLOOK PLAN. 



GAINSHOROUGII STUDIOS, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

C. W. Buckham, Architect. 




TYPICAL MEZZANINE PLAN. 



the north to accommodate the artists. The rear apart- 
ments did not have the studio feature, although the parlor 
has a very large window ; but there is arranged a third 
studio facing" to the north, which may be engaged in 
connection with the smaller apartment, and access gained 
through the public hall. 

A later one which has also attracted a great deal of 
attention, especially on account of its unique facade, is the 
Gainsborough Studio Building, on Central Park South. 



and on the corner, in that part of the plan where it would 
he impossible to arrange for a studio with north light, a 
residential apartment has been introduced. The illustra- 
tion of the stairway shows what an attraction this fea- 
ture becomes. It explains the fascination of having a 
relief in an apartment where everything has been on one 
floor. 

The two illustrations of studios give a very good idea of 
the wide range there is in their treatment, decoration, and 



1 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



finish to satisfy 
the individual 
tenant or owner. 
At the s a m e 
time, when their 
proportions are 
examined they 
show how inap- 
propriate they 

are when used 
just as a par- 
lor. They re- 
quire large hang- 
ings, pictures, or 
sculpture which 
an artist gener- 
ally has, and 
wishes and needs 
the height to dis- 
play. 

This building 
is an excellent 
example of the 
profit which has 
e o m e to t h e 

architecture of 

tile city, due to 

the introduction 
of this special 
type of building, 




STUDIO APARTMENTS, NEW York CITY. 
Charles A. Piatt, Architect. 




PLAN or MEZZANINE FLOORS. 




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and the co-op- 
erative feature. 
With the intro- 
duction of this 
new problem, the 
owners turned to 
the best archi- 
tects to e a r r y 
out work which 
required great 
experience. This 
has resulted in 
t h e m a a y e x - 
Cellent examples 
which we now 
have of apart- 
ment houses. 
And these ex- 
a mples h a v e 
caused the build- 
in-- operators to 
take notice, and 
to engage, if not 
the same archi- 
tects, at least a 
higher grade of 
talent for their 
buildings than 
they have here- 
tofore. 



PLAN OF MAIN FLOORS. 
STUDIO APARTMENTS, NEW YORE CITY. 




STAIRWAY IN STUDIO APARTMENTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 85 _ 




HOSPITAL FOR CHILDREN AND TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NURSES, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Bliss &. Faville, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 21. NO. 7. 



PLATE 86. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 7. PLATE 87. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 7. PLATE 




THE BRICKIU'ILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 7. PLATE 90. 




CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, TAUNTON, MASS. 
Matthew Sullivan, Architect. 



THE BRICK Bin LDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 7. PLATE 91. 



Matthew Sullivan 
Architect. 



N°TE FLAJHlNGToRE 
CARRIED UPFEOME<OW 
ANDOVER WALL UNDER. 
TERRA COTIA CAPPING- • 



Plan and Exterior Details. 

CHURCH OF 

THE 

SACRED HEART, 

TAUNTON, MASS. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 92. 



't 




CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, TAUNTON, MASS. 

Matthew Sullivan, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 93. 






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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. p LATE 94. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 95. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 96. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 97. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 7. PLATE 98. 







HOUSE AND GARAGE, CONCORD, MASS. 

James Purdon, Architect. 



i 



r i il/t r look n o 

PLAN OF GARAGE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



187 




FOUNTAIN OF THE ASTROLABE, LUXEMBOURG GARDENS, PARIS. 



Commemorative Monuments. — VI. 

H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLE. 

ALL artists look forward with such hope as their inch- In the Triumph of the Republic, the pyramidal theory 

vidual optimism furnishes to a day when, in this of composition is completely recognized. The lines of the 

country, everybody has become rich enough to care about steps follow the general form of the composition and carry 

art and especially the art of the street. Just opposite the the eye by insensible gradations from the sumptuous group 

Pont St. Michel in Paris the Boulevard St. Michel begins to the plane of the basin about it. The two rostral col- 



and is joined here by a little 
street running off to the right ; 
a block of typical Parisian 
apartments lies between them 
with shops on the ground 
floor ; in an American town 
the end of this building toward 
the bridge probably would 
not only not be truncated, but 
run to a point to get the last 
inch of rentable space, or, if 
truncated, would have been 
punched full of windows. 
But the French have a special 
faculty for seizing upon such 
an opportunity as this, and 
have made of it one of the 
most splendid and decorative 
points in Paris. 

The Moliere Fountain is 
another example on a more 
modest scale ; he lived in the 
street to the right. 

The Fontaine St. Sulpice in 
the square before the church 
of that name is not particu- 
larly beautiful, but is illus- 
trated as an example of a free 
standing fountain in which 
architecture is predominant. 




Till': MOLIERE FOUNTAIN, PARIS. 



unms of the Place du Trone, 
seen beyond, have their share 
in the ensemble, repeating the 
vertical line of the figure and 
forming a vigorous frame for 
the whole. 

At the end of the long 
avenue, or rather, allcc, that 
runs from the Palais du 
Luxembourg out toward the 
Observatory of Paris is the 
beautiful Fountain of the As- 
trolabe supported by figures 
representing the four conti- 
nents. It gives scale, interest, 
and accent to a vista that 
would otherwise have been 
too long. The interminable 
lengths of American streets in 
nearly every city save Wash- 
ington, unrelieved, unac- 
cented, are characteristic of 
our national ignorance of civic 
art. 
Leaping li -htl\ It om P in--, 

to Pittsburgh we find the stele 

form used in a different way 
in the Magee Memorial Foun- 
tain by Augustus St. Gaudens 
and Henry Bacon. 



1 88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 




FONTAINE ST. SULPICE, PARIS 



MAGEE MEMORIAL, PITTSBURGH. 




FOUNTAIN TO THE GREAT GOD PAX, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORE CITY. 
COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. 



IC)0 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




I find the Great 
God Fan in the 
grounds of Colum- 
bia University in 
New York delight- 
ful ; to lie all day in 
the sun and tootle 
mi a reed pipe and 
listen to the trick- 
ling water seems an 
enviable occupa- 
tion : the sculpture 
is by George Grey 
Barnard and the set- 
ting by McKim, 
Mead & White. 

The Tomb of 
Caecilia Metella on 
the Appian Wayout- 
side the gates of 
Rome is one of the 
few remaining on 
that Street of Tombs 
and doubtless owes its preservation, like so many ancient 
Roman remains, to its use as a fortified residence for the 
Roman nobility; the Ghibelline battlements of brick that 
crown the upper part are a plain indication of this use. 
We find the origin of this circular form of tomb in the 
mounds of earth that by an old custom were heaped above 
the bodies of those slain in battle ; as the base of these 
mounds became gradually eroded by the weather it became 
usual to build a low circular wall around it for protection. 
This primitive form of sepulchral monument was developed 



THE SOLDIERS AM) SAILORS MONUMENT, NEW YORK CITY. 



in the course of 
years into such 
structures as this 
and the tomb of the 
Emperor Hadrian, 
now the Castello S. 
An.uelo, which has 
s u f f e r e d m a n y 
e h a n g e s sine e 
Roman times ; un- 
doubtedly it had a 
conical roof, either 
of stone or of earth 
terraced to the sum- 
mit and perhaps 
planted with cy- 
presses. Grant's 
Tomb in New York, 
by Mr. John II. 
I >unean, is a modern 
version of the idea 
in stone. 

The McKinley 
Memorial, Canton, < Miio, by the writer, has been illustrated 
and described so often that it is unnecessary to do more than 
give it here as an example of a large eireular domed tomb. 
The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument on Riverside 
Drive, Xew York, the work of Messrs. StOUghton & 
StOUghton and Paul Dubois, is an excellent mass treated 
in a robust style : it is a very unusual form for a monu- 
ment and is really another development of the phallic em- 
blem, like the dolmens of Brittany, the obelisks of Egypt, 
and the votive columns and pylons of later times. 




Tin: MCKINLEY MONUMENT, CANTON. OHIO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



191 



The Emerson Hotel, Baltimore, Md. 



JOS. EVANS SPERRY, ARCHITECT. 



BALTIMORE'S newest and most modern hotel, follow- tional emblem of the owner. From flagpoles projecting 
ing the traditional design of this type of building, over these balconies float side, by side, Old (dory and the 



raises its head with majestic mien, and towers above its 
immediate neighbors as a landmark by day and a beacon 
by night. 

The facades of the building are divided vertically into 
three parts, consisting of a base, with a shaft above, 
crowned with the cornice and high roof. The base is of 
pink granite, extending through the principal and mezza- 
nine stories, and though it contains many broad openings, 
yet it suggests stability and strength, and securely sup- 
ports the shaft of brick rising above, which is pierced by 
many windows, deeply recessed for shadow effect. No 
attempt has been made to embellish these openings, the 
lintels of which are of brick ; the sills are of architectural 
terra cotta, hav- 
ing only suffi- 
cient projection 
to allow for a 
drip. The de- 
signer, how- 
ever, arranged 
for the proper 
spacing of the 
windows, with 
the resulting 
broad surfaces 
of brick texture 
between, to pro- 
d uce a har- 
monious color 
balance. The 
windows in the 
simplicity of 
their treatment 
seem to apolo- 
gize for their 
existence, only 
offering as an 
excuse for dis- 
turbing the 
color scheme of 
the brickwork 
the most prac- 
tical one of ad- 
mitting light to the rooms of the interior, the arrangement 
of these rooms being suggested by the window spacing. 

The bricks selected for the exterior are twelve inches 
long but of standard thickness and width, and are of a 
light buff cream, slightly irregular in shade, but with an 
underlying tinge of green so delicate in tone as to be 
hardly perceived. 

The principal facades are partly relieved at the fifth 
floor by balconies of architectural terra cotta of color and 
effect to match the pink granite of the base. These bal- 
conies are supported upon the backs of four griffin 
brackets and the rail and coping is surmounted by four 
seated lions supporting shields; the lion being a tradi- 




MAIN LOBBY. 



beautiful flag of Maryland, the red and white and orange 
and black adding a brilliant touch of color well placed. 

Above the brick shaft a projecting sill course, on a line 
with the sills of the upper windows, begins the frieze 
which is surmounted by the broad overhanging cornice 
enriched with much detail, and all executed in architec- 
tural terra cotta. 

The machicolations of the cornice contain the beautiful 
shell ornament so successfully used during the Renais- 
sance. The windows of this upper story carry up into 
these machicolations, necessitating a wider spacing of the 
corbels of the cornice at these points to admit them, but 
as these windows have flat heads they neglect the move- 
ment suggested 
in the cornice, 
by not conform- 
ing to the wider 
machicolations 
which they 
enter. 

Surmounting 
the cornice is 
a low balustrade 
in terra cotta 
which offers a 
chance for or- 
namental treat- 
ment, and af- 
fords protection 
to the visitor to 
this gallery. 
Above the cor- 
n ice rises a 
three-st o r y 
mansard roof, 
covered with a 
bluish green 
slate. This 
great expanse is 
relieved by nu- 
merous open- 
ings plainly 
treated, but it is 
especially embellished by large central dormers, flanked OH 
each side with a smaller one, all of them being executed 
in terra cotta and treated in an ornamental manner dis- 
tinctively French. A cresting crowns this roof, and when 
illuminated at night by the many lights arranged in 
metrical pattern, it might be likened to a chaplet of topazes 
around the brow of some fair queen. 

Had the architect Stopped here, the building would have 
been complete, but on top of this roof is a one-story build- 
ing suggesting an orangerie or similar structure. It is 
executed in white terra cotta and is connected to the 
elevator penthouses, which are symmetrically placed and 
ornamentally treated in the same material. This struc- 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Terra Coft'a Details. 



Jos. Evans Sperry, Architect. 



THE EMERSON HOTEL. BALTIMORE, MD. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



J 93 




194 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ture is unique in treatment, although dissimilar to the 
building of which it forms a part. 

Here is located the large banquet hall or ball room, con- 
venient to the elevators and the necessary coat and retir- 
ing rooms. A large serving room completely equipped is 
near by and forms a necessary adjunct to these rooms. 
This banquet hall is in reality two rooms similarly treated. 
flanking a central smaller room from which they are 
separated by a single row of columns at each side of this 
smaller room. These columns support a barrel arch ceil- 
ing over tlie central room, but the ceiling of the rooms at 
each side are handsomely executed with cove and relief 
ornament in an adaptation of Louis XIV. period. 

Entering the building from the street, after passing 



ceiling in tones of gray, and Delia Robbia ornament on 
the walls. 

Opposite the tea room is the principal dining room with 
its beamed ceiling, richly decorated walls, and hangings of 
the Renaissance period. Great crystal chandeliers add a 
touch of ornament to this otherwise pleasing room. 

The general design of the building savors of the French 
Renaissance, although, in its entirety, of no particular 
period. Here may be a suggestion of the period of 
Francis I., over there a suggestion of Louis XII., min- 
gling with a slightly more Gothic feeling, occurring at 
various parts of the detail. 

The skill of the designer is shown when the. ornament 
has an easy movement and rhythmic action without a dis- 



t^— n 





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i 



KIR. ST FLOOR PLAN. 



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SECOND FLOOR PLAN- 




CK.LLAR PLAN. 



ISASKMKNT PLAN. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 




— i — > ■ a t r— 

SEVENTEENTH 

FLOOR PLAN. 



under a marquise of ample proportions and richly orna- 
mented in the French Gothic style, one ascends from the 
vestibule a few steps and enters the principal lobby of the 
hotel, at the far end of which is an open fireplace with its 
richly embellished mantel of the French Chateau period. 

In this lobby and around it are situated the principal 
offices and rooms of a semi-publie nature, as are also the 
broad marble staircases leading to the floors above. 

The walJs are covered with English vein Italian marble, 
with columns of the same material supporting the gal- 
leries of the mezzanine story which opens into this lobby. 
The ornamentation here is of white ami gold, which last 
material has been lavishly used. At one side is the tea 
room, broad and spacious, with quiet effect of walls and 



COrdant element, yet having sufficient emphasis to please 
the critic when observed from the viewpoint of the aver- 
age citizen, but not enough to exaggerate the element of 
perspective and sense of proportion when observed from 
such a disadvantageous position. 

The adaptability of architectural terra cotta to such 
motives as are represented in this building, and all others 
where ornament can be used, is quickly recognized; what 
other material would lend itself so readily to the enrich- 
ment of detail that one finds in the Gothic and Renais- 
sance periods. Whether it be Mat medallion ornament or 
heavily undercut as with the Gothic, there seems to be no 
limit to the effect that can be produced by a skilful manu- 
facturer of this product. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*95 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



FIGI 

Executed 



THE NEW CAMPANILE. 

AFTER ten years of silence the bells of Campanile 
di San Marco, Venice, announced that the recon- 
structed tower, similar to the former one but erected with 
modern science and possibly with more enduring skill, has 
arisen in the same location. 

At 10.40 on the morning of July 14, 1902, 
after dominating the piazza for just one 
thousand years, the old Campanile fell. 
When the debris had been cleared away and 
the foundations found intact, it was decided 
that the cause of the fall was due to the 
weakness of the lower walls. The added 
weight of the belfry, constructed later, and 
the weakened walls had been too much for 
the old Roman bricks that had already done 
service in the houses of the mainland for 
centuries before they were carted to Venice 
from the ruins of Altinum. 

In starting the new Campanile, a ditch 
16 feet deep, down to the level of the pile 
heads, was dug all around the old founda- 
tions to the width of about 12 feet, and carefully bratticed. 
Into the area were driven 3,076 piles of larchwood from 
Cadore, fresh cut so as to insure the presence of abundance 

of resin. The average 
diameter of the piles was 
8Vt> inches. Larch was 
preferred to oak, partly 
because experience had 
shown its admirable 
power of resisting de- 
composition in clay, and 
partly because larch piles 
are straight while oak is 
often bent and twisted, 
and woidd therefore have 
left frequent interstices. 
The piles were on an 
average 13 feet long, and 
calculated to have a car- 
rying power of 90,000 
tons. 

The new tower, which 
weighs above 20,000 tons, 
is composed of an inner 
and an outer shaft, be- 
tween which mounts the 
inclined plane that leads 
to the belfry. The walls of the outer shaft are 6 feet 
thick, and the interior of the tower presents a fine piece 
of brick construction, quite Roman in its finish and 
solidity. 

The number of bricks employed is about one million. 
They are of a special size, made at Casale, near Treviso, 
of clay twice mixed and baked in wood-fired kilns. They 
contain salt in considerable quantities, which produces in 
certain weather a sort of white efflorescence all over the 
tower. These bricks are 12 inches long, 6 inches wide, 
and 3 inches thick. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS DESCRIPTION. 

Church op the Sacred Heart, Taunton, Mass. 
Plates 90-93. The exterior is of water-struck red brick 
and full matt glazed terra cotta. The main portion of the 
church — nave and two aisles — is 60 by 124 feet, with a 





RES IN CORNICE, MCKNIGHT BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, 
by Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. Hewett &• Brown, Architects. 

seating capacity of nine hundred. The walls are compara- 
tively plain with the view of future decorations, excepting 
the nave which is treated with richly modeled ornament 
and coffered ceiling. All wood finish, including doors, 
pews, etc., is of oak, while the floors are of hard pine. 
The direct-indirect system of heating is installed. The 
total cost of the structure was $71,500, of which amount 
$12,000 was spent for furnishings. 



DETAIL BY T. E. BILLQUIST, 

ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




ENTRANCE OF CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, 

TU'NTON, MASS. 

An example of archaic byzantine modeling executed in polychrome terra 
cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Matthew Sullivan, Architect. 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




in buildings five stories or less in height, or for enclosure 
walls for skeleton structures of any height where the walls 
are carried from story to story on steel or concrete beams 
or girders, where said use is approved by the Bureau of 
Buildings. 

_'. All materials must be well burned, dense material of 
approved quality and thickness. 

.>. The thickness of the walls should not be less than is 
required by law for brick walls inside the fire limits. Out- 
side the fire limits the exterior walls shall not be less than 
the following thicknesses : 

./. For a one-story building, 6 inches. 

/>. For a two-story building, first story 8 inches, sec- 
ond story 8 inches. 



NEW ENGLAND TELEPHONE & TELEGRAPH CO. BUILDING, 

BOSTON . 

Built of Fiske & Co., Inc., Tapestry Brick. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

TERRA COTTA TILE FOR EXTERIOR WALLS. 

OWING to the increasing use of terra cotta hollow tile 
for exterior walls of buildings the National Fire 
Proofing Company, asa result of careful study of the entire 
problem by their engineering department, has offered a 
series of suggestions which are intended to be of help to 
those who have to do with building codes. These sugges- 
tions are as follows : 

1. Terra cotta hollow tile may be used for bearing walls 





CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH, STAMFORD, CONN. 

Walls of Xatco Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles. 

Dennison & Hirons, Architects. 



DETAIL FOR THEATER. 

Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 
II. E. Kennedy & Co., Architects. 

C. For a three-story building, first story H> inches, sec- 
ond story 8 inches, third story 8 inches. 

D. For a four-story building, first story 12 inches, 

strond story 10 inches, third story 8 inches, 
fourth story 8 inches. 

E. For a five-story building, first story 12 
inches, second story 10 inches, third story 
10 inches, fourth story 8 inches, fifth story 
8 inches. 

/■'. The foundation walls shall not be less 
than 4 inches thicker than the first story 
walls, provided that non-foundation walls 
shall be less than 12 inches thick. 

4. If the walls are exposed to the weather, 
all the hollow tile must be of dense material 
and vitrified in burning, or they may be of 
dense or semi-porous material, hard burned 
and covered on the exposed sides with at 
least % inch Portland cement stucco or 
pebble dash. Such hollow tile to be well 
scored with dovetailed grooves to receive 
coating. 

5. Provide and set terra cotta slabs 1 inch 
thick under all floor beams as bearing plates 
for same. 

6. Wherever girders or beams rest upon 
a wall so that there is a concentrated load 
on the hollow tile of over two tons, the tile 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



197 



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m^ffm 






M \l^ *-^> 





DETAIL, EXECUTED BY WINKLE 
COTTA COMPANY. 



TERRA 



supporting - the 
girders or 
beams must be 
made solid by 
filling wit h 
Portland cem- 
ent concrete of 
broken stone 
or gravel mixed 
1-2-4, or by 
covering the 
openings with 
flat slabs; and 
wherever walls 
are decreased 
in thickness, the top course of the thicker wall must be 
made solid in the same manner. 

7. Provided always that no tile shall be loaded to an 
excess of 30 pounds per square inch of net section in com- 
pression, if set 
on end, or 150 
p ounds per 
square inch if 
set on the side. 

8. All piers 
and buttresses 
that support 
loads in excess 
of five tons shall 
be filled solid 
with concrete. 

9. Lintels 
spanning over 
4 feet 6 inches 
in the clear 
shall rest on tile 
filled solid with 
concrete or on 
plate, slab, or 
brick. 

10. All hol- 
low tile shall be 
subject to regu- 
lation inspec- 
tion and in no 

case shall the exterior shells be less than 15 Ae inch in 
thickness, and interior webs % inch. The ultimate crush- 
ing strength shall be at least six times the load they are 

required to 
carry. 

11. All hol- 
low tile used 
in walls or 
piers shall be 
set in mortar 
composed of 
one part Port- 
land cement 
and three parts 
of clean sand, 

DETAIL, RITZ-CARLTON HOTEL, NEW YORK. we ]] m j xet l t r> 
Executed by New York Architectural Terra Cotta & gmooth ^ mQ& 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects. erately stiff 




CARTOUCHE BY J. D. ATCHISON, 
ARCHITECT. 
Executed by American Terra Cotta & Ceramic 
Company. 




mortar. Lime well slacked and not to exceed ten per cent 
of the cement, by volume, will be allowed in the mortar. 

12. Hollow tile may be also used for backing, facing 
brick, or hollow brick. If face brick or hollow brick is 
bonded into the hollow tile, the total thickness of the wall 
shall be estimated as the thickness of the bearing wall. If 




LOFT BUILDING, FOURTH AVE., NEW YORK. 

A11 terra cotta from second story up. 

Work executed by South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

Rouse & Ooldstone, Architects. 

the face brick or hollow brick is used as a veneer and tied 
to the hollow tile walls with metal anchors, said veneer 
shall not be considered to form part of the required thick- 
ness of any wall. 



TERRA COTTA FOR THE EMERSON HOTEL, 

BALTIMORE. 

THE architectural terra cotta for the Emerson Hotel, 
Baltimore, Joseph Evans Sperry, architect, illus- 
trated in this issue, was furnished by the Conkling- 
Armstrong Terra Cotta Company. 



198 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



IX GENERAL. 

Meyer J. Strum, 

architect, announces 
the removal of his 
office to 116 South 
Michigan Boulevard, 
Chicago. 

C. II. Page & Bro., 

architects, of Austin, 
Texas, have opened a 
branch office in the 
Union National Bank 
Building, Houston, 
Texas. Manufac- 
turers' samples de- 
sired. 

Veredon William 
Upham has been 
taken into partner- 
ship with Charles 
William Eldridge, 
architect. The style 
of the nvw firm is 
Eldridge & Upham ; 
offices, Granite Build- 
ing, Rochester, X. Y. 

The firm of Patton 
& Miller, architects, 
Chicago, has been 
dissolved. Mr. Pat- 




INTERIOR, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, PITTSBURGH. 

Showing Guastavino Tile Ceiling between stone ribs. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architei ts 



ton has formed a co- 
partnership with 

Maurice ( '. . Holmes 
and Raymond W. 
Flinn, under the firm 
name of Normand S. 
Patton, Holmes & 
Flinn. Mr. Miller 
will continue practice 
under the firm name 
of Grant C. Miller, at 
116 South Michigan 
Boulevard. 

W. II. Weeks, archi- 
tect, announces the 
removal of his office 
to 75 Post street, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Hubert T. McGee, 
Richard J . Regan , and 
John J. Weller, Jr., 
have formed a co- 
partnership for the 
practice of architec- 
ture under the firm 
n a m e o f M cGee , 
Regan & Weller, with 
offices in the Mem- 
phis Trust Building, 
Memphis, Tenn. 




















































DHTML OF BRICKWORK, NAVAL TRAINING STATION, 

NORTH CHICAGO, ILL. 

Brick furnished by Western Brick Company, Danville, 111. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 



EXECUTED IN ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE BY 

Till-: ROOKWOOD POTTERY COMPANY, 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



199 



Sayre & Fisher 
Company furnished the 
brick for the Emerson 
Hotel, Baltimore , 
Joseph Evans Sperry, 
architect. 

The architectural 
terra cotta for the Sacred 
Heart Church, Taun- 
ton, Mass., illustrated 
in this issue, was 
furnished by the 
Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company. 

The Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company will 
furnish the architectural 
terra cotta for the fol- 
lowing" named new 
building's : Community 
Building, Bronx, New 
York, James F. Meehan, 
architect ; Tower Build- 
ing, New York City, 
Starrett & Van Vleck, 
architects; Y. M. C. A., 
Atlantic City, Horace 
Trumbauer, architect ; 
Building for the Buffalo 
National Gas Fuel 
Company, Wood & 
Bradney, architects; 
Railway Station, Ha- 
garstown, Md., Charles M. Anderson 
Building, Cleveland, Ohio, W. S. 
Matthews Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
architects. 




WOODWARD OFFICE BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D 
Built of Golden Craftsman Norman size brick, 
Made by Pearl Clay Products Company. 
Harding & Upman, Architects. 



architect ; Marshall 

Lougee, architect ; 

Rutan & Russell, 




Samuel Cabot, 
Inc., Boston, has just 
issued pamphlets 
describing Cabot's 
Damp - Proofing, for 
direct plastering 
on brick and con- 
crete ; Cabot's Pro- 
tective Paint, a chem- 
icallypurified, elastic, 

and durable paint that protects iron and steel from acids, 
rust, and other corrosion, and Cabot's Black Waterproof- 
ing, for waterproofing foundation, basement, and other 



DETAIL BY PEUCKKRT & WUNDER, ARCHITECTS. 

(About 20 feet long.) 

O. W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



walls above or below 
grade. These materials 
have been long manu- 
factured by this firm, 
and the pamphlets are 
gotten out merely to ex- 
plain what the materials 
may be depended upon 
to do. 



The Ironclay Brick 
Company, Columbus, 
Ohio, has just issued 
a small pamphlet in 
which their bricks are 
shown in color. Each 
type of brick illustrated 
is described in detail. 



New York's tallest 
apartment house will 
be ready for occupancy 
next spring on the 
northeast corner of Park 
avenue and 79th street. 
It will be a seventeen- 
story house, five stories 
higher than the hither- 
to orthodox height for 
C. apartment houses of 

the finest and most ex- 
pensive type. The 
erection of this build- 
ing means a new epoch 
in apartment house construction in New York. The 
facade will present an attractive but simple exterior, 
granite being used for the lower floor and brick for the 

upper portion, the 
solid walls being re- 
lieved by a few ar- 
tistic balconies. The 
architects are Warren 
& Wetmore and Rob- 
ert T. Lyons. 

Mendelssohn Hall 

in 40th street, east of 

Broadway, New Y01 k 

City, is being torn 

down and in its stead will be erected a twenty-two story 

commercial building to cost approximately $2,000,000. 

The plans call for a Kinemaeolor Theater. 



ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — THE TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
MANSON, BOSTON. 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new n page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OE DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST <)K 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Notice of Competition for Street Lighting Standards 

A competition for designs of ornamental street lighting 
fixtures is announced by the Business Men's Association 
and Municipal Art Society of Hartford, Connecticut. Copies 
of the pamphlet giving details as to the desired designs and 
information as to the prizes offered can be secured of the 
undersigned. 

C. J. BENNETT, for the Business Men's Association. 
W. S. SCHULTZ, for the Municipal Art Society. 



School of Architecture 
of Harvard University 

Professional course for graduates of colleges, leading to degree of 

Master in Architecture 
Course for special advanced students, not having college degree but 
at least 21 years of age, with office experience, leading to certificate 

Design. Prof. E. J. A. Duquesne, Grand Prix de Rome. 
History. Prof. H. L. Warren, A. M., F. A. I. A. 
Construction. Prof. C. W. Killam, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Drawing. Mr. H. D. Murphy, Mr. H. B. Warren. 
Ten other lecturers and instructors. 

For circulars and other information apply to Prof. H. L. Warren, Chairman of 
the Council of the School of Architecture, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 



The University of Pennsylvania offers 
courses in Architecture as follows: 

(1) A four-year course, leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option in architectural 
engineering may be elected. 

(2) Graduate courses of one year, permitting spe- 
cialization in design, construction, or history ; 
leading to the degree of M. S. in Architecture. 

(3) A special two-year course for qualified draftsmen, 
with options in design or construction ; leading 
to a professional certificate. 

For catalogue giving complete information regarding requirements of 
admission, advanced standing, summer school and atelier work, fellowships 
and scholarships, and for illustrated year book, etc., address DEAN OF 
THE COLLEGE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PARTNERSHIP WANTED. — Would you like to asso- 
ciate with a young man of proven ability, specializing in 
construction detail and superintendence ? Licensed archi- 
tect. Best of references given and required. Address, 
Partnership, care of The Brickbuilder. 



(g. Snrpa Ian Sort (Ha. 

Importers of and Dealers in 

ARCHITECTURAL PUBLICATIONS 

20 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

We have several positions open for good all around 
draftsmen who are not employed. 



' BOILERS and RADIATORS * 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



V. 



Westfield. Man. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



J 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 



New England Telephone & Telegraph Co. Building, 

Boston Page 196 

Peabodv & Stearns, Architects. 



tz?iske 6- company jnc 
Iace bricks; establish 
xire bricks* ed in 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 
Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



AUGUST 1912 



Number 8 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 
Boston, Mass. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



ARTHUR D. ROGERS 
President and Treasurer 



RUSSELL F. WHITEHEAD 
Vice-President and Managing Editor 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers 50 cents 

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To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

PAGE 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



II 

II 

II and III 

III 



BRICK ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
FIREPROOFING . 
ROOFING TILE . 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



ELLICOTT & EMMART; CHARLES R. GRECO; E. F. GUILBERT ; HENRY A. MACOMB; 
PAGE & FROTHINGHAM; MATTHEW SULLIVAN; WITHEY & DAVIS. 

LETTERPRESS 

PACK 

CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO. DETAIL OF TOWER. 

Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

DEVELOPMENT OF DUPLEX APARTMENTS. — III. RESIDENTIAL TYPE E. Harris Janes 203 

NOTES ON HOSPITAL PLANNING. — II S. S. Goldwater, M.D. 207 

THE CONEY ISLAND HOSPITAL, BROOKLYN, HELMLE & HUBERTY, ARCHITECTS 210 

BARNARD FREE SKIN AND CANCER HOSPITAL, TROY, N. Y., MAURAN, RUSSELL & CROWELL, 

ARCHITECTS 211 

COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEWARK, N. J., E. F. GUILBERT, ARCHITECT 212 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. —VII H. Van Buren Magonigle 216 

COMPETITION FOR A HOLLOW TILE BUNGALOW — REPORT OF JURY 219 

COMPETITION FOR A HOLLOW TILE BUNGALOW — PRIZE AND MENTION DESIGNS 220 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 224 



NOTICE. — The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 



S"* 




■Mr 



STr? 



r 






DETAIL OF T< WER, CHURCH OF SAX 
FRANCISCO, ACATEPEC, MEXICO. 

Glazed tile of green, orange, and blue colors, 
applied profusely in combination with stucco orna- 
ments, which are picked out in color. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



AUGUST, 1912 



VOLUME XXI. 



NUMBER 8. 



The Development of Duplex Apartments. —III. 

Residential Type. 



ELISHA HARRIS JANES. 



WITHIN the last few years great changes have oc- 
curred in the character of many of our former New 
York residential sections. So many apartments have been 
erected in these districts, and business buildings have en- 
croached so upon the finer classes of residences, that in 
many places it is almost an oddity to see a residence where 



leaves the house idle much of the time. These customs, 
with the increase in the value of the land, assisted in per- 
suading the most conservative that it is convenient to live 
in an apartment ; especially when they are so arranged 
that the facilities are a little less than those of the private 
house. Added to this, the successful co-operative feature, 




TYPICAL PLAN OF LIVING FLOOR. 



FIG. V. 



TYPICAL PLAN OF CIIAMHKR FLOOR. 



a generation ago the most exclu- 
sive lived. The building of the 
numerous hotels with their ex- 
cellent restaurants, their various 
parlors and elaborate ball rooms 
for all sorts of entertainments, 
have changed our customs. A 
generation ago, dances, dinner 
parties, and receptions were held 
in houses, they are now held in 
hotels, saving so much trouble 
and annoyance in the household. 
We entertain our guests with 
afternoon tea at these hostel ries 
instead of at home, removing an- 
other use of the house. 

The growing desire of fre- 
quent trips of a month or two 

during the different seasons, and the charm of living a 
great part of the year in the country houses or estates, 
which have many of the facilities of a town house, 




."HP 



FIG. 



which had been used with the 
studio apartments, seemed to 
overcome the last barrier. It 
still retained for them that social 
exclusiveness which people had 
been able to maintain in their 
private houses. In the starting 
of the building they were able to 
select whom they would for co- 
owners, to form strict regula 
lions for the disposal of, sub- 
letting, or renting 1 of any separate 
apartments; and, as in a social 
club, they were able to say who 
their neighbors should be and 
with whom they should ride in 
the elevators. 

With this final decision came 
the problem of how they should get more seclusion and 
privacy than were obtained in the layouts of the majority 
of the apartment houses. 






204 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




TYPICAL APARTMENT. LOWER FLOOR. 

APARTMENTS, 9<il LEXINGTON AVE., NEW 

Rossiter & Wright, Architects. 



Ik-re comes the difference between the causes of the in- 
troduction of the earlier and later duplex apartments! We 

have seen in the early ones that the cause was an attempt 
to meet first the necessity and then in an economical 
manner, the require- 
ments. But in the 
majority of the pres- 
ent duplex apart- 
ments, the question 
of the two stories 
and staircase is prin- 
cipally a matter of 
sentiment. 

There are many 
apartments that 
have been built on 
a single floor, where 
with the exception 
of the ceilings of the 
living rooms being 
lower than in pri- 
vate houses, all the 

other advantages are supplied. The parlor, reception 
room, and living rooms are grouped about a foyer hall 
immediately at the entrance ; the bed- 
rooms and sleeping quarters are com- 
pletely shut off from the foyer hall ; 
and servants' quarters are likewise 
shut off with the kitchen and pantry. 
The conservatives though could not be 
convinced that this gave the necessary 
seclusion. They had, however, seen 
the duplex studio apartment, which, 
with the introduction of the small 
staircase, reminded them of their 
country houses. They imagined there 
would be more privacy to a second 
story, so stairs were introduced, al- 
though by studying the plans it would 
seem that the amount of space occu- 
pied by them was wasted, and the 
occupants simply put to the incon- 
venience of mounting them. 

A building which might be said to 
illustrate the transition from the studio 
to the residential duplex apartment is 
shown in Fig. V. This shows 
some of the catering to the 
whims and fancies of human 
nature, and the influence of the 
mystic word "studio." This 
building is situated on a south- 
east corner. In studying it 
consider that a studio requires 
north light. In this, three 
studios have west light and one 
has east light. If we compare 
this one with that of Mr. Piatt's 
in the last article, we see that 
the practical use of the studio 
has been disregarded. But 
why, then, have a studio? We 
wonder if it is because the selec- 



OPPEB FLOOR. 
YORK CITY. 




APARTMENTS, 145 E. 35TB ST., 
NEW YORK CITY. 




FIG. VII. APARTMENTS, NEW YORK CITY. 
Walter B. Chambers, Architect. 



tion of apartments is generally left to the woman, with 
whom so often one small detail or feature which pleases 
perhaps her taste, perhaps her vanity, influences her in 
the selection, where a greater fault or defect is overlooked. 

Can you not imag- 
TT^I ine this: Mrs. Apart- 
ment Seeker has 
been to a tea or re- 
c e p t i o n at Mr. 
Artist's studio 
apartment and has 
seen his magnificent 
studio as part of an 
apartment, to him, 
a necessity. Such 
an attractive place 
for his " soiree " 
and so appropriate 
for the display of his 
pictures and work. 
How lovely it would 
be for her to Rive 
such teas and musicales, how effective. She immediately 
starts looking for one, and that room will be the main 
consideration in the renting of the 
apartment; only those will be looked 
at which have a studio. 

Where an apparent necessity causes 
a room to be planned or designed out 
of proportion in this manner and to a 
certain extent distorted, and when the 
necessity of it is clearly seen, the de- 
fect generally vanishes. This is the 
case with the studio apartments. But 
does this apply to a room designed with 
distorted proportions with no apparent 
reason, save it be another room of a 
suite ? This appears to be the case in 
the apartment shown. There is no 
attempt or aim made toward giving the 
studios the north light, clearly showing 
that the use is for other purposes than 
as a studio. It is simply using of the 
area of two floors for a meaningless 
effect. Whether it is more profitable 
to have the same area on one floor, or 
in other words, a salon 216 x 43 
with a lower ceiling, has not 
been tested. If the attractive- 
ness of the high ceiling and sen- 
timent persuades the public to 
pay the rent for the additional 
floor space, the question of 
course is answered. 

In this building, viewed from 
an economical standpoint, see 
what an attractive apartment can 
be obtained if the plan is re- 
arranged as shown in Fig. VI. 
The grouping of rooms and de- 
tails has been kept intact, but 
the duplex feature has been 



omitted and the salon made one 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



205 




TYPICAL MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 



story high. The salons of apartments a and b are thrown 
together on one floor with the library, dining-room, and 
kitchen of apartment b, and the chambers and bathrooms 
of apartment a are placed on this same floor. The amount 
of space saved that may be used in enlarging the rooms 
is hatched in. By means of the two doors between the 
living rooms and sleeping suites, just as much privacy 
and retirement 
is obtained ; on 
the other hand, 
we do not have 
to climb the 
stairs to our 
chambers, and 
incidentally 
have larger 
rooms. The 
cost of a serv- 
ants' elevator 
and twelve 
flights of stairs 
is saved, a - 
mounting to at 
least $6,000. 
There is saved 
in rentable area 

963 square feet in salons on six floors, or 5,778 square feet ; 
and in the miscellaneous portions 136 square feet in each of 
the twelve stories, or 2,856 
square feet, making a total 
of 8,634 square feet in floor 
space which has been sacri- 
ficed in only half of the 
building, and this in order 
to have twelve rooms with 
excessively high ceilings. 
This divided between twelve 
apartments is about 730 
square feet per apartment. 
If we consider the rental 
value as $1.50 per square 
foot, which is reasonable, it 
means a rental of $1,095 sac- 
rificed for each apartment, 
unless the tenant pays that 
additional price for the 
duplex, studio, and stairs. 
Does he ? 

There are five types of the 
duplex apartments. 

Type one — of which we 
have only the early ex- 
amples, as none are built 
now. 

Type two — where the floor 
area is not large enough to warrant two or three apart- 
ments on a floor, and by the arrangement of making one 
duplex apartment, one is able to place respectively three 
or five on two floors. 

Type tliree — where one floor, devoted entirely to the liv- 
ing rooms, has high ceilings, and the other floor devoted 
to the chambers has low ceilings, thus gaining from two 
to three feet in height in every other story. 



TYPICAL CHAMBER FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

APARTMENTS, 925 PARK AVE., NEW YORK CITY. 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 



The objects and reasons for the above examples are very 
clear. 

Type font — where they are all duplex apartments, the 
ceiling heights all the same, and the bedrooms are directly 
over the living rooms. 

Type five — where they are all duplex apartments, and 
the living rooms of one are over the living rooms of the 

other, and the 
chambers of one 
are over the 
chambers of the 
other. 

In the last two 
types it is diffi- 
cult to see just 
what is gained 
except a satisfy- 
ing- of sentiment 
and the attrac- 
tiveness of a 
stairway. 

The second 
type, in which 
three or five 
apartments are 
put on two 
floors, is a very clever, logical, and economical method of 
arrangement of the plan. It has been brought about by 

the demand for large apart- 
ments. 

The apartment at 901 Lex- 
ington avenue, by Rossiter 
& Wright, is a good example 
of where the plot was not 
large enough for two apart- 
ments ; accordingly on each 
floor was arranged a single 
apartment of nine rooms, 
and after this apartment was 
laid out only room sufficient 
for four or five rooms re- 
mained. By throwing the 
four or five rooms on the 
two floors together they ob- 
tained an excellent ten-room 
apartment. This is one of 
the most legitimate reasons 
for a duplex apartment. 

The apartment at 145 East 

35th street is still another 

example, and shows to the 

greatest advantage the use 

of the extra space in the 

duplex apartment. In this 

building, at first glance it 

appears as if the same results could have been obtained 

by having the entire rear one apartment, but the tenement 

house law required that the public hall should extend to 

the window. It would not do to have the window on the 
side or on the courts, as the hall would extend too far in 
either direction. This necessitated dividing the rear por 
tion, leaving only space for four rooms together, which 
was useless, but by the use of the stairs two very charming 



;o6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



seven room apartments were arranged. In the portion of 

the plan shown in Fig. VII. type three is well illustrated. 
By the small space lost on account of the stairs, the advan- 
ced is to have the living room ceiling 12 feet high 
and that of the chambers 9 feet high. This is frankly 
and very agreeably shown in the elevation by the unequal 
height of the stories. 

Apartment at 925 Park avenue is an excellent example 
of the fourth type and one of the most complete duplex 
plans. It even gives a servant " duplex " stairs, although 
to do it about 17(i square feet per floor is sacrificed, and 
additional expense incurred of two flights of stairs per 
apartment. The same question arises, could not the same 
effect be obtained if the living rooms of apartment a were 

together on the same floor with the chambers of apartment 

</, and with slight modification as to the location of the 
servants' quarters? A successful detail about this apart- 
ment has been the introduction of the small three-room 
apartments in some spare 
space in the rear. These 
have become very popular 
and are very good renters. 
An added novelty has 
been planned on the first 
three floors. Practically 
three private houses of 
three stories arc grouped 
together, each having 
their own private en- 
trance as well as the en- 
trance from the main hall 
of the building. 

Fig. VIII shows an 
apartment which would 
come under this class. 
In it they endeavored to 
give a variety of types 
of apartments. In apart- 
ment a , we have the large 
duplex; in apartment />, 
the small duplex in the 
rear ; in apartment c, a 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



PIG. VIII. 



small one-story apartment. All of which is a very 
good idea. Hut why introduce the stairs in apartment a, 
why not devote all of the front of the second story, adapt- 
ing the same arrangement of chambers and baths as on 
the third floor in the position of apartment c, and on the 
third floor introduce two apartments like type c, side by 
side. The gain in space and expense is very clear. 

The fifth type is very difficult to understand. Can any- 
one explain the use of the stairs? A short hall with two 
doors surely effects the same privacy ami allows the cham- 
bers to be retired from the sounds of the living rooms, 
better than the stairs, which do not have doors top and 
bottom, but have a well up which sounds travel easier than 
on the level. The two examples illustrated (Figs. IX and 
X ) do not even give the advantage of an entrance to the 
public hall from the chamber floor. 

Is not the only answer, that in order to satisfy senti- 
ment, the whims of the public, or to bow to the mystic 

word "duplex," a stair- 
way is put in for the 
only purpose of making 
people, when they are 
tired and ready to retire, 
climb a flight of stairs be- 
fore they can do so? It 
is truly a case of where 
the "public wants to be 
humbugged." 

But after all we must 
remember that in a com- 
mercial building and 
apartment houses must 
be so considered — what- 
ever may be the advan- 
tage or disadvantages 
from a theoretical or es- 
thetical point of view, 
those conditions which 
please the public, and in- 
fluence and persuade 
them to rent, are really 
the first to be considered. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 





FIG. IX. LIVING AND BED Room FLOOR PLAN. 



FIG. X. TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Notes on Hospital Planning. — II. 

S. S. GOLDWATER, M.D., 
Superintendent, The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. 



207 



ONE of the first duties of the hospital architect is to 
insure an adequate supply of fresh air to every part 
of the hospital. The need of clean air in abundance must 
be considered in the selection of the site ; it should influ- 
ence, also, the position and form of the buildings, the size 
and shape of wards, the form and arrangement of the out- 
patient division, the plan and treatment of operating-rooms, 
sink-rooms, kitchens, laundry, workshops, stairways and 
corridors, the location and character of the nurses' and 
servants' dormitories.* 

The consideration of the subject of ventilation is pecu- 
liarly difficult at this time because the authority of all the 
traditional principles is questioned. A few years ago the 
advocates of indirect ventilation spoke with undisputed 
authority as the exponents of a system which was assumed 
to be positive, physiological, and scientific ; to-day they are 
struggling against a steadily increasing army who demand 
direct ventilation through the open window. Against 
direct ventilation it is argued that our climate is such that 
windows cannot always be opened ; that city air is often 
so dust and germ-laden that it ought to be washed and 
filtered ; that in operating-rooms windows simply cannot 
be opened ; and that drafts are invited by direct cross- 
ventilation, and are dangerous. But those who believe in 
direct ventilation have no difficulty in pointing to indirect 
systems which in one way or another have failed. They 
cite examples of such systems installed at great expense and 
abandoned as unnecessary. They cry out against the objec- 
tionable qualities of "canned" air; protest against accum- 
ulations of dirt in inaccessible ducts ; point to glaring errors 
in the size and location of air inlets and outlets; cite the high 
cost of operating an indirect system ; show that in many 
localities, during the greater part of the year, windows may 
be opened without the slightest discomfort to anybody. 

The engineer who advocates indirect ventilation usually 
begins by arming himself with physiological data ; thus 
fortified, he proceeds to demonstrate the practicability of 
conditioning, introducing, and circulating a physiologically 
sufficient volume of air. He takes pains to examine the 
source of supply and the quality of the air introduced ; to 
wash the air, if need be ; to warm it in winter ; to cool it in 
summer, perhaps; and, in rare instances, to regulate its mois- 
ture. Working alongtheselines with mathematical precision, 
the engineer solves his problems on paper, and assumes that 
a vexed question has been disposed of. Hut the practical 
man is not always susceptible to the influence of scientific 



* In the planning of the wards of American hospitals t lie need of fresh 
air is rarely overlooked ; the problem may not be solved, but an attempt 
to solve it is invariably made. But in the planning of out-patient depart- 
ments, where the need of ventilation is singularly pressing, American hos- 
pital architecture is lamentably deficient. The prevailing indifference to 
the ventilation of the out-patient department is part and parcel of the 
relative neglect of this department in matters of administration generally, 
It is no uncommon thing in this country to observe a hospital whose in- 
patients are cared for in accordance with the highest standards, but whose 
out-patients are accorded the most niggardly treatment possible. In this 
respect, if in no other, American hospitals and their architects may go to 
school to England, where out-patient departments and hospital wards are 
planned with equal care. 



reasoning; he asks for faets, and the engineer, nothing loath, 
promptly produces eloquent pictures of hospital conditions 

before using " and "after using" indirect ventilation; 
hospitals, like individuals, he tells us, sometimes reform. 

It would seem almost impossible to exaggerate the value 
of proper hospital ventilation, but the enthusiast accom- 
plishes such exaggeration almost without an effort. It is 
only a few years since a distinguished ventilating engineer 
told the readers of The BrickbuiLDEB that in a certain 
hospital, under "old conditions," the death rate reached 
fifty per cent ; while during a later period, with improved 
sanitary conditions (that is to say, following the intro- 
duction of an indirect ventilating system), the death rate 
fell to five per cent ; " so that there would seem to be as ample 
reason for the installation of suitable ventilation as for the 
provision of 'medicine v " Really one cannot stand by unpro- 
testing while a ventilating engineer, however well-mean- 
ing, calmly appropriates the laurels of the historic heroes 
of scientific medicine. Is it assuming too much to say that 
the changes in hospital practice which grew out of the work 
of Lister and Pasteur ; in other words, the discovery of the 
cause of infections and the consequent introduction of 
aseptic methods, have had something to do with the re- 
markable reduction in hospital mortality which has taken 
place during the past thirty years ? A reduction in mor- 
tality from fifty per cent to five per cent without this aid, 
and as the result of the introduction of ventilating ducts 
and fans alone, is incredible. 

It is disconcerting to learn that the old physiological 
ground-work for a scientific system of ventilation has been 
seriously undermined; but such is the fact. One series 
of experiments, startling and bewildering, appears to dem- 
onstrate that the maintenance of the chemical purity of the 
air, which was the primary object of all efforts at ventila- 
tion in the past, is really of no consequence. Then one 
learns that one may no longer assume that the temperature 
of occupied rooms should be kept uniform ; indeed, the 
preponderance of present opinion strongly opposes uni- 
formity of temperature, and finds virtue in the natural day- 
and-night variation. And now the clinician clamors for 
means to treat each patient on his individual merits ; he 
demands one atmospheric condition for the pneumonia 
patient who is in need of respiratory stimulation, and 
another for the nephritic whose poor circulation and cold 
extremities suggest a warm and comfortable loom, in con- 
tradistinction to the cold air, preferably out-of-doors, in 
which the pneumonia patient thrives. 

It is not proposed here to analyze or discuss the under- 
lying physiological principles of ventilation. We shall 
assume that it is everybody's wish to provide fresh air in 
abundance for all parts of the hospital. Whether carbon 
dioxid is or is not harmful, we shall take it for granted 
that its presence in an unusual degree is an indication of 

the co-existence of impurities which are objectionable if 

not noxious. Let animals he used to demonstrate the 
extreme tolerance of the living organism to poisonous 
gases; the demonstration is of interest to science, but 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



need not in any practical way concern the hospital admin- 
istrator. In hospitals the demand is for fresh air in plenty. 
The question is how to obtain it, day and night, summer 
and winter, for all parts of the hospital, under ordinary 
working conditions ; and this question cannot be answered 
intelligently without an intimate view of the hospital in 
actual operation. The intimate study of actual hospital 
conditions may show that in the matter of ventilation no 
degree of skill in either architect or engineer can insure 
the desired result ; that the ventilation of a hospital is 
primarily a problem of administration ; that efficiency 
depends not so much on the presence of mechanical aids to 
ventilation as on their actual and proper use ; not so much 
upon the disposition and size of windows as upon transoms 
actually open and sashes actually raised. If this is so, what 
can the architect do, first to provide means of ventilation, 
and then to facilitate their constant and effective use? 

One method of insuring the use of apparatus for arti- 
ficial ventilation is to make natural ventilation impossible. 
This has been done in the notable instance of the in- 
firmary at Belfast, far famed for its windowless wards. 
Another method is to use windows for light, but not for 
air — to fasten them securely so that they cannot be 
opened. Of these two methods, the Belfast method only 
can be guaranteed, and it is a method which nobody yet 
has been inclined to follow. The second method, that is, 
the fastening of windows, proves in most instances to be 
ineffectual. Sooner or later someone wants the windows 
opened, and however excellent the ventilating system, it 
cannot compete, at certain seasons of the year and in 
favorably situated hospitals, with the kind of ventilation 
that is obtainable through large open windows, placed on 
opposite sides of a ward. And, of course, the ventilating 
system is not always perfect. 

The fate of one such system, in a New York hospital, was 
sealed when the visiting physicians, in the words of 
Dr. Oilman Thompson, discovered that "certain odors, 
regularly developed in the wards in the early morning, 
were distinctly noticeable hours after the ' entire air of the 
ward had been changed repeatedly,' according to the 
engineer's calculations." Then, continues Dr. Thompson, 
"we ventured to open the windows for a few moments 
each day ; the odors disappeared, but the ventilating 
system was thrown out of gear. Somehow, the patients 
began to look better ; anemia quickly disappeared. Even 
the nurses noticed the improvement and had fewer head- 
aches." Is it surprising after this to learn that the ven- 
tilating system was eventually abandoned ? 

There is a third method of forcing the use of ventilating 
apparatus — a method which is favored by a school of 
hospital architecture which has its principal seat in Chi- 
cago. This method is to plan the hospital with an eye 
to cheapness of construction. The result of this method 
is the production of buildings of exceedingly simple ex- 
terior design, with interior corridors surrounded on all 
sides by wards and service rooms ; in the absence of eross- 
ventilated wards and with corridors open nowhere to the 
outer air, the conditions are likely to be such as to compel 
the active operation of all the available machinery of ven- 
tilation at all seasons of the year. Comment on this 
method is not necessary. 

The inability of ventilating apparatus to move large 
masses of air as freely as nature moves them, or with the 



same stimulating and pleasurable effect, justifies the prefer- 
ence of many hospital workers for the open ward window, 
where the conditions are favorable to its use. It does not 
justify the total omission of ventilating apparatus in locali- 
ties where the extreme cold of winter renders the open- 
ing of ward windows impracticable, or from hospitals the 
wards of which are subject to overcrowding. Moreover, 
we must remember, in this connection, that a hospital 
does not consist of wards merely, and that each part of 
the hospital must be treated on its own merits. 

The following recommendations in relation to the ven- 
tilation of a group of hospital buildings now in course of 
erection were submitted to and approved by the Building 
Committee, and are here introduced for the purpose of 
indicating the variety and complexity of conditions in a 
single institution: 

" I. It is recommended that supply and exhaust ducts, 
both equipped with electrically driven fans, be provided 
for the (a) Amphitheater (to insure ample ventilation dur- 
ing lecture hours), U>) Hydrotherapeutic Department (nat- 
ural ventilation beinj, r impossible here), (<) Operating 
Rooms (to insure ventilation with closed windows), (</) 
Out-Patient Department (which will be crowded daily). 

" II. That exhaust fans and ducts only be provided for 
the kitchen and its accessories, and for the several dining- 
rooms. 

" III. That exhaust ducts be provided for toilets, utility 
or sink-rooms, laboratories, ward serving-rooms, and day- 
rooms and dressing-rooms. 

IV. That both supply and exhaust ducts be provided 
as a reserve for all wards and patients' rooms ; but in view 
of the fact that practical experience in Harlem, Fordham, 
Mount Sinai, and elsewhere has demonstrated that win- 
dows and transoms may safely be relied upon as the chief 
means of ventilation of wards and patients' rooms, that 
fans, motors, and intake screens be omitted. 

It is believed that under normal conditions the wards 
of the new hospital can be ventilated satisfactorily by 
natural ' ventilation without the assistance of any me- 
chanical system. It is considered wise, however, to retain 
for possible future use, the supply and exhaust ducts pro- 
posed by the ventilating engineers, so that in the event of 
persistent overcrowding, satisfactory ventilation may be 
assured." 

Whether <>r not indirect ventilation is to be introduced 
in a given hospital, it is a sensible precaution to plan the 
wards as if it were proposed to rely on direct ventilation 
exclusively. On this basis large wards, at least, will be 
exposed on three sides ; there will be a window adjoining 
every bed ; there will be a transom for each window ; the 
floor space and cubic space will be ample. Given a proper 
degree of vigilance on the part of the head nurse and the 
resident medical staff, and a well-developed interest in 
ventilation on the part of the nurses generally, a ward 
planned in the manner indicated can, as a rule, be well 
ventilated by natural means. But the fulfilment by the 
architect of the requirements just enumerated will not of 
itself win the day ; the ward windows must be opened. 

An eminent physician who fills with distinction the posi- 
tion of president of a hospital board, is an enthusiastic 
advocate of direct ventilation. I lis great pride in the cool, 
fresh air of the wards of his hospital is pardonable. The 
building in question is completely equipped for indirect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



209 



ventilation ; but the blowers and extractors are idle, 
because the president and visiting staff are convinced that 
the ventilation of the hospital by natural means is entirely 
satisfactory. It is probable that the observations of these 
gentlemen have been limited almost wholly to morning 
and afternoon hours. Are night conditions in this or any 
other hospital identical with those of the day, or must im- 
portant differences be reckoned with ? Let us see. 

During the day, nurses go back and forth from the ward 
to the adjacent corridors and service rooms ; one by one 
they leave the ward and the building for ' ' time off, ' ' each 
returning at a different hour. The supervising nurse and 
the superintendent make their rounds ; the visiting physi- 
cians and the house staff make theirs. As each one enters 
or re-enters the ward, coming from out of doors or from 
other parts of the hospital, he notices the quality of the 
ward air — is certain to notice it if it is particularly bad. 
If the air is close, relief is sought and obtained immedi- 
ately. After the morning ' ' bed-pan hour ' ' there is every 
inducement to open the windows and freshen the ward — 
the rules demand it, the personal comfort of the attendants 
requires it, the chance official visitor insists on it, and, 
unless the windows are of the kind that cannot be opened, 
it is done. And there are other favoring circumstances. 
Throughout the day, patients and attendants pass to and 
from the adjacent balconies, admitting fresh air with each 
migration. In pleasant weather a large proportion of the 
patients are on the balconies or elsewhere outside of the 
ward during much of the day, and the air of the ward is 
inhaled and exhaled by only a fraction of the ward's nomi- 
nal occupants. A score of effective influences thus tend 
to preserve the purity of the ward air and to promote 
direct ventilation ; and while the day lasts the result is 
satisfactory, even in winter. 

But as the day passes, the scene changes ; and yet, 
while summer lasts, the ward is safe. Imagine, however, 
a cool night in fall or winter. Staff rounds are over ; the 
patients are in bed; every regular bed is occupied, and a 
half-dozen portable cots have been placed in the center of 
the ward to accommodate a temporary overflow. The 
nurse finishes that part of her work which necessitates 
physical activity, and barring an occasional interruption, 
she expects to spend the remainder of the night in the 
sedentary occupation of chart-writing. The temperature 
of the ward, with windows open, drops from 65° to 55° or 
to 50°. The patients, under their blankets, are comfort- 
able — but not so the nurse ; shivering in her light linen 
costume, she presently yields to an irresistible impulse to 
close the nearest window; a second window is closed, then 
a third, and finally the ward is shut up as tight as a drum. 
This is no imaginary picture ; on a midnight November 
visit to a hospital of fourteen wards the writer found six 
slightly-opened transoms doing duty for all of the fourteen 
wards. In most of the wards there was not a crevice by 
which air could directly enter. The nurses craved warmth, 
and instinctively they provided it for themselves ; the 
patients needed clean, cool air; yet the air that reached 
their lungs was warm and fetid. 

Now, all this is not intended as an unequivocal declara- 
tion in favor of the indirect ventilation of hospital wards. 
It shows, indeed, that there is more need for indirect ven- 
tilation in winter than in summer, in night than by day, in 
a crowded ward than in a ward which is only half occupied. 



But this much is certain: if we propose to rely on direct 
ventilation, we must provide good exposure, plenty of win- 
dows, and a warm spot for the night nurse- 

It would be a mistake, however, to take the nurse out of 
the ward and place her in an office apart. Signal systems 
are all very well in their own way, but the nurse needs to 
have under her eye as many of her patients as possible ; 
and the patients, oftentimes, need to have the nurse under 
their eyes. A compromise between leaving the nurse and 
her desk in the ward, and taking her out completely, has 
been reached in the ward plan adopted for the Samaritan 
Hospital at Troy, N. Y. This plan, which is here repro- 
duced, shows a glass enclosure (a) adjacent to the ward 
entrance, overlooking the ward itself, two small balconies, 
and the adjoining separation room. This little office has 
an outside window and a radiator of its own. 




WARD PLAN FOR SAMARITAN HOSPITAL, TROY, N. Y. 
George B. Post & Sons, Architects. S. S. Goldwater, Medical Associate. 

The Samaritan Hospital plan may be used to illustrate 
several points which have a bearing on the ventilation of 
the hospital ward. First, the ward corridor leads from a 
well ventilated general or connecting corridor to the ward 
proper; but the short ward corridor has no window of its 
own, and in so far is deserving of criticism. The patients' 
lavatory opens directly on the ward corridor, the water-closets 
do not ; a complete partition separates the lavatory from 
the water-closets; each compartment has its own window, 
and the lavatory section serves as a ventilated ante-room 
to the water-closet compartment. The water-closet com- 
partment, as is customary, is provided with an exhaust duet . 

The utility room is divided into a ventilated anteroom, 
which is entered directly from the corridor, or indirectly, 
by means of a ventilated side passage, from the ward. The 
ante-room contains the sterilizing apparatus and gas- 
burner; in the inner alcove, which is provided with a 
separate window and an interior exhaust duet, are the bed- 
pan sinks, shelves and racks, and the specimen closet — 
the latter ventilated by means of an opening in the outer 
wall. Aside from the drying closet and the blanket-heater 
(enclosed spaces necessarily), there is no closet space con- 
nected with the utility room. 

The distribution of balcony space in connection with 
this ward is somewhat unusual. The two smaller bal- 
conies are intended especially for patients in bed, and are 
so placed as to be constantly under the eye of the nurse. 
Incidentally they obscure the ward but little. The balcony 
at the end of the ward may also be used for bed-patients, 
if desired ; but it is more especially designed for the use 
of convalescents who may not be able or may not wish to 
use the garden. To provide separate balconies for the 
acutely sick and the convalescing, is to contribute to the 
comfort of both. 



2IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



21 I 




2 I 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Commercial and Manual Training High School, 

Newark, N. J. 



E. I". GUILBERT, ARCHITECT. 
(For additional illustrations see Plate Forms.) 



THE city of Newark, New Jersey, is to be congratu- 
lated on its new Commercial and Manual Training 
High School. From every point of view it is a dignified 
structure ; but from the front, which is a veritable approach 
cTkonneuras it were, it is decidedly distinctive even among 
the very excellent high school buildings of latter days. 
This impressive terraced front is the result of architec- 
turally adapting the building to a sharply sloping site: 
and the gain is more than an artistic one. since every inch 
of the High street terrace is utilized as part of the plan. 
Instead of doing the more ordinary thing, taking the higher 
level for the main facade and letting the back of the build- 
ing trail down hill with an insignificant exterior, the archi- 
tect lias reverted to the Italian idea of facing his structure 
towards the lower level overlooking terraces and outside 
stairways. The splendid result makes one wish that such 
sites were more common in the city limits where high 
schools arc usually placed, and where they are all too apt 
to have four backs and no front. 

The school is a huge square mass of brick and terra 
cotta, in Jacobean style, with four corner towers whose 
crocketed pinnacles in Tudor Gothic are visible from every 
part of the city. The simplicity of the plan and the beau- 
tiful grouping of the windows with substantial brick 
piers running up between each group, forcibly express 
the interior arrangement. The choice of the Jacobean 
or transitional style was a happy one, since it gives 
that maximum of light which Gothic gives, and allows 
at the same time that freedom of both Renaissance and 
Gothic ornament to which terra cotta so admirably lends 
itself. 

The brickwork is an interesting combination of English 
and American bond ; that is to say, every seventh course is 
all headers, while the intervening courses are alternate- 
headers and stretchers. This in no way interferes with 
the patterning, and if only it is all true brickwork, cer- 
tainly the wall is well bonded. 

The corner motifs are unfenestrated on High and Sum- 
mit streets, and here the brickwork is particularly effective. 
These panels extend through three stories, forming fine 
flanking corners that are a pleasing variation from the 
necessarily great number of windows stretching across 
between. They are enlivened by a border of insets and 
by a scries of machicolations across the top which spring 
from sparkling little terra cotta corbels which are charm- 
ingly executed. Interest is again added to the brickwork 
under the crowning band course in the little semi-hexa- 
gonal pilasters and Hat niches. To these lofty unbroken 
brick towers not a little of the building's great dignity is 
due. 

The architectural terra cotta work is confined mainly to 
the large mullioned windows and the decorative detail. 
Wherever used it is well moulded and has no extravagant 
projections suggestive of elaborate steel supports. The 
architect, realizing that the brick was one color and the 
terra cotta another, making a sharp contrast that would 
always endure, has not spotted the secondary material pro- 
miscuously over the building in the shape of meaningless 
quoins and useless bonds and toothing. The sharp con- 
trast just mentioned might be agreeably modified if we 



paid as much attention to the texturization of terra cotta as 
has been recently paid to that of brick. 

By texturization, is not meant merely- roughening the 
face <>f a terra cotta block, but a treatment in low relief of 
ornament, or perhaps a patterning of some sort, as early 
English builders made when they stamped the device of 
the owner in the terra cotta trim at Sutton Place or 
Oxburgh Hall. By this means terra cotta and brick have 
weathered together beautifully, each century bringing them 
into closer harmony. 

As has been said, it is the imposing terraced approach to 
the new High School that most commands attention. The 
lowest level is a few Steps above the sidewalk, and is made 
attractive by planting and In the introduction of color in 
the pavement, this latter consisting in an edging of over- 
burnt brick to the concrete panels. From here is a direct 
entrance into the school, while at each side is an imposing 
staircase leading to the upper terrace. In this lower en- 
trance and in these outside staircases, terra cotta plays an 
important part. Around the three-arched entrance it is 
in low relief, resembling the typical strap ornament of 
Jacobean days; while on the staircases it makes the balus- 
trades into Jacobean ornament that seems peculiarly appro- 
priate since that period was the first to develop the balus- 
trade after its Gothic invention in France. It is here, and 
in fact wherever terra cotta has been used in the building, 
that the material has met in all respects the demands — 
esthetic and constructional — which has been put upon it. 

The upper terrace extends the entire width of the build- 
ing and is of an expanse little dreamed of from below. It 
too is scored into patterns, but one regrets that the brick 
edging of the lower level was not repeated here ; it would 
have given scale to this larger area. From here, which 
must be an ideal gathering spot for groups of students, one 
can better appreciate the excellent layout below. One 
notes how carefully the shade tree was retained beside the 
steps, which is significant of much careful thought to one 
who knows how simple it is to begin a new public building 
by razing everything on the site to the ground, and then 
painfully replanting afterwards. 

On this upper terrace is the main entrance, a study of 
Jacobean in terra cotta with columns and pilasters of 
yellow marble to lend a color interest and accentuate the 
importance of the doorway. This leads to an interior 
made of carefully planned auditorium, library, gymna- 
sium, class rooms, shops for carpentry and masonry, chem- 
ical laboratories, lecture rooms, sewing rooms, and all the 
other departments necessary for complete college prepara- 
tory, science, and vocational courses. 

Small wonder that school is more attractive to the 
young of to-day than ever it was before in all history. 
Small wonder that such a building as this makes the get- 
ting of an education pleasant when it provides for the 
majority of the scholars a happier and more healthful envi- 
ronment than that of their own homes. As for what such 
a structure can do for a neighborhood, it not only annihi- 
lates the old impression that a public school deters the 
better growth of immediate property, but it actually in- 
creases its value. In short, the whole tone of the city is 
improved by such a schoolhouse as this. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



;I 3 




COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEWARK, N. 
K. ]'. Guilbert, Architect. 



2I 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




SE.cflo^THR'o'AA. FLAN THRO 'BB 



Terra Cotta Details. E. F. Guilbert, Architect. 

COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEWARK, X. J. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 99. 




HOUSE AT TOPSFIELD, MASS. 

Page & Frothingham, Architects. 



-' F §< 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 8. PLATE lca 





HOUSE AT TOPSFIELD, MASS. 
Page & Frothingham, Architects. 



T I J E B R EC K BUIL D E R . 

VOL. 21. NO. 8. PLATE 101. 




. riWUFM/V 



PLANS uF HOUSE AT TOPSFIELD, MASS. 



THE BRICK Bl'ILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 8. PLATE 102. 




dtCOND FLOOR. PLAN 








HOUSE AT 
MORRESTOWN, N. J. 
Henry A. Macomb, Architect. 



" FLOOR. FLAN 



■ "ft£T 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 103. 




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THE B R I C K B l T I L D E R . 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 104. 




DETAILS OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

ST. ROSE'S SCHOOL, CHELSEA, MASS. 
Matthew Sullivan, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 8. PLATE 105. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 106. 




CO 
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T HE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 107. 




GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIOR. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 




3B1I 



.T.TT.'T 
lllllllfllllllll 




DETAIL OF NICHE IN WALL. 



;hurch for st. Patrick's parish, brockton, mass. 

Charles R. Greco, Architect. 



THE B R I C K B IT I L D E R . 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 108. 




FIRST FLOOR. 



SECOND FLOOR. 



MEDICAL AND CHIRURGICAL BUILDING, BALTIMORE, M D. 
Ellicott & Emmart, Architects. 



THE BRICK-BUILDER 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. 



PLATE 109. 





GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

AT 

ARTESIA, 

CALIFORNIA. 

WlTHEY & DAVIS, 
ARCHITECTS. 



iittl.n 




jfS '% fl\ ^\ fl\ r^ ^ 

-^ Si li ^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 2\, NO. 8. PLATE 110. 



r i i 




EXTERIOR DETAILS 
AND PLAN. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

AT 

ARTESIA, CAL. 



Withey & Davis, 
architects. 



/m//v r-i.ooe PL/is/ 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 8. PLATE 111. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




fer^ 



BASEMENT PLAN. 




FOURTH FLOOR PLAN. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEWARK, N. J 

E. F. Guilbert, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 8. PLATE 112. 







COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEWARK, N. J. 

E. F. Guilbert, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2I 5 




Terra Cotta Details. 

COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING I 



E. I'. ' ruilbert, Architect. 

Kill SCHOOL, NEWARK, X. J. 



ziG 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



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ARC DE TRIOMPHE, 
NANCY, FRANCE. 



Commemorative Monuments. 



\KC HI' CARROUSEL, 
\ri PARIS, PRANCE. 



( ( 'oncluded. ) 

II. VAN BUR EN MAGONIGLE. 



ONI'", hi' the most imposing forms men have used in 
successive periods to commemorate their own great- 
ness or that of others is the triumphal arch. Arches fall 
naturally into two groups : those of a single span and 
those having three openings in the mass, the central one 
for vehicles and the side arches for pedestrians. In Ro- 
man times they were erected usually to record triumphal 
entries. The Arch of Constantine in Rome is of the triple 
type ; the workmanship, as might be expected at so late 
a date, is poor, but much of the sculpture is believed to 
have been filched from some other gentleman's arch de- 
molished or defaced to provide the first Christian emperor 
with better sculpture than his times or his purse afforded. 
We find a more modern example with a different treat- 
ment in the Stanislas Gate at Nancy and another of 
the triple type in the Are de Triomphe in the same city. 
Another, and 
one of the most 
beautiful of its 
class, is that 
known as the 
A r c d u C a r - 
rouse! in Paris. 
Designed by 
P e r c i e r a n d 
Fontaine, it is 
beautiful in pro- 
portion and 
jewel-like detail. 
It is one of the 
accents that di- 
versify the vista 
from the Louvre 

to the Are de 
Triomphe. 

At Marseilles 
is a variant of 
the type, par- 
taking in its 
decoration of the 
usual character 



AKC1I or CONSTANTINE, ROME. 



of triple arches, and in mass that of arches of a single 
span; (unfortunately we were unable to secure a photo- 
graph for reproduction ; > of the latter the best known pro- 
totype of modern triumphal arches is the Arch of Titus 
in Rome ; the arch itself is an incident of the whole mass ; 
the piers at each side form a satisfactory abutment ; the 
main cornice is comparatively small and the attic is of suf- 
ficient height and mass to give the arch something to do. 

It is interesting to compare the Washington Arch in 
New York City with it; here the arch is of prime impor- 
tance, and the abutments are insufficient to satisfy the 
eye; the main cornice is out of scale and the attic is 
reduced to briny it into proportion with the piers. 

The faults of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial 
Arch in Brooklyn are so apparent that it is unneces- 
sary to comment Upon them. Of all the arches of the 

world the Arc 
de Triomphe in 
Paris seems to 
me to bear the 
palm. The 
s t u p endou s 

mass, the re- 
straint and dig- 
nity of it, and 
above all its pro- 
portions, appear 
to me to place it 
in a class apart. 
It is wonderfully 
placed, too, just 
at the crown of 
the hill, up 
which the grade 
of the Champs 
Elysees sweeps 
in a concave 
line and disap- 
pears at sunset 
in a luminous 
haze. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 







PORTE STANISLAS, NANCY, PRANCE. 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. 



2l8 



THE B RIC KBUILDER. 




SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MEMORIAL ARCH, BROOKLYN, N. V 




ARC DE TRIOMPIIK, PARIS. PRANCE. 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



219 



Competition for a Hollow Tile Bungalow. 



REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD. 




THE jury selected to award the prizes in The Brick- 
builder Competition for a small house of the bunga- 
low type to be built of Natco Hollow Tile, at a cost not 
exceeding $4,000, 
have examined the 
two hundred and 
sixty -seven de- 
signs submitted 
and begs to report 
as follows : 

The competition 
as a whole is 
marked by excel- 
lent draftsmanship 
and a general high 
standard of ren- 
dering, as well as 
intelligence on the 
part of most of the 
competitors as to 
the style which 
best meets the 
conditions. The 
plans were not as 
well designed as 
the exteriors, and 
the committee felt 
that while most of 
the competitors 
complied with the 
literal terms of the 
program as re- 
gards cubic con- 
tents and cost, a 
number of the 
houses were far 
in excess of what 
coiild actually be 
built for the 
amount named in 
the program, and 
of two designs of 
equal merit the 
more compact one 
was given the pref- 
erence. It may 
be of interest also 
to note the fact 
that while the 
members of the 
jury came from 
different parts of 

the country they unanimously agreed on the selections for 
the four prizes and six mentions. The jury wishes also 



MENTION DESIGN. 

Submitted by William E. Voss, Boston, Mass. 











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, A MATCO - TI LB - MMQMJOWo 



MENTION DESIGN. 

Submitted by Elbert J. Richmond, New Haven, Conn, 



to state that in making the selections they regarded 
primarily the quality of the design in its suitability 
to terra cotta block construction, and in selecting the 

prize winners and 
the mentioned 
drawings there 
was a consensus of 
opinion that all 
unusual or outre 
designs were less 
desirable than the 
more or less stand- 
ardized types. 
The jury was 
agreed that plain 
wall surfaces with 
all ornament flat, 
cornices of slight 
projection, and 
types of roofs 
which included no 
pockets liable to 
damage the walls, 
were essentials to 
good design; there- 
fore the competi- 
tion was decided 
on the mass of the 
building and com- 
position of the 
f a c a d e s rather 
than on the use of 
extraneous detail. 
That this factor in 
determining t h e 
judgment did not 
unduly narrow the 
field from which 
the competitors 
drew their inspira- 
tion is evidenced 
by the fact that the 
first three designs 
are drawn from 
quite different pro- 
totypes; the first 
being rather It.tl 

ian in character, 

while the second is 
English, and third 
a gambrel roofed 
Colonial house. 
The first prize design is charming in mass, very simply 
designed and rendered, but filled with the good taste so 




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220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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MENTION DESIGN. 

Submitted by Herman Brookman, Brooklyn, K. Y. 





, - A'NAT@©-TMMHI€>1[JSB 



MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Jack Lehti, Washington, D.C. 






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MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Henry T. MacNeill, Philadelphia, Pa 



MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by C. A. Nilson, Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A HOLLOW TILE BUNGALOW. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 



essential in successful country house work. The plan is 
in detail susceptible of considerable improvement, although 
its motive is sufficiently excellent. That the author of 
this design was really endeavoring- to produce a $4,000 
house is evidenced by the fact that he has made one 
chimney serve the entire building, although two chimneys 
would perhaps have improved the livability of the building 
and would not have added to the cubic contents. 

The second prize design is better planned than the first 
and is rendered simply and very well. This English type 
of building seems excellently adjusted to the construction, 
and it was somewhat surprising to the jury to find that 
there were not more of this type of architecture sub- 
mitted. 

The third prize design, like the first and second, is com- 
pactly planned and the exterior treated in a manner suffi- 
ciently interesting so that there is no square or box-like 
character to the structure. Certain features of the exterior 
of this design might perhaps have been better handled : 
notably the kitchen extension with its flat roof, and the 
porch on which the columns are a little large for their 
type. The perspective has been made from a rather 
unfortunate viewpoint, and the rendering is weaker than 
a number of others submitted, but in spite of these minor 
defects the building is very good indeed and fully worthy 
of its place. 



The fourth prize is an American variation of well known 
English cottage motives, with a pergola instead of a 
piazza : the columns used in this pergola are somewhat 
too large in the opinion of the jury, but the design other- 
wise is most agreeable. The jury also felt that while the 
plan of tin's house is in motive good, the corridor could 
have been abbreviated with advantage. 

The six drawings to which mentions were given the 
jury felt to be quite the best aside from the prize draw- 
ings. But while each of them had strong points, each also 
had weak points which made it practically impossible to 
place the six designs in order, especially as the jury found 
much diversity of opinion among its members as to the 
ranking of these drawings. 

The jury wishes to congratulate practically everyone 
who competed in this contest for the careful manner in 
which his drawing was made, and the general high order 
of skill and intelligence displayed. 

Alpheus W. Chittenden, Detroit. 
Aymar Embury II, New York. 
Hugh M. G. Garden, Chicago. 
George Hunt Ingraham, Boston. 
Frank B. Meade, Cleveland. 

Jury of Award. 



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CUBICAL CONTENTS 

MAIN BUUClHG AEOvL SEAW 
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JRtairmrTi'wi'wiiiriitmiiMsiiii!; 



A SMALL HOUSE OP HATCO HOLLOW TILE ) | : 7 : \ 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY FREDERICK SCHOLER, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 




COMPETITION- FOR- A- SMALL-TILE- HOVSE 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY FRANK HAUSHKA, 
CLEVEL \N'I>. OHIO. 



THE BRICKBl'ILDEK COMPETITION FOR A HOLLOW TILE BUNGALOW. 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



REPEAL OF THE TARSNEY ACT. 

TI I IC action of the House of Representatives, in passing 
an amendment to repeal the Tarsney act, has been 
justly condemned by the public and architectural press, 
the American Institute of Architects, and by the most 
prominent members of Congress, and many in the world 
of art. Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, Franklin MacVeagh, in wri- 
ting to the Committee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds in regard 
to tlie repeal, said: ' I feel most 
strongly that to make it impossible 
for the Government to secure the 
services of the best architectural 
ability the country affords would 
be most detrimental to the ad- 
vancement <>f Government archi- 
tecture." 

The question of comparative 
cost for making plans and speci- 
fications in the Supervising Archi- 
tect's office and in the various 
private offices has caused the 
greatest contention. In a state- 
ment from the Secretary of the 
Treasury August 6, 1912, the 
average cost during the fiscal 
years 1905 to 1911 inclusive, for 
preparing drawings and specifi- 
cations in the office of the Super- 
vising Architect, was 6.02 per 
cent. Such a statement should 
go far to remove the bone of con- 
tention since the customary com- 
mission paid to the private architect is 6 per cent. 

The Senate has stricken out the House provision and 
the matter has gone into conference. It is to be hoped 
that the great advance in the architecture of public build- 
ings since the passage of the Tarsney act, together with 
the pressure brought to bear by all men and organizations 
interested in the artistic development of our country, will 
prevent the repeal of this amendment. 




DETAIL FOR THEATER 
BY 

CONKLING-AKMSTRONG 
TERRA COTTA CO. 

Brown & Von Beren, 

Architects. 





DETAIL EXECUTED BY O. W. KETCHAM 
TERRA COTTA WORKS. 



DETAIL BY NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

COM I' ANY. 

Gaetan Ajello, Architect. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS DESCRIPTION. 

St. Rose's Parochial School, Chelsea, Mass. 
Plates 103, 104. The exterior is of red brick and white 
mat glazed terra cotta with seals in colored terra cotta. 
Upon the in- 
terior the walls 
are of natural 
gray color, the 
woodwork of 
oak. The as- 
sembly hall, 60 
by 81 feet, has 
a gallery on 
three sides and 
seats approxi- 
mately 1,400. 
The cost of the 
building was 
$85,000. 

G R A M M A K 

School at 
Artesia, Cal. 
Plates L09, 

110. The ex- 
terior is of a 
wire cut red 
brick varying 
in shade and 

laid with a flash joint of coarse sand mortar. The trim- 
mings at the entrance, etc., are of a warm cream color 
matching the mortar joints. The interior is trimmed 
throughout with Oregon pine. The furnace room is placed 
above the ground and the plenum system of heating in- 
stalled. The building cost $20,000, or 8.6 cents per cubic 
foot. 

Medical and Chirukgical Building, Baltimore, 
Md. Plate 
108. The 
exterior is of 
rough tex- 
tured red 
brick, with 
terra cotta 
trimmings . 
In planning, 
a departure 
has b e e n 
made from 
t h e u s u a 1 
brilliantly 
lighted book 
stack, with 
windows for 
each aisle, 
to small, 
fixed win- 
dows. The total book capacity is approximately 60,000 
volumes. The basement provides for a banquet room, 
the usual heating cellar, two large rooms for extra book 
storage, and space for the receipt and shipment of books. 




DETAIL BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA COTTA 

COMPANY. 

Andry & Bendernagel, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



225 



The third floor is given over to a labora- 
tory and several rooms for special pur- 
poses in connection with various branches 
of medical research. An apartment is 
provided for the librarian, which con- 
sists of a living- room, dining- room, 
kitchen, two bedrooms and bath, in addi- 
tion to a servant's room and bath. The 
total cost of building was $64,342.49, 
with a total cubage of 572,090 cubic feet, 
making the cost per cubic foot .112 cents. 
Church for St. Patrick's Parish, 
Brockton, Mass. Plates 105-107. 
The exterior is of wine colored brick with 
wide white joints and cream terra cotta. 
Upon the interior the decorations are of a 
soft white. The baldachin, pulpit, and 
side altars are of dark fumed oak, the 
main altar of Vermont marble. 



PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS — 
DESCRIPTION. 
Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, 
N.Y. Page 210. The hospital located 
one-half mile from Coney Island con- 
tains 22 acres of land and consists of six buildings so dis- 
posed as to permit of a considerable extension by additional 
ward buildings. All buildings are finished in a light cream 
colored face brick, limestone trimmings, copper cornices, 
and red tile roofs. The main building accommodates 
ninety-six patients, — eighty in four wards of twenty beds 





theater at ST. LOUIS. 

Front of white enamel brick furnished by Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

Gustav P. Wuest, Architect. 



INTERIOR, THIRD NATIONAL BANK, ATLANTA, GA. 

Entirely of gray terra cotta, executed by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Morgan & Dillon, A. Ten Eyck Brown and W. T. Downing, Associated, Architects. 

each, and sixteen in eight smaller wards of two beds each. 
Upon the interior the floors are of terrazzo and mosaic with 
a sanitary coved base, excepting- those of vitrified tile 
found in the toilets, bath rooms, closets, operating rooms, 
etc., which rooms are also fitted with wainscots of 6 by 6 
inch glazed tile. All woodwork is enameled white and 
walls painted a soft green tint. On account of 
the proximity to the ocean, particular attention 
has been paid to all exposed metal work, hard- 
ware, and lighting fixtures. The fixtures are of 
brass, sand blasted, silverplated, and have three 
coats of enamel, each one baked on. A pilot 
light system has been installed for night work, 
which permits of half lighting. In heating, 
direct radiation is used excepting for the wards 
and isolation rooms, where the direct-indirect 
system is employed, while the exhaust fan system 
furnishes the ventilation. The buildings for 
nurses and employees are similar in design, the 
former accommodating twenty-seven nurses in 
separate rooms, while the latter provides for 
twenty-four with appropriate facilities for both 
men and women. The bedrooms and sitting 
rooms are of comb-grained yellow pine with 
trim of straight grained white oak, varnished. 
The ambulance house on the ground floor accom- 
modates four ambulances, four stalls, carriage, 
wash, and harness room ; while the upper floor 
provides a large dormitory for eighteen male 
help, a room for ambulance drivers, and separate 
bath rooms. The pathological building in addi- 
tion to the usual laboratory, morgue, mortuary 
refrigerators, etc., has a small chapel with wait- 
ing room and an autopsy room with toilet and bath. 
The walls are tiled to the ceiling, carefully 
drained and ventilated; the door frames are of 
enameled iron, and the lighting fixtures of bronze 
metal. The front portion of the power house is 



226 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




A direct system of steam heating has been in- 
stalled. The electric fixtures are enameled, and 
in the wards reflectors arc employed to throw 
the light toward the ceiling. In the main opera- 
ting room double .class walls face the outside with 
radiator coils located between the class. The 
building cost $126,300, including architects' fee 
and exclusive of movable equipment. The 
cubical contents are 405,000 feet, reckoning from 
the top of the footings to the roof covering, mak- 
ing a cost of 31.2 cents per cubic foot. 



TERRA COTTA FOR THE COMMERCIAL 
AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH 

SCHOOL, NEWARK, X. J. 

Till-', architectural terra cotta tor the Com- 
mercial and Manual Training High School 
at Newark, X. J., E. F. Guilbert, architect, 
was furnished by the South Amboy Terra Cotta 
Company. 



GYMNASIUM, MORRISTOWN, N.J. 

Built of " Natco " Tile with plaster finish. 
Oscar Smith, Jr., Architect. 



used for the general hospital laundry, the rear for the boiler 
room, etc. The total cost of the six buildin.es was $343,000, 
making a cost per 
cubic foot of approx- 
imately 31.6 cents. 
This cost covers the 
buildin.es complete 
with the system of 
tunnels, a vacuum 
cleaning system, etc 
By cubin.c the build- 
ings from the bottom DETAIL FOB CIRCULAS BAY. 

of the basement floor Made by American Terra c <* ta & Ceramic Company. 

George L. Harvev, Architect, 
to top of roof slab in 

ease of flat roots, and one-half the slope of pitched roofs, Washington, I). C, while 



IN GENERAL. 

Louis LaBeaume and Eugene S. Klein have 
formed a partnership for the practice of architecture under 
the firm name of LaBeaume & Klein, with offices at 1317 

Chemical BuildincTi 




the following cubical results were obtained : main build 
ing, 681j500feet ; nurses' building:, 105,940 feet ; 
emloyees' building, 81,400 feet; ambulance 
house, 60,550 feet ; pathological building, 30,200 

feet ; power house and laundry, 124,650 feet. 

Barnard Free Skin and Cancer Hospital, 
St. Louis, Mo. Page 211. The main building 

is 125 feet long, faces south, and forms the type 
II in plan, with the working building connected 

to tile central portion by means of a corridor. 
The main entrance opens through a class vesti- 
bule, and all stairs arc enclosed in metal and 
polished wire class with sliding doors. The 
students' gallery is on the mezzanine floor over 
the sterilizing room, from which a view of the 
operations is obtained through a continuous 
screen of plate class. The roof, used for a car- 
den, is covered with promenade tile. Sanitary 
all-steel doors without joints, mouldings, or 
panels are used throughout; while the doors, 
metal furniture, telephone booths, etc., are fin- 
ished in white enamel baked on. All floors, ex- 
cept in the basement and temporary construction, 
arc of a jointless composition, and the walls are 
of hard plaster finished in colored enamel paint. 



St. Louis, Mo. 

Wood, Donn & 
Deming announce 
that they have dis- 
solved partnership in 
the practice of archi- 
tecture and that 
Waddy B. Wood has 
opened offices at 816 
Connecticut avenue, 
Edward W. Donn, Jr., and 



William I. Deming will continue practice under the 




NURSES HOME, BELLEVUE HOSPITAL, NEW Viikk. 

Harvard front brick furnished by Carter, Black & Avers. 

Parish & Schrueder, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



name of Donn & Demins. 
ington, D. C. 



Seventeenth street, Wash- 



The architectural terra eotta used in St. Rose's Paro- 
chial vSchool, at Chelsea, Mass., illustrated in the Plate 
Forms of this issue, was furnished by the New Jersey 
Terra Cotta Company. 

Sayre & Fisher Company furnished the brick which 

were used in the house at Morristown, N. J. ; Henry A. 

Macomb, architect, illustrated in the Plate Forms of this 

issue. 

« 
The New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company has 

secured the contract for furnishing the architectural terra 

cotta for office 
building to be 
e r e C ted to r 
Henry Birks & 
Sons, Ltd., at 
Y a n c o u v e r , 
B. C. Somer- 
villc & Putnam 
are the archi- 
tects. 




^> fulfill 




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HUH 



Atlantic Ar- 
c h i t e c t u r a 1 
Terra Cotta in 
the Bank Build- 
ing is the title of 
the latest book- 
let issued by the 
Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company. 
Some fifteen 
bank buildings, 
in which archi- 
tectural terra 
eotta has been 
used, are illus- 
trated. 



S a y r e & 
Fisher Com- 
pany's selected 
common brick 
w e r e u s e d 
throughout the 
Manual Training High School at Newark, N. J., illus- 
trated in this number, E. F. Guilbert, architect. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the construction of 
the church for St. Patrick's Parish, Brockton, Mass., illus- 




THE FIREMAN S INSURANCE BUILDING 

NEWARK, N. J. 

Architectural terra cotta furnished by South 

Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 




■5552B 



ST. CECELIA SCHOOL, BROOKLYN, N. V. 

Faced with Roman brick made by Ironclay Brick Company. 
T. H. Poole & Co., Architects. 

trated in the Plate Forms of this issue, was furnished by 
the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

A united effort is being made toward the establishment 
of a far-reaching scheme for municipal housing in France. 
A bill has ^__^ 

been pre- 
sented be- 
fore Parlia- 
ment autho- 
rizing the 
communes 
to build 
houses and 
lay out new 
n e i g h b o r - 
hoods, with 
a view of of- 
fering their 
inhabitants 
cheap and 
sound! y 
built accom- 
modation s . 
The bill also 
p r o v ides 
that the city 
of Paris bor- 

DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW fERSEY TERRA 

row the sum COTTA COMPANYi 

necessary - . Nasi & Springsteen, Architects. 




ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — THE TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY TIN'; 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
M ANSON, BOSTON. 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new n page 
BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS &• MANSi >N, B< ISTON. 



22! 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Notice of Competition for Street Lighting Standards 

A competition for designs of ornamental street lighting 
fixtures is announced by the Business Men's Association 
and Municipal Art Society of Hartford, Connecticut. Copies 
of the pamphlet giving details as to the desired designs and 
information as to the prizes offered can be secured of the 
undersigned. 

C. J. BENNETT, for the Business Men's Association. 
W. S. SCHULTZ, for the Municipal Art Society. 



School of Architecture 
of Harvard University 

Professional course for graduates of colleges, leading to degree of 

Master in Architecture 
Course for special advanced students, not having college degree but 
at least 21 years of age, with office experience, leading to certificate 

Design. Prof. E. J. A. Duquesne, Grand Prix de Rome. 
History. Prof. H. L. Warren, A. M., F. A. I. A. 
Construction. Prof. C. W. Killam, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Drawing. Mr. H. D. Murphy, Mr. H. B. Warren. 
Ten other lecturers and instructors. 

For circulars and other information apply to Prof. H. L. Warren, Chairman of 
the Council of the School of Architecture. Harvard University, Cambridge. Mass. 



The University of Pennsylvania offers 
courses in Architecture as follows: 

(1) A four-year course, leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option in architectural 
engineering may be elected. 

(2) Graduate courses of one year, permitting spe- 
cialization in design, construction, or history ; 
leading to the degree of M. S. in Architecture. 

(3) A special two-year course for qualified draftsmen, 
with options in design or construction ; leading 
to a professional certificate. 

For catalogue giving complete information regarding requirements of 
admission, advanced standing, summer school and atelier work, fellowships 
and scholarships, and for illustrated year book, etc., address DEAN OF 
THE COLLEGE. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Topsfield, Mass... Plates 99-101 

Page & Frothingham, Architects. 



"diske 6- company jnc 
Iace bricks; establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 18G4 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



POSITION WANTED.— Experienced architect, eight 
years with U. S. Treasury Department as Superintendent 
of Construction, desires engagement. Address, Superin- 
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THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



SEPTEMBER 1912 



Number 9 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 
Boston, Mass. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



ARTHUR D. ROGERS 
President and Treasurer 



RUSSELL F. WHITEHEAD 
Vice-President and Managing Editor 



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ADVERTISING 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

PAGE 

BRICK, ENAMELED Ill and IV 

BRICK WATERPROOFING .... IV 

FIREPROOFING IV 

ROOFING TILE IV 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 
HOWARD SILL. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

DOME OVER CHURCH AT SAN ANGEL, MEXICO Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

MODERN DOMESTIC STAIRWAYS. — I. THE ARISTOCRATIC STAIR Thomas H '. Ellelt 231 

THE WORK OF HOWARD SILL ../. Fenimon Russell 239 

DISTINGUISHED ARCHITECTURE AS A PRECEDENT. — IV C. Howard Walker 243 

THE FILENE BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS., I) II. BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS 247 

HOSPITAL AT PAWTUCKET, R. I., GUY LOWELL, ARCHITECT 251 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 253 



NOTICE. — The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 




DOME OVER CHURCH AT 

SAN ANGEL, MEXICO. 

Exterior of the dome is entirely 
covered with glazed tiles of small 
pattern. Also note interesting panels 
in the octagonal base of the dome. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOLUME XXI. 



SEPTEMBER, 1912 



NUMBER 9. 



Modern Domestic Stairways. 

PART I.— THE ARISTOCRATIC STAIR. 



THOMAS HARLAN ELLETT. 

THE reader is asked to remember a fact which "Modern Domestic Stairways," in various types and 

M. Gaudet has set down with epigrammatic vigor — sizes of houses, it has been thought best to divide the 

" Architecture is not an art of pure theory, or of doctrinaire subject into three parts. The following instalment 

ideas. Its object is to construct, its means the knowledge therefore will treat of "The Modest Stairway" and 

of construction." conclude with a series of excellent photographs of " Un- 

Stairways primarily must be of sound construction, and usual Stairways." 

the art of the stair designer is to produce a structure which This first pictorial article presents only such examples 



not only answers its direct 
purpose as a means of reach- 
ing different levels, but which 
also appeals to the imagina- 
tion and the esthetic sense 
by the beauty and fitness of 
its forms and by its disci- 
plined design. 

Though one of the impor- 
tant subjects connected with 
architecture, stair building 
is probably the least under- 
stood by designers generally. 
Surely the stair layout is 
often a torment to the archi- 
tect (we know it always is to 
his client). The happy solu- 
tion of what at times seemed 
impossible makes the subject 
one of the most popular of 
his works. 

The staircase is the key to 
a large part of the planning 
of a house, performing as it 
does a continuous function. 
It should strike a note of dig- 
nity which is characteristic of 
the house throughout. There 
is reason then for treating 
the subject in a dignified and 
ambitious manner. Upon 
this feature of the design of 
a house rests, perhaps, the 

judgment of the building as a whole. The stairs arc- 
usually the first object to meet the eye. They claim imme- 
diate attention and should be inviting. The world sees 
the stair and judges by it the edifice. 

In the presentation of this series of illustrations of 




A royal staircase reflecting the glory of the Italian Renaissance 
together with the solidity and restraint of later classicized design. 
The walls are Sienna marble of delicate veinmg. The ceiling and 
floor are of marble mosaic well designed. The upper walls of the 
stair well have been hung with great tapestries which adds to 
the richness of the effect. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



as might be called stairways 
of honor — legitimate in the 
important house, ridiculous 
in the modest one — stair- 
ways made possible because 
of the wealth and taste which 
is every day becoming more 
noticeable in this country. 
The seemingly unlimited 
means at the disposal of the 
architect has enabled him to 
draw out from Pandora's box 
of varying forms and ar- 
rangements those which will 
precisely clothe the clients' 
needs. The proper observ- 
ance of convention has 
guided him to those tradi- 
tional uses which make the 
stairways and stair halls at 
once the expression and satis- 
faction of such needs. 

The examples chosen for 
illustration are more or less 
grand in their conception, 
rich and sumptuous in their 
constructive materials and 
furnishings. They may be 
imagined as playing impor- 
tant roles in magnificent en- 
tertainments where they serve 
as the stately connecting link 
between the principal floors. 
A close study of the following pages will demonstrate, 
we feel sure, that the architects whose designs are shown 
had a full measure of the knowledge of construction by 
which means they have yiven us sound architectural 
design. 



232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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2 33 




A second-story stair hall showing two widely different types of rail used together. Growing plants form a protecting 
border for the first flight, while the customary metal railing succeeds for the remaining stories. The introduction of 
foliage in conjunction with the cippilino marble is pleasing. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



2 34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




In this stair at Newport, Mr. Trumbauer has obtained a 
stately and inviting effect, showing the important role 
stairs of French origin play in modern architecture. With 
the free ramp light is assured and the stair well appears 
in all its grandeur. 



A beautiful antique fountain is the central feature of 
this circular stair hall on the entrance floor of a New York 
house. The ceiling is in delicate plaster relief, tinted. 
The divisions of the marble floor are marked by lines of 
brass inlaw 




In this stair of an important house on Long Island, 
McKim, Mead & White, architects, have adhered very 
closely to an English type. The extensive use of wood 
on the walls is reminiscent of the better class of English 
manor house. The oak is unusually soft in color and 
pleasing in effect. 



Here Mr. Jas. 'iambic Rogers has followed Roman pre- 
cedent of rise and tread and obtained a stair of particularly 
easy ascent. It occupies a more private position in plan 
than is usual. The walls are Italian marble, very quiet in 
tone. The steps and String-course are Echaillon. The 
railing is Japanese bronze, beautifully designed. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 35 




Another view of the stair shown on page 233, showing- the clever placing of well-chosen architectural antiques by 
the late Stanford White in the alteration of an old house. The ceiling is antique, pieced out to fit the hall. The floor 
is of colored terrazza. 




Another elegant stair by McKim, Mead & White, enriched by antiques. Here a Roman sarcophagus serves as a 
balustrade between columns. The richly wrought bronze railing ends in a marble Atrial of beauty. 



2 3 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




An inviting glimpse of a partially screened staircase is A spacious and dignified hall relieved by the graceful and 
obtained from the adjoining vestibule. flowing lines of a curved stair at end of the composition. 



Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 




A sumptuous stair indicative of Newport. The great A Louis XV. layout which assumes much. The central 

rococo columns break the graceful curve of the string and feature for the first flight with the second-story stair to 
hand rail behind. the extreme left all richly embellished. 



McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 37 




The enclosing walls of the Stair well are an excellent place for the display of large tapestries. 
These are particularly well lighted by a skylight beautiful in itself. 



2 3 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




An unusual arrangement in which the entrance from the street is at the first landing:. 
Here, from over the pierced marble railing 1 , one might greet the coming guest with due 
dignity. This stair ascends only to the piano nobile, where it is necessary to cross the 
great hall for stairs to the floors above. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




The steps leading from the entrance door to the basement in the stair at the top of this page. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUTLDER. 



2 39 




The Work of Howard Sill, Architect. 



J. FENIMORE RUSSELL. 

WE know that centuries ago buildings were conceived stood for 
and composed not only to fulfil certain require- 
ments but with the deliberate intention of creating some- 
thing beautiful. There is evidence that all the important 
houses in this country during Colonial times were carefully 
planned. The difference, and a great one, between the 
methods then employed and those existing to-day lies in 
the fact that there was only one style current in each of the 
earlier periods. To-day instead of one fashion in building 
there are many, every architect as it were becoming a law 




HALL DETAIL. 
Howard Sill, Architect. 



unto himself. 

He would be a rash 
man who would pass 
judgment on any one 
school in vogue to-day 
as particularly adapted 
to be developed and class- 
ified as the American 
type. Much has been 
said, however, in the 
cause of the modern 
adaptation of the 
"Colonial," that sub- 
style of the Renaissance 
which develop e d i n 
America. 

Mr. Howard Sill has 
m a d e all his w o r k 
strongly ' Colonial," 
endeavoring to show that 
when a man is trained to 
observe, select, and re- 
ject, successful designs 
can be inspired by the 
use of traditional styles 
and methods. 

It is for us then to trace 
the development of the 
style which he advocates 
from the time when it 



reat ideals in the minds which fashioned it, 
onward to the time when such things again appeal to the 
imagination of the builders. 

Architecture must grow with age, it must sum up the 
past in the present for the vital understanding of to-day's 
needs. 

New England, New York, and New Jersey, with Penn- 
sylvania and its sub-divisions, Virginia, the Middle .South, 
and the Eastern Shore of Maryland have contributed 
examples of Colonial architecture worthy of study and 
emulation. The types 
varied with the locality, 
and were influenced by 
the traditions and reli- 
gion of their settlers. 
That section which has 
been the special study of 
Mr. Sill is known as The 
Eastern Shore, within 
which Baltimore is in- 
cluded. Here the influ- 
ences of the South and 
New England are joined, 
resulting in an atmos- 
phere suggestive of 
domesticity and that hos- 
pitality for which the 
.South has ever been 
famous, thus forming the 
most celebrated regime in 
the architectural devel- 
opment of the Colonies. 
This was made possible 
by the refinements and 
prosperity of the inhabi- 
tants of this section 
which produced a class 
like unto the aristocracy 
of the Mother Country. 
Architecture was encour- 




ENTRANCE DICTA I L. 
Howard Sill, Architect. 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



:- 









aged in common with the other arts and refinements. 

The sense of close and personal connection with England 
seemed to endure there much longer than in the North. 

There are numerous publications showing the best known 
houses of Annapolis, Baltimore and its environs. There 
can be no doubt concerning the aid which these have given 
to the student of Colonial architecture. But to see — to 
breathe the atmosphere — is to obtain the true idea and 
the valuable inspiration, and all this has been Mr. Sill's 
good fortune. 

For some reason much of Maryland and Virginia seems 
to have been neglected by a majority of architects on their 
pilgrimages to the better 
known houses. We are 
told of splendid ex- 
amples of Colonial build- 
ing still waiting to be 
more generally ex- 
ploited. 

A review of the his- 
tory of American 
domestic architecture 
from these Colonial 
times to the present day 
shows that we have had 
our transitional period, 
our reign of terror, our 
fashionable architecture 
and the various Euro- 
pean adaptations. "We 
have reflected in our 
building the action of 
civilization and social 
life in all its ramifica- 
tions. 

We now come to a 
period in our develop- 
ment when conditions, 
mode of living, and re- 
quirements seem to de- 
mand the return to the 
building of our fore- 
fathers. 

" For a gentleman of 
taste, for a lady of dis- 
cernment, the Colonial 
is the only fitting en- 
vironment," — to quote 
from an article by Mr. 
Frank E. Wall is in 
" House and Garden," 

where he argues on the choice of an architectural style, 
" In it there is no deceit or sham. It will ring true through- 
out your time, and, if properly developed and studied, the 
style will grow and take to itself new dignities and new 
beauties as it comes through new interpreters. It was in 
this way that the quaint, local characteristics of the Colo- 
nial we know, grew through the idiosyncrasies of the 
architect or joiners of that time. They studied the old 
authorities for the law, and when they became past masters 
of these laws they used their own individual invention as 
they jolly well pleased." 

So we come to the part Mr. Sill has taken in giving us 










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SCALE DRAWING. ENTRANCE DOORWAY, HOUSE, 
SOMERSET ROAD. ROLAND PARK, MD. 

Howard Sill, Architect. 



the modern adaptation of the building which was under- 
taken in days gone by along the Eastern Shore. Mr. Sill 
has always been the student, endeavoring to bring to light 
and use the simple old-fashioned details usually neglected 
in modern Colonial work. But further than this we find 
him the architect, managing to one end the co-operating 
mechanics ami craftsmen. He is a planner whose schemes 
and devices as a constructor have demonstrated that these 
old details are both practical and durable, giving a sur- 
prisingly old-time air to the modern work. 

Most of the examples illustrated in this issue have been 
built in Baltimore, Mr. Sill's place of "residence. Baltimore, 

as has been said, is a 
Colonial town. Excel- 
lent examples of original 
work are on every hand 
for observation. Then, 
it is only a short ride by 
trolley to Annapolis, 
that representative town 
of the aristocracy that 
flourished during the 
last of the eighteenth 
century. All have ad- 
mired the Chase house, 
the Norwood, Ham- 
mond, Brice - Jennings, 
and other enchanting 
examples found there. 
But it is neither Balti- 
more nor Annapolis that 
has had Mr. Sill's en- 
tire attention. He has 
visited many quaint 
little towns in Maryland 
never seen by a photog- 
rapher and overlooked 
by the architect as not 
being important enough 
to contain anything of 
interest. " Important 
enough ? " — Why, some 
of those quaint little 
brick houses with their 
door-sills worn to a strip, 
have home, peace, and 
plenty written all over 
them and green moss on 
the roof two inches thick. 
" Desi.cn determined by 
needs, with honesty of 
construction," is applicable to them, and this motto Mr. 
Sill has taken for his recent work. Add to this the initia- 
tive and invention shown, the originating and creative 
impulse indicated by the designer, and it will be understood 
why Mr. Sill has been so successful. 

Scaleby, Clarke County (Plates 113-118), is located in 
the heart of the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. On a 
gently rising hill, the site of a former home, surrounded 
by broad acres of blue .crass, it is in a number of ways 
ideally situated. Although the house is fireproof through- 
out you do not "feel" the concrete and steel, the spans 
being within the limits of the old hewn joists. The bricks 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 





HOUSE, OVKRHII.L ROAD, ROLAND PARK, MD. 
Howard Sill, Architect. 



242 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



used were made specially 
in's work. They are 
identical in size and shape 
to those in the old State 
I louse at Annapolis, Mary- 
Land, and have a range of 
color running from salmon 
red to old rose and purple. 
Laid in warm gray mortar 
they form an interesting 
mosaic. The joints are 
struck, slightly cut at top, 
as was frequently done in 
old Virginia brickwork. 
Adam detail has been ad- 
hered to throughout on 
the exterior and in most 
of the interior work. 
Special attention has been 
given to the smaller details. 
The hardware throughout 
was designed after old ex- 
amples, large brass rim- 
locks with brass knobs on 
the lock side anil drop 
handles with open -work 
plates on the other. Much 
of the composition work- 
was filched from old 
houses, cleaned up, and 

new moulds made for this work, and the same is true of 
the leaded e;lass ornaments, the hand-WTOUght hinges, 
turnbuckles and fasteners for the windows. 

Merryman Court, occupies the extreme northeast corner 













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ENTRANCE ( 

Howard Sill. 



of Roland Park, and was 
the result of a problem of 
how to economically -utilize 
a valuable square of land, 
left without road frontage 
by a right-angle turn in the 
road. This has been done 
by creating on this square 
an open space or court, on 
the axis of continuation of 
Northfield Place, after mak- 
ing the turn, with its en- 
trance facingcenterof road. 
The residence on Uni- 
versity Parkway finds an 
admirable resting place on 
the terraces among the old 
trees. This front is dis- 
tinctly Colonial in its feel- 
ing, the high chimneys at 
the gable ends adding 
much to its old-time flavor. 
The detail has been care- 
fully carried out, notice- 
ably in the elliptical headed 
entrance with its fine fan 
light and broad marble 
Steps with slender iron 
hand rail. The plan is well 
arranged, but would have 

been improved by addition of a few extra feet to its depth. 

On the exterior a color note is added by the use of a soft 

brick, light red in color, for all arches, the regular facing 

being; of hard burnt York Colonial much darker in tone. 



■ ATHWAY 
Architect. 




PERGOLA IN GARDEN, SCALEBY, VIRGINIA. 
Howard Sill, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 9. PLATE 113. 




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VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 114. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 9. PLATE 115. 



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VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 116. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 117. 



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THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 118. 







STABLES AT 
SCALEBY, CLARKE 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 119. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE. 

HOUSE, CHARLES STREET, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Howard Sill, Architect 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 120. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE. 

HOUSE, UNIVERSITY PARKWAY, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Howard Sill, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 121. 





HOUSE, 

UNIVERSITY PARKWAY, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

Howard Sill, 
Architect. 




nSccodcJ Floor Plan 



Firjt Floor Plan 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 122. 





HOUSE AT ROLAND PARK, MD. 
Howard Sill, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 123. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 9. PLATE 124. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 



VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS DIN1WG ROOM. 




Second >5tory Plan 



HOUSE, SOMERSET ROAD, ROLAND PARK, MD. 

Howard Sill, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 125. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 9. PLATE 126. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 243 

Distinguished Architecture as a Precedent. -IV. 



C. HOWARD WALKER. 



THE invaders from the North of the Roman cities in 
what is now Italy required centuries of time to settle 
into even comparatively peaceful conditions. The advance 
from semi-barbarism to civilization, frequently interrupted 
and checked by local wars, was constant in one direction, 
— that of the progress of the Church. The ecclesiastic not 
only unified all classes of men under the tie of a universal 
religion, but by the inculcation of fear on the one hand 
and by the example of a higher type of cultivation on the 
other, led the peoples into a more coherent life. The 
religious edifices became the most important expression of 
the progress of civilization, and from the 8th to the 15th 
century the principal development of architecture in 
Europe is shown in their design. The Church of Rome 
had as its environment what remained of classic Rome, 
and sought at first, as far as lay in its power of technique, 
to imitate classic motives. Of these motives the arch was 
the most conspicuous, and therefore made the most con- 
stant appeal. Until the time of the structural develop- 
ment of the pier system and vaulting, which created the 
(iothic style, the ecclesiastical buildings, monasteries, 
abbeys, cathedrals, churches, and bishops' residences were 
all designed with round arches as the chief architectural 
motive. In the classic buildings the arch was used to 
span voids ; in these later round arched buildings, arcades 
were often mere decorative motives. 

The reason for the use of series of arches of small spans 



was twofold, — first, because the early builders were often 
incapable of constructing or supporting arches of large 
span, and second because the arched form was imitated as 
a decorative feature not as a structural necessity. Quan- 
tity was substituted for quality. Early in the 19th century 
the French classified this round arched architecture based 
upon Roman precedents as Romano, to discriminate be- 
tween it and Romain, that is, Roman classic work. It is 
known to us as Romanesque. There are two very distinct 
types, — that of Northern Italy built of brick and marble, 
and that of France, (iermany, and Northern Spain built of 
stone. The first can be found in Strack's book on the subject 
and in Street's " Brick and Marble Architecture of Italy," 
the second in Revoil's " Romanesque Architecture." 
Areas of openings were small in comparison to wall sur- 
faces ; the structure was one of inertia and of horizontal lines 
rather than of vertical lines. Decorative effect wasobtained 
around openings by arches within arches, and by arcades, 
and by decorated string courses and grouped columns. 

In the brickwork of Italy these are delicate. Elsewhere 
they are strong, sturdy, and vigorous. The proportions of 
the orders of architecture are forsaken, probably from lack 
of knowledge and of appreciation. Columns are of all 
sizes and proportions, and any portions of entablatures arc- 
used indiscriminately. The development of the doorway 
by series of concentric arches, each receding behind the 
plane of that above it, affords opportunity for columns 





<£ 



CHURCH OF S. TROl'III.MK, ARLES, FRANCE 



CIITRCII OF S. GILLES, FRANCE. 



244 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





DURHAM CATHEDRAL, ENGLAND. 



CHURCH OF S. AMBROGIO, MILAN, ITALY. 



which fill the angles of the jambs, and develop later into 
the rich decorative moulded treatment of Gothic doorways. 

The vigor of the style in stone permits rough wall texture, 
but does not require it. The style is a free one, dependent 
upon the spotting of its shades and shadows in scale and 
proportion much more than upon refinement or beauty of 
detail. 

It is fitted for buildings with sturdy walls, deep reveals, 
and comparatively little demand for light in the interior--., 
and is apt to require isolation and somewhat rustic environ- 
ment, so that it may not overwhelm its neighbors by its 
robust quality. 

This is much less true of the Italian type than of the 
Northern type. The Romanesque style appealed strongly 
to the vigorous personality of II. II. Richardson and was 
used by him with appreciation and skill. Much of the 
work suggested by this style 
has, however, exaggerated 
its possibilities of uncouth- 
ness and of crude propor- 
tions. It readily becomes 
heavy, vulgar, and com- 
monplace. Having no 
canons of art and being de- 
pendent upon good taste for 
its best qualities, it has 
nothing to correct its 
capacity for crudity. Its 
ornamental details range 
from direct imitations of 
classic detail, through com- 
binations of geometric 
forms, to strongly conven- 
tionalized naturalistic orna- 
ment. The Romanesque 
style in the past occurred in 
ecclesiastical buildings of 
considerable size, and it is 
still adaptable for such ed- 
ifices and for smaller isolated 
buildings, such as libraries, 
crematories, etc. It is heavy 
and usually large in scale 
for dwellings and ill-fitted 
for any buildings in which 



much light is required. The designer in this style will find 
the more delicate work of Italy better adapted to modern 
conditions than the Northern work. He should realize 
that the jamb and arch treatment of openings is a very 
important motif of the style and should not be coarsely 
treated ; that columns only three and four times the 
height of their diameters are uncouth; that very large 
voussoirs in small arches are crude, and that because the 
style is sturdy, its detail need not be huge in scale. Also, 
that rock-face stone is very apt to destroy the proportions 
of the work . 

The carving of Romanesque work is full and strong, 
often with deep undercutting and usually with more orna- 
ment than background. Its surface modulations are slight, 
as it depends upon its silhouette for effect, not upon a deli- 
cacy which would seem puerile applied to the broad planes 

of its surfaces. 

The leafage ranges from 
a V-cut leaf resembling the 
Byzantine acanthus to a 
round-lobed or foiled leaf 
like that of the Gothic. 
Stems are large ami often 
multiplied in parallel lines. 
Capitals are more frequently 
of the convex cushion form 
than the concave bell form. 
The mouldings are usually 
roll mouldingsor half rounds 
alternated with cavettos and 
broad fillets. Cymas seldom 
occur. Simple geometric 
bands or belts, such as zig- 
zags — dog-tooth mouldings 
and guiltocheg — form con- 
trasts to the more elaborate 
w< >rk . 

Romanesqu e m o d e r n 
work is not coloristic but 
depends upon light and 
shade for its effects. In the 
medieval work, however, 
there was color upon the 
carving and in patterns upon 
the walls. The colors were 




CHOIR OV CATHEDRAL AT BAYEUX, FRANCE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



M5 





CHURCH OF ST. ANTONIO, PADUA, ITALY. 



CHURCH OF ST. ETIENNE, CAEN, FRANCE. 




] 



V) 






CHURCH OF ST. GEREON, COLOGNE, GERMANY. CATHEDRAL AT ELY, ENGLAND. 

DISTINGUISHED ARCHITECTURE AS A PRECEDENT. 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





not rich, but were soft 

in effect and were 
confined to even tones 
of red, -ray blue, 
yellow, green and 
white, with occa- 
sional use of gold. 
The interiors of the 
churches of Cologne, 
Mainz, and Worms 
have been restored in 
color, somewhat gar- 
ishly. Very little of 
the color on the extc- 
r iors remains. A 
porch on the Cathe- 
dral of Leon in Spain 
is one of the best pre- 
s e r v e d examples. 

There are excellent 
possibilities of the 
color treatment f 

cafes and restaurants in the Romanesque style. Back- 
grounds of either soft gray or of the cream warm colors of 
stone, and vaulted ceilings, with borders of colored orna- 
ment, leaving large spaces which form fields for devices 
or for decorative inscriptions, are all consistent with 
Romanesque work. 

The fact which the student should realize is this, — that 
the style is broad and robust ; that it becomes uncouth and 
ridiculous used in small rooms or in small masses ; that its 
detail is not delicate but is vigorous, and it is therefore 
unfitted for use in rooms in which there are but very few 
people, or when the delicate dresses of women would con- 




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VTHEDRAL AT WORMS, GERMANY 



trast with the deco- 
ration. There needs 
to be a certain quality 
of roughness, of tin- 
conventionality to 
harmonize with the 
sturdiness of the 
style. Also that the 
exterior of buildings 
of this style are so 
strong in character 
that they are usually 
out of scale with any 
adjacent buildings, 
and therefore need 
isolation ; that the 
deep reveals and the 
round arches are in- 
consistent with a 
maximum amount of 
light to the interiors. 
The style has seldom 

been carried to the point of refinement, as it succumbed 

to the Gothic before it had reached its full development; 

but the work at S. Trophime and at S. (biles and at 

Chartres indicates its full possibilities. 

The designer adopting the Romanesque style should be 

especially careful in the relation of the various details to 
each other. Any change in the scale of details is peculiarly 
conspicuous — for. as there is no general structural ante- 
cedent to hold the design together as an organic whole 
the Style is dependent upon the light and shade of its 
openings and details for its unity — and should be carefully 
studied with that intention. 





CATHEDRAL AT MAINZ, GERMANY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



247 



The New Filene Store Building, Boston, Mass. 



DANIEL H. BURNHAM, ARCHITECT. 



THE city of Boston has added one more monumental 
structure to its rapid and substantia] growth in mer- 
cantile institutions. Upon the site of the old Seven Stars 
Tavern has been erected the new Filene store — a building 
indicative of our great commercial life and a frank expres- 
sion of modern ideas. It stands the resultant of a long 
cherished ideal — the home of a great and distinctive busi- 
ness — a fitting memorial to its architect, the late Daniel 
H. Burnham. 

Rising eight stories above ground the ensemble presents 
an effect of dignity and extreme richness. The facades 
indicate frankly the nature of the work for which it has 
been built. The Italian Renaissance, adapted to present- 
day needs, furnishes another example of how a unity 
of expression may be engendered by a variety of motives 



sequently the corner treatment has all the strength and 
stability of stone and at the same time the refinement and 
grace of the more delicate substance. The low relief given 
to the alternate ornamented courses in the piers are of suf- 
ficient texture to break the monotony of a plain surface 
and carry the eye from the elaborate treatment at the 
second and third stories to the richly moulded cornice. 

Perhaps the most striking feature is the large central 
treatment of window openings. The color scheme empha- 
sizes the space allotted to both light and air. The columns 
extending through five stories are tied together by bands 
at each floor, which in turn are divided into three panels by 
narrow mullions continuous throughout the entire height. 
In this manner the maximum amount of light has been 
obtained without sacrificing either strength or elegance in 




3-11 



PLANS OF THE FILENE DEPARTMENT STORE, BOSTON, MASS. 



and a contrast in color so important in the production of a 
vigorous art. 

The ornamented second-story treatment, strong corner 
piers, and rich cornice, all form a suitable enclosure for 
the extremely decorative mass within, consisting of slender 
reeded colonnettes, floreate paneling, etc. Dull glazed, 
dark olive green terra cotta has been used for this detail, 
contrasting sharply but harmoniously with the light gray 
terra cotta forming the enclosure above the first story. 

The symmetry of the entire facade together with the 
effective repetition of the various parts affords an esthetic 
and expressional treatment. The piers at the corners, for 
example, maintain the appearance of tremendous strength, 
although composed of small and decorative pieces. One 
feels at once that the architect has grasped the true relation- 
ship between the design and the materials employed. 
There is no attempt to disguise the use of terra cotta, con- 



the general effect. The jointing of the various parts is 
well executed. The bases and caps of the columns are 
composed of small members so carefully fitted as to give 
the appearance of one casting. 

The building was designed to meet the needs of a large 
co-operative department store. The employees' Co-opera- 
tive Association has a profit-sharing membership of two 
thousand, with its own cafeteria, its own kitchen and ice 
plant, roof recreation fields, assembly hall and committee 
rooms, hospital, library, baths, and men's smoking room. 

Instead of aisles the floors are laid out in streets, each 
one having specialty shops designed after the manner of 
Parisian booths — a scheme to keep each selling depart- 
ment by itself. There are seven entrances at the street 
level, one leading direct to the basement, one to the men's 
department, one to the shipping rooms, and the remain- 
ing to the main store. 



248 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Terra Cotta Details. 



D. II . Burnham cV Co., Architects. 
THE FILENE DEPARTMENT STORE, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 




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250 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Terra Cotta Details. 



D. H- Burnham & Co., Architects. 
THE FILENE DEPARTMENT STORE, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



251 




MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, PAWTUCKKT, K.I. 
liny Lowell, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





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i 



;■ 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 53 



Memorial Hospital, Pawtucket, R. I. 



GUY LOWELL 

(Illustrated on 

THE exterior of the building - is treated in a warm 
creamish-gray stucco with pebble dash face applied 
to walls of common brick with the joints raked out. The 
roof is of red shingle tile. The loggias are finished in 
wood while the lobby follows the general scheme of stucco 
on brick. The finish and floor of the memorial hall is 
quartered oak while all other finish is ash with rift 
Georgia pine floors. In the operating suite the floors are 
of tile and the walls of hard plaster, and in the toilet and 
bath rooms asbestolith floors and wainscots are used. The 
mens' wards accommodate six medical, six surgical, and 



, ARCHITECT, 
pages 251, 252.) 

three private patients; the women's ward a similar divis- 
ion, and the children's ward contains eight beds. The 
basement plan provides for a heating plant, laundry, ser- 
vants' and janitor's quarters, storerooms, photography, 
autopsy room, morgue, and work rooms. The second floor 
provides suites for the superintendent and internes as well 
as sewing and linen rooms. The nurses' home is separate 
and apart from the hospital building. Measuring from 
the under side of the basement floor to the middle of the 
roof the cubical contents are 640,000 feet, which makes the 
cost approximately 19 cents per cubic foot. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



ARTISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE PANAMA 
CANAL. 

SENATOR F. G. NEWLANDS presented the follow- 
ing amendment in the Senate, Aug. 9, 1912 : The 
President, before the completion of the canal, shall cause 
the Commission of Arts to make 
report of their recommendation 
regarding the artistic character of 
the structures of the canal, such 
report to be transmitted to Con- 
gress. Senator Newlands, in com- 
menting on the amendment, 
thought that the prominent men 
in architecture and art should be 
consulted in regard to the artistic 
development of this great engi- 
neering problem. He proposed 
that the Commission of Arts visit 
the Isthmus of Panama and sug- 
gest to Congress an artistic treat- 
ment that would be a fitting me- 
morial of the spirit and culture of 
our time. 




will afford an opportunity of enlarging the stadium at 
the top in case future contingencies demand it. The 
seats wiil all have wooden backs and foot-rests. The 
treads will be approximately 27 inches wide with risers 
varying from 8 inches at the bottom row of seats to 
13 inches at the top. 



FIRST BUILDING 

ON BROOKLYN'S 

GREAT PLAZA. 



A' 



""~~" . 




DETAIL 

BY WALTER HANKIN, 

ARCHITECT. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



ATHLETIC FIELD FOR 

YALE UNIVERSITY. 

^pHE plans for the New Yale 



DETAIL BY JOS. EVANS SPERRY, 

ARCHITECT. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 



000, 

the 

of a stadium capable of seating 
60,000 spectators, a club house, ten- 
nis and squash courts, class dia- 
monds and gridirons for the use of 
men in the various undergraduate 
classes. A large parking space for 
automobiles will also be provided. 

The stadium, the most striking- 
feature of the general layout, will 
present some novel ideas. Unlike 
other structures of a similar charac- 
ter, twenty-five of the fifty-five rows 
of seats will be built beneath the 
natural level of the ground. This 



Athletic Field, to cost $700,- 
include 
erection 




[JET Ml. 



BY GARBER & WOODWARD, 
ARCHITECTS. 

The Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



T the junction of 
Eastern Park- 
way, Flatbush and 
Underbill avenues, 
Brooklyn, a section 
of land is held for the 
proposed main en- 
trance of Prospect 
Park, which is to be 
comprised in the 
Brooklyn Plaza plan 
and to be arranged 
in the form of a per- 
fect circle. On the 
perimeter of this 
plaza space is re- 
served for the 
Zoological Museum, the proposed ornamental park en- 
trance structures, and the Central 
Public Library, the area for all of 
them to comprise nearly one half of 
the perimeter. The center of the 
plaza will have an electric fountain, 
with a wide driveway surrounding 
and walks intersecting it like spokes 
of a wheel. 

At the recent meeting of the Muni- 
cipal Art Commission the design and 
plans for the library building were 
approved, and the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment at once made 
available #175,000 for laving the 
foundations. The library will have 
four stories and a basement, standing 



2 54 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



about 88 feet high 
above the sidewalk, 
the top of the dome 
towering - 150 feet. 
A feature of the li- 
brary will be the 
children's room for 
use of juvenile bor- 
rowers. It will have 
-eats for 200 with 
standing- space sur- 
rounding for their 
attendants or parents. 
The cost of the struc- 
ture is said to be approximately $4,500,000. 




DETAIL FOR MONTEFIORE SOME, NEW YORK CITY. 

The architectural terra cotta for tbis hospital, consisting of nine buildings, is being 
made by The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 

Arnold W. Brunner and Buchman &- Fox, Associated Architects. 



receive manufactu- 
rers' catalogues and 
samples. 

Wm. Keuttler and 
Ralph Arnold have 
opened an office for the 
practice of architec- 
ture at Davidson Auto 
Block, Sioux City, 
Iowa. They request 
catalogues, etc. 



IN GENERAL, 

Mr. Edward II. Reed, architect and engineer, has 
opened an office in the Amicable Building, Waco, Texas. 



NEW BOOKS. 

An Architect's Sketch Book. By Robert Swain 
Peabody. The essays in this boot were written at different 
times by one of the leading American architects. They de- 
scribe vacation journeys and the architecture found in diffcr- 




DETAIL BY ANDRY & BKN'DERNAGKL, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Fabricated by The Northwestern Terra Cotta 
Company. 




HOUSE AT RIDGE WOOD, NEW JERSEY. 

Built of Natco hollow tile. 

Mann & MacXeille, Architects. 



Announcement is made that Mr. Joseph I. Iliggins. 
formerly of the firm of Corbett & Iliggins, architects, 
has withdrawn from that partnership and formed with 
Mr. Edward F. 
O'Brien the firm 
cf H i g g" ins & 
O ' B r i e n , wit h 
offices at Fall River, 
Mass. 



Frank A. Childs 

and William Jones 
Smith, under the 
firm name of Childs 
& Smith, have op- 
ened an office in the 
Buil- 
ding-, Room 1263, 
Chicago. 111., and 
would be glad to 



LIBRARY AT 

Brick furnished bv Western 
Briist & Bhili 



ent countries — France, England, and Itah and treat also 

of other subjects more or less related to architecture. They 
are, as the author writes in his preface, the " by-products " 

of a busy profes- 
sional life. The il- 
lustrations, with 
which the book is 
profusely supplied, 
are reproduced from 
rapid pencil draw- 
ings in the author's 
sketch books. The 
book will attract 
those who are fond 
of sketching and of 
architecture, and 
especially will it in- 
terest travelers who 

milwai kee. are about to journey 

Brick Company, Danville, 111. 

pp. Architects.' in the countries 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



255 



described. Price $5.00. Boston, Houghton-Mifflin Com- pal Assistant Engineer, New York State Department of 
P an y- Health. Price $1.50. New York, John Wiley & Sons. 



Architectural Styles for Country Houses. The 
characteristics and merits of various types of architecture 
as set forth by enthusiastic advo- 
cates. Edited by Henry H. Sav- 
ior. Price $2.00. New York, 
McBride, Nast & Company. 

English Ironwork of the 
XVIIth and XVIIIth Cen- 
turies. An historical and an- 
alytical account of the develop- 
ment of exterior smithcraft. By 
J. Starkie Gardner. Contains 
330 pages with over 250 illustra- 
tions, including a series of 88 collotype plates, from 
special photographs. Price $16.80. New York, William 
Helburn. 



Building Stones 
and Clays: their 
origin, characters, and 
examination. By Ed- 
win C. Eckel, C.E. 
Associate, American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers. 
Fellow, Geological Soci- 
ety of America. Price 
$3.00. New York, John 
Wiley & Sons. 

Fire Prevention 
and Fire Protection : 
as applied to building 
construction. A hand 
book of theory and prac- 
tice. By Joseph Ken- 
dall Freitag, B.S., C.E. 
Price $4.00. New York, 
John Wiley & Sons. 

Practical Methods 
of Sewage Disposal : 
for residences, hotels, 
and institutions. By 
Henry M. Ogden, M. 
Am. Soc. C.E., Pro- 
fessor of vSanitary En- 
gineering, Cornell Uni- 
versity, and H. Burdett 
Cleveland, Assoc. M. 
Am. Soc. C.E., Princi- 



How 
Work. 




to Plan a Library Building for Library 

By Charles C. Soule, A.B. Harvard 1862. Price 

$2.50. Boston, The Boston Book 



Company. 



Applied Methods of Scien- 
tific Management. By Frederic 
A. Parkhurst, M.E., Organizing 
Engineer, Assoc. A. S. M. E. 
Price $2.00. New York, John 
Wiley & Sons. 



DETAIL BY JOHN H. PHILLIPS, ARCHITECT. 
Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 




DETAIL AT THE 15TII STORY — THE WOOLWORTH BUILDING, 

new YORK err v. 

Terra cotta executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



TERRA COTTA FOR FILENE 
BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 

THE architectural terra cotta for the Filene Department 
Store, Boston, D. II . Burnham & Company, archi- 
tects, illustrated in this 
issue, was furnished by 
the Conkling- Arm- 
strong Terra Cotta 
Company. 

Win. Leslie Welton, 
architect, has moved to 
his new offices in the 
American Trust & Sav- 
ings Bank Building 
(Rooms 1906-7-8-9), 
Birmingham, Alabama. 
He desires material 
men to send up-to-date 
catalogues and samples. 
Mr. Welton is about to 
design a twelve-story, 
fireproof hotel and a 
twenty -story office 
building. 



Cecil Bayless Chap- 
man desires to an- 
nounce that he has as- 
sociated with him, as 
partner, Gottlieb Re- 
natus Maguey, under 
the firm name of Chap- 
man & Maguey. They 
will move from their 
present address, 509-11 
Essex Building to 84 
Sou tli Tenth street, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — THE TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
MANSON, BOSTON. 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new 72 page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



256 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



COMPETENT ARCHITECT WANTED — First-class 
man competent to handle modern office building and hotel 
work; not over 35 years of age. To the right man who 
can handle high grade work, write specifications, interview 
clients, we offer a steady position at good pay. Must be 
of pleasing appearance, good habits, and married. Good 
prospects for the future. Address, giving full details as to 
age, experience, references, and salary wanted, Samuel M. 
Green Company, Engineers £&, Architects, 318 Main Street, 
Springfield, Mass. 



School of Architecture 
of Harvard University 

Professional course for graduates of colleges, leading to degree of 

Master in Architecture 
Course for special advanced students, not having college degree but 
at least 21 years of age, with office experience, leading to certificate 

Design. Prof. E. J. A. Duquesne, Grand Prix de Rome. 
History. Prof. H. L. Warren, A. M., F. A. I. A. 
Construction. Prof. C. W. Killam, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Drawing. Mr. H. D. Murphy, Mr. H. B. Warren. 
Ten other lecturers and instructors. 

For circulars and other information apply to Prof. H. L-. Warren. Chairman of 
the Council of the School of Architecture, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 



The University of Pennsylvania offers 
courses in Architecture as follows: 

(1) A four-year course, leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option in architectural 
engineering may be elected. 

(2) Graduate courses of one year, permitting spe- 
cialization in design, construction, or history ; 
leading to the degree of M. S. in Architecture. 

(3) A special two-year course for qualified draftsmen, 
with options in design or construction ; leading 
to a professional certificate. 

For catalogue giving complete information regarding requirements of 
admission, advanced standing, summer school and atelier work, fellowships 
and scholarships, and for illustrated year book, etc., address DEAN OF 
THE COLLEGE. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



FAIENCE SALESMAN — There is an important position 
open for a salesman in a large faience company. While 
knowledge of faience is desirable, sales ability is the only 
essential. A good man can make himself very valuable. 
Address, Faience, care of The Brickbuilder. 



<$. IrnpH Ian Sort (Ha. 

Importers of and Dealers in 

ARCHITECTURAL PUBLICATIONS 

20 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

We have several positions open for good all around 
draftsmen who are not employed. 



BOILERS and RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 



THE H. B 

Westfield. Mast. 
Philadelphia 



SMITH CO. 

New York 
Boston 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK -REG. U.S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Roland Park, Baltimore, Md Plates 122-4 

Howard Sill, Architect. 



TZ?ISKE 6- COMPANY JNC 
lACE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
JLlRE BRICKS* ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 



Volume XXI 



OCTOBER 1912 



Number 10 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 
Boston, Mass. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



ARTHUR D. ROGERS 
President and Treasurer 



RUSSELL F. WHITEHEAD 
Vice-President and Managing Editor 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ..... $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers ...................... 50 cents 

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To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



BRICK, ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
FIREPROOFING . 
ROOFING TILE . 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 

From Work by 



COPE & STEWARDSON; DERCUM & BEER; FORD, BUTLER & OLIVER; H. J. IIARDENBERGH 

AND C. H. BLACKALL, ASSOCIATED; PAGE & FROTHINGHAM ; SHEPLEY, RUT AN & 

COOLIDGE; ALBERT SKEEL ; JAMES KNOX TAYLOR; HORACE TRUMBAUER. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'Ar.R 

CHURCH, VIRGIN DEL CARMEN, SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

RECENT AMERICAN GROUP-PLANS. — I. FAIRS AND EXPOSITIONS Alfred M. Giihens 257 

MODERN DOMESTIC STAIRWAYS. — II. THE MODEST STAIRWAY Thomas II. Ellett 261 

SEASIDE HOSPITAL, CONEY ISLAND, N. Y Edward Pearce Casey, Architect 269 

BOSTON INSANE HOSPITAL, AUSTIN FARMS, MASS Wheelwright & Haven, Architects 270 

EASTERN MAINE INSANE HOSPITAL, BANGOR, ME 271 

THE GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 273 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 277 

COMPETITION PROGRAM — PUBLIC GARAGE 282 



NOTICE. — The regular mailing date for THE BRICKBUILDER is the 25th of the month; for instance, the January number was 
mailed January 25th. The Post Office Department now sends the larger part of the editions of all publications by freight, and this 
requires an additional time for transportation of from two to eight days, depending upon the distance of the distribution point from the 
publication city. The publication date of THE BRICKBUILDER will be moved forward gradually so that copies for a given month will 
reach subscribers even at distant points within that month. 


















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CHURCH, VIRGIN DEL CARMEN, 
SAX LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO. 

The dome is covered with glazed tile of yellow, 
green and light blue colors laid diagonally 
across the panels. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOLUME XXI. 



OCTOBER, 1912 



NUMBER 10. 



Recent American Group-Plans. 

I. FAIRS AND EXPOSITIONS. 

ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 

Editor's Note. — In this article, and the two which will follow, Mr. Githens continues the series on "The Group- Plan " begun in 
The Brickbuilder, July, 1906. The initial articles discussed the subject generally under the headings, " The Theory of Composition " 
(July, 1906), and " The Elemental Types of Composition " (September, 19061. Beginning in the September, 1907, issue and continuing 
in October, Hospital Groups were treated, followed by the Group-Plan for Universities, Colleges, and Schools in the December, 1907, issue. 



HOWARD &. GALLoVaY 
SUPERVISING APXH'TS / ,, « 
OLMSTED BRd S, './ * 

LANDSCAPE. A'RCH'Ts/* 



THE past five years seem to have produced no radical 
changes in the development of the group-plan here. 
Former influences have continued ; effects of the Paris 
system are more and more evident since all the college 
courses and the various Ateliers 
take the teaching - of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts as their model. 
Few of the younger men have 
developed outside its influence, 
and therefore during the next 
few years the French ideals will 
naturally be acknowledged here 
as they seem to be the civilized 
world over, except in England 
and the Teutonic countries. 

Modern English ideals are 
confused. The Secession move- 
ment of Austria and Germany, 
though of great promise, seems 
sometimes, like the French 
School, forgetful that a plan is 
not merely a decorative arrange- 
ment on a sheet of paper, that 
the executed work is more im- 
portant than the project, the end 
more important than the means. 

Characteristic ot the Paris 
ideal is a certain bigness and 
simplicity, evidenced in a desire 
to include all the buildings of a 
plan in one great composition 
rather than in a series of smaller 
arrangements of varied form, 
more or less closely knit to- 
gether. A single great impres- 
sion to the beholder of size and 
symmetry is preferred to his 
sustained interest in passing 
from group to group, and the 

variety of the picturesque and unexpected. This ideal 
was impressed on the American students there, and on 
their return at once accepted by this country, for grandeur 
seems a quality appreciated by the American people. 



GROUND PLAN 

ALASKA -YUKON - PACIFIC 
EXPOSI TION 




BLOCK PLAN. 
ALASKA-VUKON-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 

Howard & Galloway, Olmsted Brothers, Architects. 

Situated on strip of land between two lakes ; city of 
Seattle adjoining to the north ; entrance at head of 
open court or telescope, forming main composition ; 
around it, lesser buildings of the Fair are grouped. 
Curved buildings of agriculture and manufactures 
arranged at the foot to accentuate the opening; lanes 
cut through the great pines, southeast toward Mount 
Rainier on the horizon, and east and south over the 
lakes. 



diate acclaim. It was a bold course for the designers to 
have taken, this manifestation in staff and plaster of an 
architectural character which in Europe had been applied 
only to the most dignified and permanent of monumental 

buildings. The Court of Honor 
must be taken as a picture rather 
than the serious answer to an 
architectural problem ; a model, 
an illustrated lecture to the 
people on architectural dignity. 
The civic center of Cleveland, 
the MacMillan Plan for the City 
of Washington, the projected 
Fulton and Perry memorials, 
these have been the people's 
response. 

From this point of view, the 
censure of certain architects has 
been unjust, the criticism that 
the buildings of the Chicago 
Fair were not constructive, did 
not express their material nor 
their temporary nature ; nor 
that they were built to house ex- 
hibits of manufactures, to pro- 
mote sales, and to show, in an 
amusing way, the mechanical 
and agricultural progress of the 
preceding twenty years. 

Later fairs, however, have 
been influenced by these criti- 
cisms. Formality is retained, 
but without such seriousness ; 
rigid lines have given way to 
curves, at times to the sensuous- 
ncss of most elaborate curva- 
ture. Following the French 
ideal, there has been a tendency 
toward the unity of one great 
composition of a recognized form. The Pan-American of 
Buffalo and the Alaska- Yukon- Pacific Fairs are each 
grouped around an open court such as in preceding articles 
we have called the telescope; it is the composition of the 



The Court of Honor at the Chicago Fair received imme- Champs de Mars group of the last Paris Exposition, with 



2 5 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the Pont Alexandre 
III and the Grand 
and Petit Palais. 
The New York State 
Fair at Syracuse is 
an example of our 
unsymmetrical com- 
post I ion on two axes, 
and noteworthy in 
that it shows the 
successful placing: of 
every building in 
tlie single composi- 
tion : not one could 
he moved without 
its loss being imme- 
diately felt. The 
designers have em- 
ployed every unit to 
aid toward a single 
prodigious impres- 
sion. 

The proposed 
Nash vill e F air is 
entirely different ; 
two raee - tracks 
hemmed it in ; a 
central hillock di- 
vided the site ; part 
of the group was 
required at once, 
and the rest for some 
future time. Re- 
sults have been fortunate : whereas the entire New York 
State Fair is seen at the first glance and nothing- left for 
exploration, the Nashville on the other hand leads one on 
from interest to interest, never with the stupendous im- 




GROUI' PLAN — PAN AMERICAN EXPOSITION. 

/. Dominant compound Open Court, or telescope ; head at electric tower, foot 
at the Bridge of Honor. 

//. At head, closed court, formed by railroad station, arcades, and electric tower. 

///. At foot, Open court or telescope, in direction opposite to that of dominant 
composition ; Bridge of Honor forms foot of this as of dominant. 

Principal entrances are at head of dominant composition, as in Seattle Fair. 



pression of space as 
at the New York 
State Fair, but with 
always something- 
fresh and unex- 
pected. The French 
influence is evident 
in the central domed 
Concert Hall, with 
its Chateau d'Eau 
and its Trocadero- 
like colonnade, and 
elsewhere in sweep- 
ing curve and ter- 
race, forecourt, 
avenue, parterre, 
and pool. 

Of an entirely dif- 
ferent character is 
the proposed Pan- 
ama Exposition at 
San Diego. The 
problem is new ; the 
sunlight severe, and 
the locality and its 
traditions suggest 
an expression differ- 
ent from the others. 
This the authors 
have found in their 
idealized Latin city 
with its narrow en- 
trance causeway and 
arched gate with flanking- churchlike mass, its long street 
arcaded to shelter sidewalks from a burning- sun, and great 
central plaza. There is no trace of French influence; the 
ground-plan as a decorative drawing- shows that. Nor is it 




PAN AMERICAN EXPOSITION, BUFFALO. Carrcre & Hastings, Architects. 

A dominant and two minor compositions, intimately connected by means of a building common to both. Principal entrances are at 

head of dominant composition, as in Seattle Fair. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 59 




NEW YORK STATE FAIR, SYRACUSE. 
Green and Wicks, Architects. 

A pure example of the unsymmelrical composition on 
two axes, incorporating all buildings in a single indivis- 
ible composition. 

Farm-station and race-course are extraneous. 



BLOCK PLAN, TENNESSEE STATE FAIR, 
NASHVILLE. 

Ludlow and Peabody, Architects. 

Higher portions of ground hatched with vertical lines. 
Two entrances demanded, at A and B. 

Music and Lecture Hall with lower surrounding build- 
ings follows in composition the principle of pyramid. 
In detail there are four separate compositions : 

/. Principal approach (from B, closed avenue, ter- 
minating in terraced steps which form entrance to — 

II. Central Group, an unsymmetrical composition on 
two axes, the major axes extending from Music and 
Lecture Hall to Coliseum and the minor axis termina- 
ting: in terraced steps to higher garden on the left. 

777. Closed Court of unusual form, with circulation 
across center. 

IV. Open Court ox U, with no relation to the rest. 





GIOUHOJ 



TENNESSEE STATE FAIR, NAbHVlLLE. Ludlow and Peabody, Architects. 
Situated at junction of three shallow valleys, with small hillock at center of their intersection. Two race-courses, grand- 
stand, and two near-by buildings were already constructed. Central hillock chosen for dominant building, the Music and 
Lecture Hall (c. f. St. Louis Exposition). Interesting treatment of slopes; existing creek widened to form lagoon at end of 
large race-course, pool for swimming races, and formal basin in central court. In general, combination of formal and natural- 
istic treatment particularly interesting. 



260 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



in any way suggestive of Paris or a French project. Paris 

walks in the full sunlight of broad avenues and boulevards, 
spacious themselves that the Places give little contrast. 
The Place d'Etoile is enormous, but the Avenue des 
Champs Elysecs is so broad that one scarcely realizes it 
when the Place is reached. 

In Rome, however, out of the shadows of narrow streets 
and alleys between huge palaces, one emerges on the 
Piazza Colonna, de Spagna or Barberini ; a vivid contrast 
is felt, the shadow intensifies the sunlight, anil the sun- 
light the shadow: a contrast which Paris sacrifices for 
space for her greater traffic. 

Now as Rome is to Paris, so is this to other exhibition 
plans. Its long street and shadowed arcade contrast with 



its great plazas ; the plan is not arranged as a unit, an 
organism subject to definite laws of composition, but is 
more in the nature of a well-arranged city. There is 
something interesting to see at the end of each street or 
arcade, an adequate climax to each vista. Here and there. 
unexpectedly seen through some archway, is a sunny 
"patio" with its fountain, as through a Roman palace 
doorway one has a passing glimpse of cortile and old 
sarcophagus, with jet of water from an antique lion's head. 
It is all totally different in spirit from the other fairs. 
An interesting problem is this of a fair, for the author 
may express any characters he wills. He may be gay or 
serious, frivolous or stately, conventional, original, utili- 
tarian, or even somewhat sentimental. 







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ENTRANCE. 
Showing causeway, entrance gate, and flanking churchlike California State Building. Central portion of Exposition omitted 

on this drawing. 







■- («&'& 




BLOCK PLAN OK CENTRAL GROUP. 

Situated on a spur of land at side of a canyon ; entrance at causeway leading from the city " A " ; railroad station at " B " ; 
a city plan ; lon.^ Streets, arcades, rows of trees, open plazas. Interesting treatment of each vista; outside of the group irreg- 
ular, conforming more or less with the contour of the canyon side. 

PANAMA EXPOSITION, SAX DIEGO, CALIFORNIA. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



261 



Modern Domestic Stairways. 



PART II.— THE MODEST STAIR. 



THOMAS HARLAN ELLETT. 



THE construction of modest stairs is a daily occur- 
rence. Here magnificence disappears, elegance only 
is current ; but the principles remain the same. The 
qualities which are sought for are absence of pompous 
dignity, light, facility, soft allure, and lastly this quality, 
mistress of all, viz., proportion, which will permit one to 
make a grand stair monumental, or to treat in a discreet 
and elegant manner the 
ordinary stair, the 
intime stair. 

Besides straights and 
turns and notch-boards, 
stairs call for the same 
consideration from the 
point of view of com- 
position as other parts 
of a house. The deco- 
ration, however, should 
always be sober. In 
rooms we have furni- 
ture, pictures, hangings, 
etc., for which we must 
provide a satisfactory 
background. In the 
cage of the stair, on the 
contrary, where the 
walls should be princi- 
pally nude, the architec- 
ture ought to suffice for 
the beauty and decora- 
tion of the hall. Here, 
then, one should employ 
columns or pilasters, 
niches, panels, etc., to 
relieve the bareness. 
This decorated architec- 
ture of the cage com- 
mences really at the 
level of the second floor 
landing and should par- 
take of the elegance of 
this floor with which it 
connects. It is a motive 
in section very beautiful 
and very noble, and 

nothing can give one a higher idea of an edifice than this 
monumental access between the floors. 

The grand stairs of habitations, stairways of honor, which 
frankly extend only to the principal floor, call preferably 
for the rectangular cage which lends itself so well to monu- 
mental compositions. It is the most economical in the use 
of space and does not commit one to unpleasant variations 
in the size and shape of steps. 

Choice of materials is of capital importance, and usually 
these should be modest in effect. The balustrade in itself 




STAIRS — PRESIDENT S HOUSE — COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

The logical result of classicising the stair was to cut short the newel, 
override it with a broad hand rail and abolish the finial. The long 
line of bold and well turned balusters is of great beauty, strength, and 
restful severity. 



is a decorative feature, and when it is executed in metal the 
variety is much greater. The range of possibilities extends 
from simple bars to the richest decorative panels. The 
art of the stair ramp has produced superb works. 

It is necessary, above all, that stairs be easy of ascent 
and descent. In this one particular, more perhaps than of 
any other, stairs fail to be satisfactory. Many different 

rules for the height of 
riser and width of tread 
are now in practice. 
He is a fortunate de- 
signer however who can 
afford sufficient space in 
which to apply any one 
set rule. A good general 
scheme for the propor- 
tion has been found to 
be, not over eighteen 
inches for the tread and 
riser together, and not 
less than seventeen 
inches. The illustra- 
tion shown on page 262 
shows a stair which 
gives a particularly easy 
ascent. In this case 
there was no need to 
economize in the space 
occupied by the stair- 
way. The use of plat- 
forms to break the rise 
will also be noted. 
There is the run with 
more than one platform 
with turns to right and 
left and in some cases 
an entire change of di- 
rection from the starting 
point. The third collec- 
tion of the present series 
on Domestic Stairways 
will illustrate some of 
the more unusual types. 
The Italian stairs, nota- 
bly at Rome, are in gen- 
eral more easy than those now in use in America, and one 
ascends them with hardly any change in his ordinary step. 
In the following series of photographs are shown some 
stairways of especially refined and clearly-designed types. 
The greater number of them are unassuming and, while 
simple and less rich than some previously reproduced, 
have also a grand and beautiful character. They will 
serve to illustrate the prevailing good taste in present-day 
Stairbuilding, where economy of materials has necessitated 
that charm be obtained by beauty of proportion and details. 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




A STATELY STAIRCASE AND HALL IN A COUNTRY HOUSE, ALBRO & LINDEBERG, ARCHITECTS. 
The balusters of three different and exquisite designs are set three to each tread. 




ONE OF MCKIM, MEAD & WHITE'S MOST SUCCESSFUL DOMESTIC STAIRWAYS — HARVARD CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 

The ends of the oak treads are painted white to carry the line of the railing. The riser of this stair is 5}{ inches, the tread 14 l j inches, 

giving a very easy ascent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



263 




ANOTHER STATELY STAIRCASE BY CHAS. A. PLATT, ARCHITECT. 
Reminiscent of noble ancestry and hospitality. The exquisitely wrought railing forms almost the only decoration in this beautiful hall. 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE STAIR HALL — RESIDENCE OF MRS. S. R. HITT. JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT. 
A Washington residence with staircase in the Adams' style. 




A STAIRWAY IN THE LATE STANFORD WHITE S TOWN SOUSE. 

The main interest lies in the fact that it is an alteration where an old stair was utilized and made beautiful by the introduction of a 

pair of antique columns. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



267 




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VOL. 21. NO. 10. PLATE 127. 




FIRE HOUSE 

AND 

AUDITORIUM, 

GARDEN CITY, L. I. 

Ford, Butler & Oliver, 
Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 128. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 10. PLATE 129. 




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DETAIL OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE COPLEY-PLAZA HOTEL, BOSTON, MASS. 

H. J. HARDENBERGH, ARCHITECT. 

C. H. Blackall, Associated. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 131. 




THE FOYER. 



THE COPLEY-PLAZA HOTEL, BOSTON, MASS. 

H. J. Hardenbergh, Architect. 
C. H. Blackall, Associated. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 132. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 133. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE. 



SIDE ELEVATION. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 134. 











THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, BOSTON, MASS. 

Page & Frothingham, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 10. PLATE 135. 



















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HOUSE 

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CLEVELAND, 

OHIO. 

Dercum and Beer, 
Architects. 




flgSTf-WOZ PL4/V 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 137. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 138. 








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THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 10. PLATE 140. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



269 



Seaside Hospital, Coney Island, N. Y. 



THIS hospital is intended primarily for the treatment 
of young children during' the summer months. Ac- 
commodations are afforded for a total of one hundred and 
twenty, which includes sixty separate rooms for children 
accompanied by their mothers. There are four small 
wards containing- seven cribs each and two larger wards 
with sixteen cribs arranged in two rows down the center 
of the ward. A milk laboratory centrally located, a 
pathological room with facilities for research in disease, 
and a morgue in the basement are features. The main 
corridor at the front of the building may be opened so as 
to become practically an open-air balcony similar to those 
surrounding the wings. The flat roof over the whole 
building affords opportunity for more open-air treatment. 



The space between the roof and the ceiling of the second 
story affords a non-conducting air protection against heat 
and cold. In order to renew the heated air in the summer 
numerous small openings are placed in the walls under the 
cornice. These openings are provided with movable 
louvres in order to prevent the warm air escaping during 
the cold months. A complete circulating steam plant has 
been installed. The building is fireproof throughout, the 
balcony piers and arches being constructed of brick, the 
outside walls of heavy interlocking terra cotta tiles, and 
the interior partitions of terra cotta tile of various thick- 
nesses. The cost including laundry machinery and all 
apparatus of a fixed nature was sixteen cents per cubic 
foot. 




Eastern Maine Insane Hospital, Bangor, Me. 



THE building marked "A" contains in addition to 
rooms shown on the plan a boiler plant, engine 
room, and in the second story rooms for the employees. 
The central building "B" is devoted to the adminis- 
tration forces and provides in the second story an amuse- 
ment hall with stage and gallery. Aside from the offices 
and superintendent's quarters in the upper story a number 
of bedrooms have been planned for the trustees. Build- 
ing " D " provides in the basement a large general dining 
room which is used by the occupants of the' pavilions " C ' 
and " D." The other buildings have individual dining 



rooms for each ward. Buildings " C " and " I) " each 
accommodate 125 female patients while "E" is arranged 
for 125 male patients and " F " 136- Throughout the in- 
terior finish is of asli or North Carolina pine. The Tuber- 
cular building is constructed of brick and timber. Fire- 
proof materials have been employed excepting the wood 
construction in the roofs of "F" and "D" which arc 
built with heavy hard pine rafters, and the 2>2 inch plank- 
in "B," "C," and ' E" which form the base for the 
slating. The total construction cost of the plant including 
the barn was $750,000, or about 24/4 cents per cubic foot. 



270 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 73 



The Girls' High School Building, San Francisco, 

California. 



SAN FRANCISCO, tried by fire, is daily giving testimony 
as to the proving out of clay products : everywhere 
throughout the ' ' city resurrected ' ' are the new structures 
witnessing that those building materials produced by sub- 
jection to fire are best suited to withstand destruction by 
fire. She builds her walls, when she builds for per- 
manency of brick and terra cotta. 

In the new buildings for the Municipality are to be 
noticed the series of schoolhouses, fire stations, and hos- 
pitals in most of which brick and terra cotta play prime 
parts. Already The Brickbuilder has illustrated 
examples of these — notably the Mission and Hancock 
Grammar Schools and Engine House No. 41 — and we 
add, in this number, the Girls' High School, now near- 
ing completion. 

The plans of the building were prepared in the City 
Architect's office under the administration of George 
Colmesnil, taken further by Mr. Coffey and carried out 
under the present administration, that of A. Lacy 
Worswick. In its plan it follows a more or less conven- 
tional type. One rather regrets that it is not placed on a 
site offering a better chance to take advantage, in the way 
of open-air class rooms, of California's ideal climatic con- 
ditions. However, the land is sufficiently generous to 
permit a two-story and basement building, of irregular 
"U" shaped plan, with a principal (north to south) 
frontage of 264 feet on Scott street, a north wing of 147 
feet, and a south wing of 277 feet. 

The court opens toward the east, the best exposure in 
San Francisco, because of prevailing trade winds which 
blow from the west. One questions the completely closed 
south wing with its consequent shading of the court — 
questions it, that is to say, until the rainy season comes, 
when it affords a grateful shelter against the heavy storms 
driving from the south. The court, asphalt paved, has at 
its center the customary flagpole for use in flag drills. 
The east boundary of the court is marked by well designed 
brick piers carrying a pergola. 

The plan of the building is skilfully arranged for light 
and air and is convenient in co-relation of parts. Its cir- 
culation is excellent ; there are five well placed stairs, and 
eight entrances. In the basement, the east end of the south 
wing is occupied by a gymnasium, unusually large for a 
girls' public school. It has ample windows on three sides, 
and on the fourth side locker rooms, etc., together with 
double exits that give directly into the yard. The base- 
ment also contains recreation rooms, domestic science, 
dining room and its appurtenances, work shop, heating 
and ventilating plant, and storerooms. 

On the first floor are the administrative offices, principal's 
and teachers' rooms, twelve class rooms, study rooms and 
lecture hall. Here, also, is the main floor of the audi- 
torium — admirably placed. Indeed the auditorium is the 
feature par excellence of the building. Too commonly it 
is the practice to place the high school auditorium in 
the center of a blocky building, with circulation on three 
sides, the platform taking' up the fourth, and having little, 
if any, light except from above. In this instance the 



auditorium is virtually a unit, completely divisible in its 
operation from the main building. Architecturally it is, 
of course, welded into the whole composition ; but it is 
placed so as to occupy the east end of the south wing 
(above the gymnasium), and its isolation is the better 
accomplished by the introduction of a broad cross corridor, 
with double entrances and double staircases. The city 
school department has therefore at its disposal this fine 
auditorium, seating nearly a thousand persons, for any of 
its functions, whether directly connected with the Girls' 
High School or not. The second floor contains other class 
rooms, ten in number, science laboratories and lecture 
rooms, also a large library and study room. 

The exterior of the building is carried out entirely in 
very light buff colored pressed bricks and semi-glazed terra 
cotta, to match. Perhaps a trifle more texture in the 
brickwork would have given a more satisfying result. Its 
facades are the not uncommon composition of high rusti- 
cated basement of brickwork with a two-story order of 
Ionic pilasters above ; the whole surmounted by a balus- 
traded parapet. In this instance the brick pilasters are 
fluted : the hard task of building flutes and fillets with a 
material somewhat unsuitable — and with the too frequent 
result : they fail of perfect accomplishment. It is to be 
questioned if flutes in brickwork are justifiable in any 
instance, whether built in perfect alignment or not ; cer- 
tainly no logical reason offers itself to the writer, while 
technical difficulties seem to be in the way. Furthermore, 
the necessarily great width of bays — common to all plans 
having class-room units and resulting from long ranges of 
windows — does not lend itself to happy proportion in the 
spacing of the order itself. An unfortunate excess of 
width results, which even the beauty of the cast metal 
"remplissage " does not lessen, but rather makes more 
marked. Where this arbitrary broad spacing does not 
obtain, however, as in the central motif, and at the termi- 
nal pavilions, the treatment of the order is well studied 
and executed. 

The entrances, generally, may perhaps be open to the 
criticism that they appear somewhat small. Taken sepa- 
rately they are interesting and varied in design, and they 
are certainly beautiful in execution, both as to the terra 
cotta and the bronze-covered doors. 

Indeed, with the single exception of the pilaster ilutings, 
the carrying out of the masonry is admirable. The terra 
cotta is true in the making, its mouldings are good, its 
modeling crisp and sparkling. In the sculptured pediment 
of the main facade the modeler found at his hand an 
opportunity which he did not fail to meet. In addition to 
the caps and bases of the order, terra cotta is successfully 
used for all the belt courses, the architrave and cornice — but 
not the frieze — of the main order, for the pediment and 
the crowning balustrade. 

Like all the new schools in San Francisco, the Girls' 
High School is the last word as regards operative equip- 
ment : its plumbing, cleaning, heating, ventilating, and 
program-clock systems are of the most modern types 
obtainable. 



274 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 
THE GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



275 




276 



THE BRICKBUILDER 








DETAIL ol ; MAIN ENTRANCE. 





SIDE ENTRANCE. REAR ENTRANCE 

THE GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



277 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 

Fire House, Garden City, L. I. Plate 127. The 
building-, which in size is 52 feet by 50 feet, is constructed 
of 8-inch hollow tile with a facing" of up-draft repressed 
brick. The lower floor is given over entirely to the 
apparatus room. The upper floor is designed as a small 
auditorium with a stage and dressing rooms. The stairs 
leading to the auditorium are placed in the bell tower, 
the central core of which is used as a hose tower. The 
exterior is primarily a study of brickwork, a /8-inch joint 
of white grit mortar being used and the effect of Roman 
brick being obtained by the abutting of two bricks together 
with concealed joint. The auditorium floor is supported 
on girders made up of two 24-inch I-beams, fireproofed, 
the floor filling being terra 
cotta. The roof of the build- 
ing is variegated green and 
purple slate. The total cost 
of the building was $15,- 
484, the cost per cubic foot 
about 22 cents, and the 
building has been cubed 
on the basis of 70,600 cubic 
feet. 

The Copley- Plaza 
Hotel, Boston, Mass. 
Plates 129-132. The 
building is built of cream 
color brick, six stories high 
with three street eleva- 
tions. Four entrances are 
provided, two on Copley 
Square and one each on 
Dartmouth street and Trin- 
ity place. The main di- 
ning room, oval in plan, is 
located in the central por- 
tion of the main front, ex- 
pressed by the bow which 
is carried up the entire 
height of the building. 
The westerly corner is 
occupied by the main cafe, 
in the rear of which is the 
men's cafe. On the east- 
erly corner is a suite of 

state apartments. Between the dining room and the 
corner rooms are two broad corridors, extending through 
the building, meeting another corridor — forming the main 
lobby — which runs east and west with approaches on 
Dartmouth street and Trinity place, respectively. The 
two Copley Square entrances are more particularly for 
casual guests and those visiting the hotel for dining-room 
purposes, or those resident therein for a length of time. 
Thus it will be seen that the most perfect circulation is 
attained. 

Directly adjoining the main dining room is the Tea 
Room — in modern hotels usually being called the Palm 
Room. .South of the main corridor or lobby is the 
ballroom, which occupies nearly the entire width of the 




WINDOW IN SWEAT MEMORIAL ART MUSEUM, 

PORTLAND, MAINE. 

Terra Cotta executed by South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

John Calvin Stevens and John Howard Stevens, Architects. 



building, with the foyer forming an anteroom. This 
room is very spacious in height and has a tier of boxes as 
well as a complete stage and proscenium ; about six hun- 
dred and fifty persons can be seated at dinner, and about 
one thousand at a dramatic entertainment. The upper 
stories provide single rooms and suites and these are 
adapted to be rented separately, or from two to five or six 
rooms, and in every case provided with baths which can 
be connected with the room or suite. All of the bedrooms 
open upon the streets or upon two unusually broad courts, 
and these courts face the south. 

The basement is a model of convenient arrangement, 
embracing in its area not only a perfectly planned and 
up-to-date kitchen with all its appurtenances, but containing 

the steam, electrical, iee- 
making, laundry, and other 
mechanical plants. The 
entrance to this basement 
is from a broad driveway 
at the south end of the 
building, running through 
from street to street, so 
arranged that all goods, 
from the coal feeding the 
boilers to the most delicate 
luxury of the table, can be 
delivered in its place with 
the utmost convenience 
and unseen by the guest of 
the house or the passer-by. 
Mechanical means of 
ventilation are provided for 
all public rooms to meet 
unfavorable weather con- 
ditions and conditions 
caused by a large assem- 
blage of people. Ventila- 
ting apparatus has also 
been provided for the boiler 
and engine rooms, the 
kitchen and the other ser- 
vice portions of the base- 
ment and ground floors. 
Fresh tempered air is in- 
troduced and evenly dis- 
tributed, while air in large 
quantities is exhausted from the rooms and discharged 
above the roof. The fresh air for these rooms is taken 
from the court at the first floor level, drawn downward 
through a shaft having across-sectional area of 161 square 
feet to the filter chamber, where it is filtered before being- 
tempered and distributed. After being filtered, the air is 
drawn over steam tempering coils and warmed to the 
proper degree. The tempering coils are all automatically 
controlled by thermostats, thus maintaining the tempera- 
ture of the air supply at a predetermined temperature. 
The air is drawn from the tempering coils through the fan 
inlets and forced by means of centrifugal steel plate fans 
through galvanized iron duets and flues to the registers in 
the various rooms. The duets and flues are covered with 



278 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





DETAILS EXECUTED or ATLANTIC POLYCHROME I'ok 

TEXAS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, AUSTIN, TEXAS, BY 

ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY CONKLING-ARM 
STRONG TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

Van Vleck & Goldsmith, Architect. 



non-conducting covering, so as to insure the air reaching 

its destination at the proper temperature. As a special 
feature of the ventilation of the ballroom a device is in- 
stalled for reversing the direction of the in and out flow of 
air under certain temperature conditions. Normally the 
air enters the room through openings near the ceiling and is 
exhausted near the floor, but by the 
use of this device (which involves 
merely the operation of a single large 
damper to which are brought the 
supply and exhaust ducts) the fresh 
air is conveyed to the bottom reg- 
isters, and the vitiated air is ex- 
hausted from the top registers. 

The heating of the building is 
accomplished by means of direct 
steam radiation. 

The lighting effects in the tea 
room, foyer promenade, dining room 
and grill consist largely of what is 
known as the direct- indirect method 
of lighting, using lamps with reflec- 
tors placed back of diffusing glass. 

The result of this method of lighting is extremely pleas- 
ing, avoiding glare 
and giving a warmth 
of tone which renders 
the spaces lighted ex- 
tremely attractive. 
These results have 
been obtained without 
the loss of efficiency, 
as the glass used 
absorbs but a small 
portion of the light. 

There are six pas- 
senger and three ser- 
v i c e elevators. 
These are of the 
worm gear traction 
electric type, having 
the machines placed 
overhead. The ele- 
vators have a capacity 
of 2,500 pounds at a 
speed of 400 feet per 
minute. Each eleva- 
tor is equipped with 
the most modern type 
of safety devices, in- 





DETAIL BY WALLIS & GOODWILLIE, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Executed in terra cotta by American Terra 

Cotta Company. 



eluding under-car safety, emergency wheel in car, hatch- 
wax- limits, oil buffers under car, and counterweight, etc. 
Tin: West Side V. M. C. A., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Plates 139, 140. The problem was a building for boys' 
use ; one that would attract the younger element and be 
interesting to them. In the solution it will be noted that 
a big recreation hall was put on the 
corner so boys inside could see what 
was going on outdoors, and outside 
boys could see the indoor attractions. 
The gymnasium is on the same level 
with the recreation hall with large 
glass openings between same so 
boys in hall can see work going on 
in the gymnasium. The outside 
design expresses the interior as fol- 
lows : The balancing of windows at 
each side of entrance on front and 
balancing of windows each side of 
fireplace on side of first story would 
indicate one large corner room ; 
then toward left of entrance the 
large group of windows which indi. 
cate the library ; then still to the left a large double group 
of windows which indicate a large room, the dining room. 
On the side elevation 
the large two-storied 
group of windows 
naturally show the 
gymnasium ; the bal- 
ance of the two upper 
stories are shown on 
front with windows in 
rows indicating small 
rooms of the same type. 
On the side in upper 
stories the same type 
of windows are used 
with the added do- 
mestic touch indica- 
ting dormitories. The 
V. M. C, A. emblem is 
used as a decoration 
over entrance, and on 
the interior the cut 
stone on fireplace and 
plaster ornamental 
caps and stair newels 
show association em- 
blems, mottoes, etc. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW YORK 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

COMPANY. 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



279 




House at Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Plate 
136. This house 
was designed to fit 
a rolling lot over- 
looking a diverted 
creek bed. Most of 
the rooms are on the 
garden side with 
vistas over the nat- 
ural features of the 
land. The house is 
built of a rough tex- 
tured wire cut brick 
having a wide range 
of colors, laid with 
a wide flush cut 
mortar joint. In general the exterior cypress woodwork 
is stained brown relieved by cream-colored frames and 
sash. All of the interior woodwork is ivory white with 
gray stained oak floors. Faience tiles are used in the 
mantel facings and 
as inserts in the 
porch pavements 
and bathroom ti- 
ling. The cost of 
the house per cubic 
foot, figuring from 
basement floor to 
mean roof height, 
was 30 cents. 

The American 
Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Plates 
134, 135. The street 
facade is built of 
dark red water- 
struck brick laid 

Dutch " bond 
with marble trimmings. The vestibule and stairs inside 
are of white Italian marble. The other interiors through- 
out are finished with painted plaster walls and very simple 
oak finish. 



house at summit, n. j. 

Built of " Natco " tile with plaster finish. 
Hill & Stout, Architects. 




PROF. EUGENE 
DUQUESNE, 

professor of archi- 
tectural design in 
Harvard, at the 
request of the 
Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technol- 
ogy, made in view 
of Professor Des- 
pradelle's death, is 
to give some in- 
struction at Tech- 
nology to advanced 
students. Arrange- 
ments have been 
consummated, and 
Professor Duquesne has already begun his work at the 
Institute. This is a reciprocation of what Technology did 
a few years ago when Professor Despradelle took a class 
at the Flarvard School, and has been done at the request 

of President Mac- 
laurin to President 
Lowell, and with 
the approval of the 
Harvard School of 
Architecture. 

This appointment 
does not in any way 
interfere with Pro- 
fessor Duquesne 's 
duties and interests 
in the University. 



IN GENERAL. 

The Atlantic Ter- 
ra Cotta Company 



HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Built of Colonial brick, made by Hydraulic-Press Brick Company 
Cope and Stewardson, Architects. 



will furnish the 
architectural terra 
eotta for the follow- 
ing new buildings : Architects' Building, New York City, 
Ewing & Chappell, and LaFarge & Morris, associated 
architects ; Burnett Building, Birmingham, Ala., II. B. 
Wheelock, architect ; Shubert Theatre, New York City, 




HOUSE AT ATLANTA, GA. 
Built of buff-onyx Astrakhan brick, made by Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Company. E. E. Dougherty, Architect. 



280 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL OF JOHN HAY RESIDENCE, CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Showing roofs of Ludowici-Celadon tiles. 

Abram Garfield, Architect. 

Henry B. Herts , architect ; American National Rank Build- 
ing, Galveston, Texas, Green & Finger, architects. 

The members of the Atelier PreVot announce the resig- 
nation of Maurice Prevot, who is to devote his entire time 
to university work. Harvey Wiley Corbett has accepted 
the office of patron of the Atelier, which will now bear 

his name. 

The Master Builders' Association, Boston, through its 
secretary, William II. Say ward, is agitating the proposal 




whereby the contractor shall receive re- 
muneration for estimating work done for 
the benefit of the owner, where ordinarily 
he would be at a loss of both time and 
money through failure in securing any 
work subsequent to such estimating - . The 
proposal has met with favor from several of 
the larger Boston architectural firms. 

Sayre & Fisher Company supplied their 
up-draft repressed brick for the exterior 

facing of the Fire House at Garden City, 
illustrated and described in this number. 

The II. IS. Smith Company has just issued 
a very complete and comprehensive boiler 
and radiator catalogue. They will gladly 
furnish one of these books to any one in- 
terested in heating apparatus. 



Daniel R. Huntington has been appointed 
architect for the city of Seattle. lie will 
have charge of planning all municipal and 
park buildings. Manufacturers' catalogues 
will be welcome. They should be addressed to City Archi- 
tect, care Department of Buildings, Seattle, Wash. 

Prof. N. C. Curtis, a graduate of Columbia University, 
has been elected to the chair of Architecture in Tulane 




RIVERSIDE SCHOOL, [NDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

Built of brick (mosaic shade) made by Western Brick Company, 

Danville, 111. 

Brubaker& Stern, Architects. 

University, New ' Orleans. Samples of building materials, 
together with manufacturers' catalogues, are requested. 

A. A. Crowell, architect, has opened a branch office in 
the Caldwell-Murdock Building, Wichita, Kan. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company furnished the archi- 
tectural terra cotta for the Copley-Plaza Hotel, illustrated 
in this issue. 

Otto G. Simonson, architect, announces the removal of 
his offices to the Maryland Casualty Tower, Baltimore, Md. 



WALL, CEILING, AXD GRILLE IX VF.STIBULE OF BANK. 
Treated in Faience by The Rookwood Pottery Company. 



TERRA COTTA FOR THE (URLS' HIGH SCHOOL 
BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

THE architectural terra cotta for the Girls' High 
School Building, described in this issue (pages .'73 
276), was furnished by the Steiger Terra Cotta and Pottery 
Works, San Francisco. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



281 



A. G. Zimmermann, architect, has removed his offices 
to 11 East 24th street, New York City. 

Lawlor & Haase were architects for the duplex apart- 
ment house at 145 East 35th street, New York City, which 
was illustrated in the August number of The Brick - 
builder in connection with Mr. Janes' article treating of 
Duplex Apartment Houses. 



School of Architecture 
of Harvard University 

Professional course for graduates of colleges, leading to degree of 

Master in Architecture 
Course for special advanced students, not having college degree but 
at least 21 years of age, with office experience, leading to certificate 

Design. Prof. E. J. A. Duquesne, Grand Prix de Rome. 
History. Prof. H. L. Warren, A. M., F. A. I. A. 
Construction. Prof. C. W. Killam, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Drawing. Mr. H. D. Murphy, Mr. H. B. Warren. 
Ten other lecturers and instructors. 

For circulars and other information apply to Prof. H. L. Warren, Chairman of 
the Council of the School of Architecture, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new 72 page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 

ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — THE TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
MANSON, BOSTON. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK— REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Brookline, Mass. See Plate 138 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidgk, Architects. 



TZ?ISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
■ACE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
JURE BRICKS) ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



The Twenty-second Annual Exhibition of the Boston 
Architectural Club will be held in the galleries of the 
Boston City Club, November 15th to 30th. 

Prof. James Knox Taylor, recently appointed to the 
Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, was tendered a complimentary dinner by the 
Boston Architectural Club on the evening of October 5th. 



(&. MxatB Ban inrt Gk. 

Importers of and Dealers in 

ARCHITECTURAL PUBLICATIONS 

20 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

We have several positions open for good all around 
draftsmen who are not employed. 



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BOILERS and RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



V 



Westfield, Mau. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Bostop 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 
Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



-82 THE BRICKBUILDER. 

THE BRICKBUILDER'S 
Annual Architectural Terra Cotta Competition. 

Problem : A Public Garage — Three Stories High. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



Competition Closes at 5 P.M., Monday, January 6, 1913. 



PROGRAM. 

HTHE problem is a GARAGE, AUT< >MOBILE SALES AND SERVICE BUILDING,— three stories 

_L high. The site is assumed to be on the corner of a city block in the automobile district. Lot size — 
40 feet on the Main Street by 100 feet on the Secondary Street — level land. The building is to occupy 
the entire lot. 

The first floor is to be used as a salesroom with administrative equipment and for live Storage. On 
this floor plan — which should provide an attractive frontal treatment — show the necessary utilitarian 
features such as stairs, elevators, turntable, tire walls, toilets, gasoline Storage, etc. 

The second floor should provide for chauffeurs' recreation room, toilets, etc., in addition to storage 
space. 

The third floor is to provide for Storage and for a repair shop. Special attention should be paid to the 
natural lighting of this floor. 

The designer is asked to show on the plans any new or original devices which would add to the value 
of a building- of this character. 

The two street facades of the building are to be designed for Architectural Terra Cotta, the purpose 
of this Competition being to encourage a study of the material and its adaptability to a building of this 
character. At least a portion of the facades should be treated in color. 

There is no limit set on the cost, but the design must be suitable for the character of the building and 
for the material in which it is to be executed. Provision may be made in the design for the placing of signs. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A — The general excellence of the design, especially if it has originality with quality, and its adapta- 
bility to the prescribed material. 

B — The excellence of the first-story plan. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On a sheet of unmounted white paper — very thin paper or cardboard is prohibited — measuring exactly 34 x 25 inches, 
with strong border lines drawn 1 ' ( inches from edges, giving a space inside the border lines of 31 '.> x 22'._. inches, show : 

The main street elevation, with section through wall, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. 

A pen and ink perspective — without wash or color — drawn at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. 

The three floor plans drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

A sufficient number of exterior details drawn at a scale of one-half inch to the foot to completely fill the remainder of 
the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the sheet. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may 
be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales are to be shown. 

Bach drawing is to be signed by a nom deplume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the 
tiom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of THE 
BRICKBl'ILDKR, 85 Water street. Boston, Mass., charges prepaid on or before January 6, 1913. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition must be at the owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, 
although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER and the right is reserved by THE 
BRICKBUILDER to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the 
prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition will be returned direct to the contestants from the office of THE 
BRICKBUILDER. 

The designs will be judged by three or live well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this Competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

The Competition is open to every one. 

Tlie manufacturers of architectural terra cotta are patrons of this Competition. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 

Volume XXI NOVEMBER 1912 Number 11 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR D. ROGERS 
President and Treasurer 



RALPH REINHOLD 
Vice-President and Business Manager 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



RUSSELL F. WHITEHEAD 
Secretary and Managing Editor 

Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single Numbers ................. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ......... 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 



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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



BRICK, ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
FIREPROOFING . 
ROOFING TILE . 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



F. M. ANDREWS & CO.; FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN; AYMAR EMBURY II; McKIM, MEAD 
& WHITE; CHARLES BRUEN PERKINS; REILEY & STEINBACK ; HOWARD SHAW. 



LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

CHURCH, VIRGIN DK LOS REMEDIOS, CHOLULA, MEXICO Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

RECENT AMERICAN GROUP-PLANS. — II. MONUMENTAL GROUPS Alfred Morton Gilhens 283 

MODERN DOMESTIC STAIRWAYS. — III. UNUSUAL STAIRWAYS Thomas H. Ellelt 289 

BRICK MANOR-HOUSES OF FRANCE. LE MOULIN, HERBAULT, LA RAVINIERE Sidney Fiske Kimball 295 

THE McLACHLEN BUILDING, WASHINGTON, I). ('.. J. II. DE SIBOUR, ARCHITECT Editorial 299 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 303 

COMPETITION PROGRAM — PUBLIC GARAGE 







CHURCH, VIRGIN DE U »S REMEDIOS 
CHOLULA, MEXICO. 

Dome is entirely covered with glazed tile in green, 
. and white colors. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOLUME XXI. 



NOVEMBER, 1912 



NUMBER 11 



Recent American Group-Plans. 

II. MONUMENTAL GROUPS. 



ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 



MONUMENTAL architecture ; architecture invariably 
of the severest classic; the greatest, noblest, simplest 
motives ; long: colonnades, great isolated columns, terraces, 
broad flights of steps ; these are the elements of the 
accepted ideal. No matter if the motive be as old as 
Rome, no matter whether it be repeated 
over and over again at different places, 
whether it be used successively through 
different ages, such are not considered 
objections if only the composition be 
of the highest dignity and grandeur. 
In this spirit the work is judged ; there- 
fore the ideal differs from other modern 
ideals, for nothing new is demanded. 
The French, for instance, ask some- 
thing original. The Grand Palais des 
Beaux Arts with its great pylons, its 
glass pediment, and enormous bubble 
of a dome beyond had been approached 
in imaginary projets but had never 
been seen in actual construction ; the 
river- wide steel arch of the Alex- 
andre III was like nothing seen before ; 
but there is little new in the Robert 
Fulton colonnade, the terraces or nights 
of steps. The motives are exquisitely 
handled and it is a work 
of the greatest nobility. 
Unrestrained originality 
tends perhaps to the 
fantastic, the freakish, 
is inconsistent with the 
point of view just out- 
lined and so is anathema 
to the highest American 
culture. 

In consideration, 
then, of the monumen- 
tal group we must brush 
aside the question of 
originality. A Doric 
column is perhaps the 
noblest form ever given 
a shaft, and a Doric 
column won the Perry 
Memorial competition. 
Two classic temples 
were accepted for the 




ROBERT FULTON MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed First. 

H. Van B. Magonigle, Architect. 




PERRY MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed First. 

Freedlander & Seymour, Architects. 



Springfield Municipal group, but what is nobler than a 
classic temple ? 

These two and the Robert Fulton have a singular 
resemblance in their elements as outlined to the competi- 
tors. Each required a dominant in the nature of a monu- 
ment, a sepulchre in the Robert Fulton, 
a bell-tower in the Springfield, and a 
shaft in the Perry ; also lesser buildings 
were required, a museum and a reception 
hall in the Robert Fulton, an auditorial)/ 
and city office building in the Springfield, 
and a single museum in the Perry. 

Now it is quite evident that the noblest 
composition demands the dominant in 
the center with the lesser buildings set 
on either flank and balanced in their 
mass and general design ; so the single 
museum of the Perry was a serious 
matter to the competitors. It seems 
extremely difficult to form a complete 
and perfect monumental composition 
with two buildings neither unimportant. 
A rather clever analysis appeared in the 
memoir of one of the competitors : 

' ' In regard to the relation of shaft and 
museum, three alternatives present 
themselves : 

' ( 1 ) Placing the 
museum so far from the 
shaft that it will not in- 
terfere with the view of 
the latter nor detract 
from its unity. Con- 
sidering the flatness of 
the site, the expanses of 
water around it, and the 
lack of any elevation 
from which a general 
view can be had, the 
museum . . .is too 
small an element to he 
placed off by itself. . . . 
It would he lost in space 
and its possibilities as 
part of the monument 
wasted. 

" (2) Placing the 
museum near the shaft 



284 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






ROBERT FULTON MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed Second. 

Bellows, Ripley, Clapp and Faelten, 

Architects. 



ROBERT PULTON MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed Third. 
Cret, Kelsey and Jallade, Architects. 



ROBERT FULTON MEMORIAL 

Design Placed Fourth, 
Chas. P. Huntington, Architect. 



and treating the immediate approaches (by the use of 
colonnades, etc. > so that the two would form a single com- 
position. Though the principal approach is Put-in-Bay, 
the openness of the site affords a view of the monument 
from all sides ; and the conception of unity makes it desir- 
able that the monument should present a simple outline 
from all around. If the museum is placed near the shaft, 
it and the almost indispensable colonnades, etc., will cut 
off the view of the latter, anil the varied outlines presented 
from different points will detract from the simplicity of 
the whole. 

"(3) Placing tile museum in the base of the shaft. 
This gives a monument complete in itself independently 
of approaches, a monumental unit, with nothing to distract 
the attention from it, and presents a symmetrical ma^s 
from all directions. It fulfils the requirements set forth 
above, and we have adopted it in preference to all other 
schemes. The museum, however, must lie so treated as 
to give the idea of adequate solidity to support the shaft. 
We have made it in appearance a solid plinth of stone 
about thirty feet high." 





This paper accompanied the design placed fourth; the 
third was governed by the same argument. 

Contrasted with the low island and level breadth of Lake- 
Erie, the great shaft will appear larger than the Wash- 
ington obelisk, and the idea of its resting on a small 
museum seems absurd, though the difficulty was so cleverly 
managed that the effect is not as shocking as it sounds. 
The museum, of course, was lighted from the top around 
the base of the shaft, so no windows were necessary. 

1 )f the premiated architects only one met the problem 
bluntly, the second-placed, who crossed the site with his 
shore-drive, as the program required, and frankly placed 
his columnar shaft on one side and his temple-museum 
opposite, carrying broad waterways past them so they 
rested on an island recalling the Imperial island of the 
Tiber with its temples and monuments and its bridges to 
Rome and the Janiculum; but seen diagonally from a dis- 
tance the museum would seem a htm]) at one side of the 
shaft, their relation would be indeterminate and annoying, 
and so the design would fall under the ban of Section 1 of 
the analysis just quoted. 




PERRY MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed Third. 
Paul P. Cret, Architect. 



PERRY MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed Second. 
James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 



PERRY MEMORIAL. 

Design Placed Fourth. 
Dillon, McLellan & Beadle, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



285 




SCALE MODEL — PERRY MEMORIAL. 
Freedlander & Seymour, Architects. 



The successful competitors, however, with an admirable 
boldness swept aside all difficulties by deliberately intro- 
ducing a third building not actually called for in the pro- 
gram, but suggested, perhaps, as a future possibility by 
the clause stating that " the committee may, after making 
the award, determine upon the inclusion in the memorial 
of features not named in the program." 

The authors placed this third building to the right of 
the shaft and the small museum to the left, uniting them 
on a great plaza for the outdoor meetings and ceremonies 
the trustees expect ; so they arrived at a perfect composi- 
tion, the painters' "tent and tent-peg" or triangular 
arrangement, much the same as adopted by the various 
Springfield contestants or those placed fourth and fifth in 
the Robert Fulton. 

But the space was far wider and the authors made the 
most of its breadth and flatness to intensify the lofty 
isolation of the monument. The museum and colonnade 



they placed as far away as the site allowed and permitted 
nothing in between to .detract from the great solitary shaft. 
The small buildings form the termination of the irregular 
tree masses, in the near future to be interspersed with 
cottages of the summer residents (their position within 
the dotted lines on the small isometric plan) ; but from in 
front, behind, or diagonally in either direction the column 
stands clear and alone. The plaza is raised no more than 
the tides necessitate so the shaft may appear as rising 
from the water and the reflection intensify its height. 
The platforms of the small side-buildings are somewhat 
raised to accentuate the plaza's breadth, and its surface 
slightly crowned lest the shaft appear to have " settled." 
The shaft and a portion of the plaza immediately 
around it are now under contract ; the working drawings 
are not a bit changed from the competition plans, and 
this is a strong argument for the practical usefulness of a 
competition. 




PEKKY MEMORIAL COMPETITION DRAWING 
Freedlander & Seymour Architects. 



286 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Simplicity and grandeur seem of the same nature ; so in 
the Robert Fulton the first-placed was the least complex, a 
flight of steps of colossal scale balustraded at the sides by 
narrow buildings and terraces terminating in harbor-moles; 
a colonnade above and landing-stage below. The program 
demanded a broad flight of steps and made it clear that a 
winding or zig-zagged driveway as the principal approach 
would not be acceptable, such an approach for instance as 
to Deglane's " Eglise Votive," for the steps were to form 
a great theater with the Hudson 
River as the stage. Thousands on 
thousands of persons, tier after tier, 
can witness the landing of a dis- 
tinguished guest, his reception by 
the civic or governmental officials 
and his ascent between a double line 
of soldiers or marines, up the center, 
past the sarcophagus of Robert 
Fulton to the city. 

The project promises soon to 
materialize. The desi.cn has been 
somewhat simplified by later study ; 
the upper colonnade carried around 
the two buildings as a peristyle, the 
central pavilion elevated, and the 
flanking colonnades at the water 
level omitted alto-ether. The composition is unaltered. 

Now such a flight of steps requires a landing at the foot, 
a strong and formal bordering of .some sort at the flanks 
and an object of interest at the head. These four arc the 
essential elements of a grand stairway and the successful 
competitor presents them and nothing else to detract from 




GROUP-PLAN. MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

Pell and Corbctt, Architects. 



them ; and more than that he has managed by combining 

the flanking masses and terminations to reduce these ele- 
ments to three: steps, platform, and great enclosing l\ 
our type-composition of the Open Court. One forgets to 
give him credit for having included in these three all the 
program required: the sheltered harbor, the museum, the 
meeting hall, the sarcophagus or burial monument. 
Again, the less complex, the more monumental. 

The other designs submitted seem not to have shared the 
conception of the problem as a 
theater as well as an entrance. 
They are all somewhat morecompli- 
cated : the third was exquisitely 
beautiful in detail but much more 
complex and of many parts; the 
second with its central sarcophagus, 
with prostyle temples and columnar 
light-towers at the four corners, is 
interesting. The problem was a city 
gate : then it seems perfectly logical 
that the two flanking buildings are 
as the pylons of an Egyptian temple 
gate, the moles and stairway-balus- 
trades and monuments as the avenue 
of Sphinxes leading to them ; the 
city is the temple, the climax ; all 
of which is perfectly reasonable but dangerous perhaps, 
lest an unworthy building take the place of honor across 
Riverside Drive, a site the trustees do not control. It 
becomes actually a part of the composition, and in this 
way all the projets are of the nature of the open court com- 
position, the rear enclosure of the second- and fourth- 




3p 








PERSPECTIVE - - SPRINGFIELD MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS. 
Pell and Corbett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



287 









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WORKING DRAWINGS — ROBERT FULTON MEMORIAL, NEW YORK CITY. 

H. Van B. Magonigle, Architect. 



288 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




ELEVATION OF CAPITOL GROUP FOR THE STATIC OF WASHINGTON AT OLYMPIA. 

Wilder & White, Architects. 



placed, and of most of the other projets being formed by 
the trees and buildings on the fax side of the Drive. 

The Springfield group required a Bell-Tower in the 
nature of an observatory, a Town Hall which was actually 
a great auditorium, and a Municipal Office Building with 
aldermanic halls. The program made it clear that each 
should front on the square. It is interesting that most 
of the contestants treated the facades of auditorium and 
office building alike, though the last was around an open 
court and totally different from the other in function. 
This seems necessary to produce the highest dignity, 
though if American architecture 
were as subservient to teachings of 
the Paris School as is said, this 
chance for monumentality would 
probably have been lost. 

The successful projet shows the 
tower completely separated from the 
other buildings; the second-, third-, 
and fourth-placed treat the three as 
-one building, while the fifth con- 
nects the tower by colonnades. 

Nobility and grandeur are the 
ideals; is a tower nobler where it is 
isolated as are the Venice Campa- 
niles, Giotto's tower, Pisa, the Tour 
St. Jacques, or the several memorial 
columns; or not necessarily, as the 
-reat Gothic church-towers or the 
Giralda? If tower and building be 
joined and treated as one, must the 
tower be secondary to the building 
or otherwise lose in dignity by the 
ociation? The French have a 
tendency to stand their towers on some sort of plinth, as 
Trajan's column stands on its pedestal. Some of the Perry 
projets show this; but the greater isolated towers of the 
world seem to start without base of any prominence, as :i 
tree-trunk starts from the ground. St. Mark's Campanile 
on the Piazza side has no base whatever ; the vertical 
lines on the shaft rise directly from the ground, like the 
flutes of a Greek Doric column. I remember discussing 
this tower with Mr. Elihu Vedder, who stated that to him 
it was the greatest of all for this very reason, the long- 
lines of the Piazza seeming to sweep on and up the shaft 
without interruption whatsoever. 




WASHINGTON STATIC CAPITOL C.KOUP 
Wilder .V White, Architects. 



The Perry ami Springfield were triangular compositions; 
the first- and second-placed in the competition for the 
Washington State Capitol were composed as a triangle 
with breadth as well as length and height, or a pyramid, 
with the dome of the assembly building as the apex. This 
is most evident in the first-placed, and to accentuate it the 
authors put the court house directly in front of the taller 
assembly building, stilting the dome of the last named so 
that seen from the front it might not be eclipsed by the 
courthouse. The entrances are therefore from the sides; 
an unusual arrangement without any predominating 
approach but composing as a true 
pyramid from any point of view. 

The second-placed was not so com- 
pletely pyramidal, but nothing- 
blocked the view of the dominant 
building from the proposed water- 
front boulevard which the authors 
took as the principal entrance, as- 
suming that with the city's growth 
the low flats would be filled in. 

The most used entrance is now 
from Main street to the left. The 
city has acquired the intervening- 
block so that the accepted project as 
here shown is not crowded as was 
the competitive plan. It gives the 
court house which is to lie built im- 
mediately the most prominent posi- 
tion, and the governor's house the 
point of the cape which looks out 
over Puget Sound ; the second-placed 
subordinates these buildings to 
glorify the Capitol proper. 
It seems difficult to visualize these two projets without 
an intimate knowledge of the site. It is a rocky prom 
ontory over the Sound and with its colonnaded buildings 
somewhat suggestive of the Greek citadels, the Arx of 
Selinunte perhaps, or Girgenti with the sea at its feet. 
The Greeks apparently composed tor silhouette of hill and 
buildings together rather than for interrelation of build- 
ings. Axes were apparently of no more importance than 
to medieval builders, while in our plans, which are Roman- 
inspired, they seem almost everything. Who was it that 
divided all architecture into two classes, Greek and Gothic 
on the one hand and Roman and Renaissance on the other ? 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Modern Domestic Stairways. 

PART III. — SOME UNUSUAL STAIRWAYS. 

THOMAS HARLAN ELLETT. 



289 




SMALL STAIR LEADING TO STANFORD WHITE S STUDIO. 
This is typical of that great artist's efficiency in the ingenious assemblage of rare antiques. 



290 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SECTION, PLAN, AND STAIR DETAILS OF CNUSUAL STAIRWAYS. 
McKim, Mead & White. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



291 




292 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 93 







294 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 11. PLATE 141. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 11. PLATE 142. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 11. PLATE 143. 




THE BRICK Bin LDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 11. PLATE 144. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 11. PLATE 145. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 11. PLATE 147. 




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THE PRESIDENT'S HOUSE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK CITY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 11. PLATE 148. 



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THE CHURCH OF ST. JOSEPH, BABYLON, L. I. 
Reiley & Steinback, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 11. PLATE 149. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 11. PLATE 151. 




THE HOTEL MCALPIN, NEW YORK CITY. 

F. M. Andrews & Co., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 21, NO. 11 

PLATE 152. 




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Architects. 




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VOL. 21, NO. 11. p LATE 154 . 




APARTMENT 

AT 

CHICAGO, 

ILL. 



Howard Shaw, 
Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



295 




ENTRANCE FRONT — LE MOULIN. 

Brick Manor-Houses of France. 



LE MOULIN. IIERBAU 

SIDNEY FISK 

WHEN the British Architectural Association explored 
the Loire provinces on its annual excursion in 1911, 
it visited one chateau little known, which yet excited the 
greatest admiration — Le Moulin. Even the Loire guide of 
Joanne, with greater confidence than usual in the Philistine 
traveler, sets opposite its name the advice excursion recom- 
mandee, too little heeded by architects, if one may judge by 
the visitors' register. Obscure the location certainly is — 
twenty-four miles from Blois and four from Mur, in the 
opposite direction from the chateau of La Moriniere ; but 
with the two chateaux, which, by a severe repression of 
the desire to sketch, can be visited the same day, one is 
assured that the day will be a memorable one. 

'The seignory of le Moulin," writes M. de Thuet, 
owner of the chateau in the middle of the last century, 
"was, from the first half of the fifteenth century, the 
property of the family of that name. About the year 
1495, Philippe du Moulin caused the ancestral seat to be 
reconstructed as we see it to-day. It appears from original 
documents, to be exact, that on the twentieth of January, 
1490, the Sire Philippe du Moulin acknowledged holding 
in faith and homage of the count of Angouleme, seigneur 
of Ramorantin, the chateau and seignory of le Moulin with 
its dependencies. The tenth of October the same year, he 
obtained from his suzerain the right to ' fortify his hold and 
fief of le Moulin, which,' according to the words of the ordi- 
nance, ' for the past ten years or thereabouts he has always 
continued to have built and raised from day to day at great 
cost, and which he would desire to fortify well with towers, 
barbicans, port-holes, embrasures, crenaux, crosslets, 
draw-bridge, and moats, etc' One may thus assign very 
certainly to the year 1480 the date of the commencement 
of the construction of the chateau of le Moulin. . . . 



LT. LA RAVINIERE. 

E KIMBALL. 

"Philippe du Moulin had the good fortune to assist in 
saving the life of King Charles VIII at the battle of For- 
noue, July 6, 1495. From this moment the king made 
him his friend ; he gave him a company of fifty free lances, 
he entrusted to him the government of Langres and of 
Blaye, and made him his chamberlain. It was in this last 
capacity that in 1498, at the time of the passage through 
Blois of the body of Charles VIII, which was being trans- 
ported from Amboise to St. Denis, he was of the number 
of the four lords who carried the corners of the pall. 
Louis XII confirmed Philippe du Moulin in all the charges 
with which his predecessor had honored him." 

If one steps into the church of the little parish of Las- 
say, to which the manor belongs, one may see the tomb of 
the redoubtable knight, with the date 1506, as well as an 
early representation of the castle in the background of a 
fresco of Saint Christopher. 

The castle itself, preceded by a base-court with the 
stables and farm buildings, stands foursquare in the midst 
of a wide moat, Still full. Of the original forbidding cir- 
cuit of walls and towers, however, there are standing only 
tile gatehouse and the adjoining northeastern angle, which 
compose picturesquely with the tall central keep. The 
rich silhouette and the sheer fall of the towers, reflected in 
their green mirror, impart a delicious flavor of chivalry 
and romance, while the mellow tone of the brickwork with 
its evanescent patterns and stone trim adds a lively play of 
color. Already in the time of Francis I security had in- 
creased enough to permit the cutting of ranges of openings 
in the outer wall, which with their shell-crowned dormers 
furnish the only touch of Renaissance detail. 

With this change, and the provision of modern conven- 
iences in the interior, the castle serves very comfortably 



296 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



for occupancy even to-day. Indeed it is remarkable how 
admirably some of the ancient dispositions lend themselves 
to uses quite unthought of. The tier of bedrooms over 
the main gate, for instance, reached by a Spiral stair in one 
tower, have their dressing 
rooms stacked in the other, 
an arrangement as sanitary 
as it is economical of 
plumbing. All told there 
are still apartments for 
twenty guests, still fur- 
nished mostly with the 
original pieces, which like 
the chateau have remained 
for centuries in the hands 
of direct descendants 1 if 
the founder. The principal 
rooms retain characteristic 
and beautiful features. In 
the salon and the salle <"' 
manger are richly carved 
chimney-pieces, in the salle 
des gardes ribbed vaulting 
of stone, in the oratory 
tine old glass and a grace- 
ful figure of St. Catherine 
in stone, of the school of 
Michel Colombe. Most 
charming of all arc the 
arabesques with which the 
soffits of the beams in 
the salon were decorated in 
the time <>f Francis I. Al 
together we scarcely know 
which more to admire, the 
fancy and skill of Jacques 
de Persigny, the reputed 
masterbuilder, or the deli- 
cacy and solicitude of M. 
Chauvallon, the modern 
architect whose restorations preserve 
aspect and spirit. 

A few miles to the north, near the market-town of 
Bracieux, reached by a leisurely steam-tram from Blois, 




HERBAULT 



so fullv the old 



lie two smaller manors, not dissimilar in architectural 
character. Ilerbault, as a tablet on one of its towers 
affirms, was rebuilt in 1525 by Nicolas de Foyal, Maitre 
d' Hotel of Francis I. on the site of an earlier castle which 

he demolished, of which 
the square tower is the 
only vestige. Raimond 

I'hclippeaux, secretary of 
state under Louis XIII, 
who purchased it from the 
heirs of Foyal, surrounded 
the forecourt with build- 
ings of stone and stucco 
in the Style of his time. 
The chateau proper, which 
i- said to have surrounded 
originally all four sides of 
the inner court, after suf- 
ering partial demolition 
was recently restored both 
inside and out, and its 
western wing was rebuilt. 
The general plan conforms 
to the type of Le Moulin 
and La Moriniere, though 
with the moat extended to 
include the farm buildings. 
Unlike be Moulin, however, 
the chateau here had from 
the start many windows 
boldly pierced through the 
outer walls, with fancifully 
carved dormers, and a very 
beautiful sculptured door- 
way of advanced Renais- 
sance character. The 
same delightful play of 
patterned brick and stone 
exists, though the restora- 
tion has been less success- 
ful and a certain hardness and frigidity marks exterior and 
interior as well. 

La Raviniere, the simplest yet in some respects the most 
charming of the group, belongs in its origins rather to the 



TOWERS. 




>NNEUR. 



HliRKAfLT — VIEW FROM Till: NORTH. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



297 




SALLE DES GARDES. 



SALLE A MANGICR. 




VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST. 




VIEW FROM THE WEST 



VIEW l'KO.M THE NORTH. 



LE MOULIN. 
BRICK MANOR HOUSES OF FRANCE 



298 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



time of Le Moulin, with which its 
detail is similar. It was built by 
the ablx' de Refuge in the years 
1499 and 1500, square and sym- 
metrical, with walls connecting 
its now isolated round towers. 
Already before the Revolution it 
had under-one some changes, the 
moat had been tilled up, and the 
end pavilions modified under 
Louis XIV, whose emblem, the 
sun, appears in their dormers. 
The Revolution itself left it little 
better than a ruin. In 1802 it 
came into the hands of the present 
family, who once more made it 
habitable and later enlarged its 
accommodations by thickening the 
low connecting links, for which 
Mansard roofs had then to be sub- 
stituted. In recent years certain 
restorations have been made by 
M. de la Morandieti, architect in 
charge of the chateau of Blois, 
but in spite of a certain moder- 
nity of aspect due to the large- 
paned sash, no radical restoration would seem to be called 
for. The gradual modifications of time have made a 
modern home as beautiful as the medieval fortress, and 
it would seem dangerous to risk freezing its genial hos- 




pitality into the prim correctness 
of a museum. 

( >ne encounters here a new dis- 
position of the base-court, which 
is placed on the transverse axis of 
the former enclosure. The stables 
and farm buildings are of half 
timber, nogged with tile or brick 
laid slantwise in herringbone 
fashion. This construction, which 
gives to all the old cottages of the 
immediate neighborhood an effect 
extremely English, is made advi- 
sable by the clayey nature of the 
•-oil and the possibility of uneven 
settlements. 

Tlic foundations of the chateau 
itself, though not dec]), are very 
wide. The same soil furnishes 
clay for the bricks, and wood is 
easily obtained in this province 
of forests and hunting. 

In a wing adjoining the base- 
court the owner shows his atelier, 
with models finished and in pro- 
cess, and hung with trophies of 
the chase. 

One is not surprised when he says that he has never 
cared to travel widely, even in his own country. That we 
must do so is to see such chateaux as La Raviniere ! 



VNCE IxiOKWAV 




LA RAVINIERE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



299 



The McLachlen Building, Washington, D. C. 



J. H. DE SIBOUR, ARCHITECT. 



THE city of Washington, during its more recent 
development, has witnessed a remarkable growth in 
its business sections quite in keeping with the advance in 
the residential portions of the Capital and the numerous 
new buildings of monumental character devoted to the 
administration of the Federal Government and other 
institutions. 

One of the most recent of the commercial structures is 
the McLachlen Building, nine stories in height, situated 
at 10th and G streets, N. W. The first story is occupied 
by the McLachlen Banking Corporation together with two 
stores, one fronting on 10th street and the other on G 
street. The tipper stories are for offices and are arranged 
for use as single rooms or in suites. 

The very moderate height of this building as compared 
with structures of like character in other cities is explained 
by the restriction of height imposed by the Department 
of Buildings. This 
limit of height, or 
110 feet inches 
above the sidewalk, 
applies to nearly all 
streets and avenues 
designated as busi- 
ness streets and can 
nowhere be ex- 
ceeded except on 
particularly wide 
avenues. This re- 
striction naturally 
tends to secure a 
uniform height of 
new buildings 
erected for business 
purposes and effec- 
tually prevents the 
disturbing element 
caused by " sky- 
scrapers." 

Washington is ex- 
ceptionally free from 

smoke and other conditions which tend to discolor buildings, 
and therefore light colored building materials are preferred. 
White marble and granite, brick and terra cotta in light 
colors are used to a large extent. 

In the McLachlen Building the first story only is of white- 
Vermont marble, the remainder of the two facades being 
entirely of terra cotta which nearly matches the color of 
the marble, but in no way attempts to imitate that material. 
The terra cotta is glazed and finished with a fine matt sur- 
face which gives a texture in harmony with the marble, 
andalso does not shine or glitter in the sunlight. 

The design of the building, while conceived on simple 
lines, is expressive of the uses for which it was built and 
produces an effect of considerable richness, owing largely 
to the surface treatment and texture of the terra cotta. 




First 5iory Plan 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE McLACHLEN BUILDING. 
J. H. de Sibour, Architect. 



The first story, which forms the architectural base of the 
building, is simply rusticated, the only feature of impor- 
tance being the entrance to the bank. This entrance, 
projecting beyond the building line, has fluted Doric 
columns with ornamented entablature, and the doorway is 
deeply recessed. Above the first story the building rises 
in uniform stories to the top, which is crowned with an 
exceedingly rich and elaborate terra cotta cornice and 
cresting. The upper story is further emphasized by orna- 
mental panels between the windows and enriched band 
course below, all executed in terra cotta. Detail drawings 
and photographs of these features of the building are 
shown on the pages which directly follow and illustrate in 
a forceful manner the possibilities of the material when 
happily modeled and executed . 

The corner piers are considerably wider than the in- 
termediate ones, giving the appearance of solidity and 

strength. Their 
height is accentu- 
ated by shallow ver- 
tical channels and 
the absence of hori- 
zontal lines except at 
the base and crown. 
The spaces between 
the windows are or- 
namented by decora- 
tive panels, the de- 
tail being a variety 
of diaper pattern 
composed of square 
blocks. The back- 
ground of the orna- 
ment being slightly 
sunk, the panels 
give a gray effect, 
which, in combina- 
tion with the voids 
of the windows, give 
prominence and sup- 
porting value to the 
piers. These very attractive features of the design are made 
practical through the use of terra cotta. The cornice lias 
comparatively little projection, necessitating a very small 
amount of steel work in its construction. (See detail on 
page 300.) While no color has been used, the play of 
light and shade, and the feeling of lightness produced by 
the pierced free standing cresting, combine in a manner 
which is brilliant and sparkling, whether seen in sunlight 
or otherwise. 

Terra cotta has been used by the designer without any 
attempt being made on his part to disguise its real sub- 
stance, but with a feeling of the possibilities of the mate- 
rial. By the repetition of small and identical motives and 
suitable jointing the designer has produced a richness and 
unity Of effect throughout the entire facades. 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 



3°° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



| ^T— mf^_r^^^^_± ._. 




mmmmmmmmMM 



wft- ^ 



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Terra Cotta Details. 



J. H. de Sibour, Architect. 



THE McLACHLEN BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



301 







McLACHLEN BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

J. H. deSibour, Architect. 



302 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




Terra Cotta Details. 



J . II . de Sibour, Architect. 



THE McLACHLEN Bl'ILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



303 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 

The Church of St. Joseph at Babylon, L. I. 
Plates 148, 149, 150. As an argument for the fitness 
of an ordinary building: brick for ecclesiastical work 
of a monumental character, the Church of .St. Joseph at 
Babylon, L. I., designed by Reiley & Steinback of New 
York, is forcible and wholly satisfying'. 

The church is designed in the so-called Lombard style, 
prevailing - in the twelfth century, in the northern part 
of Italy, and without being' a copy of any church in par- 
ticular suggests the archi- 
tecture of St. Stephano at 
Bolog'na, and also the 
group of " The Seven 
Churches." 

Concerning' the construc- 
tion, it may be said that 
it is a successful effort of 
genuine masonry through- 
out, as the architects have 
depended entirely upon the 
old orthodox system of con- 
struction, without utilizing 
modern methods, such as 
steel beams, girders, etc., 
so that the thrusts of the 
great arches are counter- 
acted and counter- 
balanced by con- 
structive masonry 
alone. 

This building', al- 
though very elabo- 
rate and monumen- 
tal in its character, 
must nevertheless 
be classed as a cheap 
building, as the 
materials applied do 
not belong in the 
fancy or high priced 
line. The brick 
(Star Colonial) are, 
in a general way, 
set in Flemish bond, 
except where some 
diaper design was 
introduced in the 
walls. The roofs 

are covered with a bright red roofin 
corrugations. 

The artistic expression of the church is altogether whole- 
some and satisfying. The color of the brick ranges from 
a light bright red to a deep brown, and the decorative part 
has been most successfully solved by the introduction of 
faience bands, borders, panels, spandrils, and plaques. 
In designing these tile decorations the architects endeavored 
to follow the Italian method, which consists mainly in the 
introduction of simple motives for the various spaces. In 
order to get the desired variety, a number of different 




KEAK. 




BARNARD SCHOOL, RIYERDALE, N.V. 

Built of the new " Tex-Tile," backed with Natco blocks. 

Mann & McNeille, Architects. 



tile of strong 



units for the semicircles, borders, bands, etc., were 
designed, which were placed in a certain rotation so that 
no repetition is apparent. The colors of these tile are strong 
and brilliant and show a great variety. Blues, greens, 
yellows, and reds are used in a kaleidoscopic manner, 
forming a very satisfactory contrast with the general color 
of the brickwork. 

The interior is also furnished throughout with brick, 
relieved by some bright tile inserts. The interior of the 
dome consists of stucco, which is richly decorated in bright 

colors, applied to the wet 
mortar (Al Fresco). 

The dome, which is 
finished on the inside with 
plaster, is broken up by 
many penetrations and 
was designed with a view 
to the acoustics of the 
building. The result in 
this particular has been 
so gratifying that it has 
been particularly com- 
mented upon both by the 
speakers and those who 
have sat in the congrega- 
tion. The plaster of the 
dome was decorated while 
it was still wet, a 
method of proce- 
dure which, though 
little used for some 
centuries, has lately 
been revived. It is 
expected to give 
great permanency 
to the painting. 

The Hotel Mc- 
Alpin, New York 
City. Plates 151, 
152. The first 
moderate p r i c e d 
commercial hotel 
which has been de- 
signed on such large 
scale. It rises 
twenty-five stories 
from the street and 
has three sub base- 
ments. The build- 
ireproof— a statement often made, but 



ing is absolutely 
generally much abused. 

Some interesting details will tend to show its immen- 
sity and completeness. There are in all 1,50(1 rooms and 
1,1(K) private baths. The working force will comprise 
approximately fifteen hundred persons. 1,875,000 cubic 
feet of rock were blasted out for the excavation. 

Among the unique and distinctive features of the hotel 
are: the men's floor (22d), which has been set apart as 
exclusively a men's or club floor; Turkish and Russian 
baths are located just above this floor, reached by means 



3<M 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




■ JL 

DETAIL EXECUTED BY NORTHWESTERN 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

D. S. Penticost, Architect. 



of a special stair- 
way. The second 
mezzanine floor 
also provides for 
the comfort of the 
male guest. I [ere 
one finds the 
lounge - a long 
gallery fitted up 
like a sumptuous 
clubroo m wit h 
library, smokers' 
necessities, bar, 
ticker, and stenog- 
rapher. There is 
a women's floor, 
exclusively for 
their use. and a 
ladies' cafe* with 
complete restau- 
rant service where 
gentlemen are ad- 
mitted only when 
is done in natural 



" McAlpin " and the period which inspired the McAlpin 

artists. 

Bungalow at Bar Harbor, Me. Plate 153. This 
bungalow was intended by the owner for use during 
winter visits to liar Harbor, and was, therefore, placed in 
a sheltered situation among pine trees and facing towards 
the southwest. 

The materials are white stucco on the outside, with a 
roof of dtdl green tiles, the exposed stonework of rough 




acting as escort. This restaurant 
oak and gold with mirrored walls of the period of Louis 
Seize. The ornamentation of the ceiling is an adaptation 
from the decoration of one of the royal palaces in Milan 
executed by Albertolli, L787. 

The terra eotta grill is one of the most important rooms 
of the hotel. Entirely new deco- 
rative effects have been obtained 
by the use of terra eotta. There- 
is a large ballroom and a 
number of banquet and private 
dining rooms varying in capacity 
from a small room suitable for 
dinners of half a dozen covers to 
the large formal affairs at which 
hundreds are in attendance. 

An interesting coincidence is 
discovered in the use of the 
monogram of Marie Antoinette, 
the ill-fated wife of Louis XVI. 
The decorations throughout are 
inspired by the work of the 
artists of the Louis Seizeperiod, 
so that the specially designed 
coat of arms, following closelj the lines of the royal lady's 
heraldic device, appears as often a- good taste permits. 
The letters "MA" are equally indicative of the word 



- 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG TERRA 

COTTA COMPANY. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

field stone, with hexagonal brick tiles on the terrace floor. 
The living room is paneled to the ceiling with selected 
cypress, the large stone chimney being the feature of the 
room. The stones for this were carefully selected for color 
and size, the shelf being one long stone nearly eight feet 
long. The ceiling runs up into the roof, with exposed 
beams of cypress between the plastered surfaces, which are- 
tinted a light shade of red. 

The walls of the bedrooms are all of rough plaster, 
tinted in various shades, the standing finish being cypress. 

All the woodwork is waxed and 

slightly stained. 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 
Schwartz & Gross, Architects, 










m? 



aBSsLafl^ 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA 

COMPANY. 

Hazzard. Erskine & Blagdeo, Architects. 



FORTY SIXTH ANNUAL 

CONVENTION, AMER1 

CAN" INSTITUTE OF 

ARCHITECTS. 

To be held in Washington, D. C, 
December 10, 11. mi,/ /_', 1912. 

THE convention will be 
called to order at 10 A.M., 

Tuesday, December I Oth, at the 

New Willard Hotel. 

The topic to be considered 
by the convention, besides the 
regular business ami reports of 
the various committees, will be 
'The Relation of the Fine 
Arts: Sculpture, Painting, Landscape, and Building to 
Each < uhcr.' ' At the afternoon session on Tuesday papers 
illustrated by lantern slides will be given by Lorado Taft 
on "Recent Tendencies in Sculpture"; by A. l'hitnister 
or on "Animal Sculpture and Its Relation to Build- 
ings and Parks," and by Herbert Adams on "The Re- 
lation of Sculpture to Buildings and Parks." 

On Wednesday afternoon Mr. E. II. Blashfield and 
C. II. Walker will present a paper on " Mural Painting." 
Thursday afternoon's session has been set aside for a 
paper on " Relation of the Garden to the House," byChas. 
A. Piatt, and one on " Park Treatment and Its Relation to 
Architecture," by Arthur Shutleff. 

The convention will close Thursday evening with a ban 
quet. Among the speakers upon this occasion will be 
Mr. Thomas Nelson Page and Mr. Royal Cortissoz. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3°5 









pr 






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- 












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THE NEW SCHOOL OF 
ARCHITECTURE AT 
COLUMBIA UNIVER- 
SITY, NEW YORK 
CITY. 



T 



PILASTER. 

Executed by Winkle Terra 

Cotta Company. 

Garber & Woodward, 

Architects. 



HE reorganization of the 
School of Architecture 
was undertaken with two defi- 
nite ends in view. First, it 
was proposed to eliminate, as 
required work, all studies which 
departed from the purely 
professional character of the 
school. Secondly, it was in- 
tended to improve the course 
in Design by broadening' its 
scope and by increasing - the 
time allotted thereto in the suc- 
cessive years of the curriculum 
of a typical student. 

The branches of instruction 
administered by officers of the 
school are as follows : Design 

— Professor Lord, M. Prevot, 
Mr. Ware, Mr. Van Pelt ; Shades 
and Shadows, Perspective, De- 
scriptive Geometry, Stereotomy 

— Professor Sherman ; History 
of Architecture and of Orna- 
ment — Professor Hamlin and 
Mr. Bach ; Theory of Archi- 
tecture — Professor Lord ; Con- 
struction, including Building 

Materials and Structural Design — Professor Warren ; 
Drawing — Professor Harriman ; Elements, involving 
the orders and their applications — Mr. Flanagan ; 
Civic Design — Mr. 
Ford. 

These seven 
branches of in- 
struction com- 
prise the w o r k 
given within the 
school. Studeats 
are required to pur- 
sue in addition 
certain studies in 
Mechanics and 
in Mathematics 
through the Cal- 
culus . 

Of these various 
fields of study only 
that of Professor 
Sherman will be 
continue d u n - 
changed . 

The work in the 
History of Archi- 
tecture and of 
Ornament previ- 












THE HESPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA, NEW YORK CITY. 

Interior walls of Atlantic Terra Cotta in natural red, modeled in low, sharp-cut relief. 
Charles P. Huntington, Architect.. 



ously included six courses : 
Ancient, Medieval, and 
Modern Architecture, and 
a similar triad in Ornament. 
The latter will remain as be- 
fore in three yearly courses 
meeting once weekly. But 
the former work in Architec- 
tural History, covering the 
subject in three courses each 
meeting twice weekly, has 
been transferred to the list 
of eleetives. 

In the schedule of required 
studies this fi e 1 d is now 
represented by two courses 
meeting once weekly and 
completing the subject in 
two years. Certain other 
courses in Historical Re- 
search, corresponding to the 
three courses in Architectural 
History, will also be included 
in the group of eleetives. 
These will supplant the two 
former prescribed courses, 
Medieval and Modern Re- 
search, given annually dur- 
ing five weeks of the second 
term. Two additional course's 
in the historical field, called 
Archeology in French and 
German, have been entirely 
eliminated. 

The work in the Theory of 
Architecture, the study of the abstract principles govern- 
ing architectural composition, will be administered by Pro- 
fessor Lord. This will supersede courses formerly called 

Theory of Planning 
and Composition 
and Theory of Pro- 
fessional Practice. 
The subject will be 
treated as an in- 
determinate or non- 
progressive course, 
sometimes as stated 
lectures and occa- 
sionally in the na- 
ture of a colloqui- 
um, required of all 
regular students as 
long as they are in 
residence. The old 
course in the The- 
ory of Color has 
been removed from 
the list of courses 
and that in the 
Theory and Prac- 
tice of Decorative 
Arts has been made 
elective. 



DETAIL. 

Executed by American Terra 

Cotta & Ceramic Company. 

W. C. Zimmerman, 

Architect. 



3°6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




TERRA COTTA FOR THE McLACHLEN BUILD- 
ING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

TI I E architectural terra cotta for the MeLachlen Bank 
Building, described and illustrated in detail in this 
issue (pages 299-302), was furnished by 0. W. Ketcham, 
Ornamental Terra Cotta Works, Crum Lynnc, Pa. 



ST. BARBARA S CHURCH, BROOKLYN, N. V 

Front brick furnished by Carter, Black & Ayers. 
Helmle A Huberty, Architects. 



IX G F.XERAL. 

Mr. Len F. W. Stuebe makes the announcement that he 
has withdrawn from the firm of Eewis and Stuebe, archi- 
tects, and has opened offices at 31 S Adams Building, 
Danville, 111. 

W. W. Ea Chance of Saskatoon, Canada, and Karl How- 
enstein of Chicago announce that they have formed a part- 
nership for the practice of architecture in Saskatoon, the 
firm name being Ea Chance and llowenstein. Mr. La 
Chance is one of the pioneer architects of Saskatchewan. 

J. S. Mclntyre, architect, has opened an office for the 
practice of his profession in the Clifford Building, New 
Bedford, Mass. Manufacturers' samples and catalogues 
desired. 

Mr. L. W. Robinson, architect, wishes to announce that 
he has removed his office from the Exchange Building to 
The first National Bank Building, 42 Church street. New 
1 laven. Conn. 

Stephen Codman, William Atkinson, J. P. Lord, W. S. 
Wells, and R. I). Emerson beg to announce that they will 
continue the practice of Codman & Despradelle, architects, 
at 31 Beacon street, Boston, Mass., under the same name. 



Till-: GREATER PORTLAND PLAN. 

THE preliminary report on the Greater Portland plan 
has just been issued by the city plan commission of 
that city. This plan was prepared under the direction of 
Edward II. Bennet, author of the plan of the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition, and the associate of Daniel II. Burn- 
ham in some of his most important undertakings. 

Portland's present city limits encompass about 54 square 
miles, and it is proposed that these shall be extended to 
allow for 150 square miles. The Willamette river will be 
improved to meet new requirements. The city's busi- 
ness center is fixed, although it will extend toward that 
portion of the city where the grades permit. Suburban 
highways — and the Greater Portland will include in its 
population communities within a radius of at least 20 
miles — will be properly related to each other and to the 
city's main thoroughfares. 



T 



HE Atlantic Terra Cotta Company furnished the terra 
cotta for the McAlpin Hotel, Xew York City, illus- 
trated in this issue. 

Among the large contracts recently taken by the Atlantic 
Company are : The Bay Ridge High School, Bay Ridge, 
New York, Gray, C. B. J. Snyder, architect ; Monward 
Realty Company, St. Louis, Granite color, Eames & Young, 
architects; Rowan County Court House, Salisbury, X. C, 
Cray, A. Ten Eyck Brown, architect; Factory for Electro- 
Dental Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Matt White. 
Wm. Steele & Sons, contractors and architects ; and Adams 
Express Building, Xew York, Matt Cream, F. II. Kimball, 
architect. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC.. 



1HJ5 BRIOTUILSm 



. published . 



Vonthlr 



..f 

Boiton, Uaai. rrqaired by tW Aot of Ai 

i .. .».. i 

I"- t**lmMt*r, who »ill 

iini r.-unMU-r i,,-ii.T»l (DUWoaolCliMifluticaJ, w**i.ui/ui:i, D.O.. ud Mala tht etiw 



mue or— 
K.j.t.r, Rus«ll F. Whitehead, 
Managing Editor.. Rueeell F. rhltehead. 
Bturinesi Uanagei/ R»lrh Rolnhoia. 
PublishottiSSC??* 8nd -' anB o n Coopeny, 



rosT-ttrricE ADDnu. 
Brookllne. Mia. 



Arthur B. Rosen, 
Ruaeell F. whitehead, 
Ralph Relshold, 



. o| iiatUwIdari bottling l i* 



Saw York, B, T. 
Boatcn, Mm. 



Cairtrldc*, Mia.. 
Srcoxline, U»»«. 
Saw fork, K, I. 



aiuount of iM-inis, mortgagee, or other aMurftioai 






(If additional apf»« i* nrrdnd. a.hwt of parwr may be lltwlMJ to tl.ii ttirta.) 



Avenga number of eopioa of each Isaue of thil i ibuted, through 

the ii. ■ ■ i Ibon during Lfai 

of this ataiututiut. (TbU Information U 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



307 



ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS — THE TITLE OF 
A 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
HUNDRED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
M ANSON, BOSTON. 

EXPERIENCED SALESMAN WANTED — Familiar 
with doing business with Architects, Owners, and Con- 
tractors on large fireproof building propositions. Techni- 
cally trained engineers preferred. Address " Publicity," 
care The Brickbuilder. 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTSMAN —Desires employ- 
ment or Partnership in Practice. Technically qualified, 15 
years' experience drafting and rendering ; can prepare pre- 
liminary drawings ; perspectives rendered in brittle pencil, 
pen, and ink, or water color ; also working drawings, full 
size and scale details, specifications ; also a practical super- 
intendent of construction. Have had charge of some very 
good offices, and have been in U. S. Government office at 
Washington, D. C, for 3 1-2 years. Address, Fenimore, 
care The Brickbuilder. 

ARCHITECT'S NOTICE — Superintendent of construc- 
tion, Civil Service employee, desires association with Archi- 
tect. Recommendations and doctor's certificate guaranteed. 
Age, 39. Education : 4 years College of Architecture. 
Experience : 5 years draftsman, 8 years practising Archi- 
tect, 6 years Superintendent of Construction N. Y. State 
Architect's office. Familiar with office and field work of 
heavy building construction, both Architects' and Contract- 
ors' business. Expert in building construction and erection. 
If you are in need of an experienced man to assume charge 
of your office or field work, reply no<w. Address, " Super- 
intendent of Construction," The Brickbuilder. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 



TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Kensington, Great Neck, L. I. Sec Plates 141-142 

Aymar EMBURY II, Architect. 

Hotel McAlpin _._.See Plates 151-152 

F. M. ANDREWS & Co., Architects. 

t3iske 6- company inc 
Iace bricks/ establish 
Jure bricks* ed in 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new 72 page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE, 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



<B. Intra Ban inrt (Ho. 

Importers of and Dealers in 

ARCHITECTURAL PUBLICATIONS 

20 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

We have several positions open for good all around 
draftsmen who are not employed. 



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3 o8 THE BRICKBUILDER 



THE BRICKBUILDER'S 
Annual Architectural Terra Cotta Competition. 

Problem : A Public Garage — Three Stories High. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



Competition Closes at 5 P.M., Monday, January 6, 1913. 



PROGRAM. 

""pill-: problem is a GARAGE, AUTOMOBILE SALES AND SERVICE BUILDING, —three stories 
X high. The site is assumed to be on the corner of a city block in the automobile district. Lot size — 
40 t'eet on the Main Street by 100 feet on the Secondary Street — level land. The building - is to occupy 
the entire lot. 

The first floor is to be used as a salesroom with administrative equipment and for live storage. On 
this floor plan — which should provide an attractive frontal treatment — show the necessary utilitarian 
features such as stairs, elevators, turntable, tire walls, toilets, gasoline storage, etc. 

The second floor should provide for chauffeurs' recreation room, toilets, etc., in addition to sto 
space. * 

The third floor is to provide for storage and for a repair shop. Special attention should be paid to the 
natural lighting of this floor. , 

The designer is asked to show on the plans any new or original devices which would add to the value 
of a building of this character. 

The two street facades of the building are to be designed for Architectural Terra Cotta. the purpose 
of this Competition being to encourage a study of the material and its adaptability to a building of this 
character. At least a portion of the facades should be treated in color. 

There is no limit set on the cost, but the design must be suitable for the character of the building and 
f< ir tile material in which it is to be executed. Provision may be made in the design for the placing of signs. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A — The general excellence of the design, especially if it has originality with quality, and its adapta- 
bility to the prescribed material. 

B — The excellence of the Hrst-story plan. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On a sheet of unmounted white paper — very thin paper or cardboard is prohibited — measuring exactly 34 x 25 inches, 
with strong border lines drawn 1 ! ( inches from edges, giving a space inside the border lines of 31 'o x _'2',_. inches, show : 

The main street elevation, with section through wall, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. 

A pen and ink perspective — without wash or color — drawn at a scale of !S feet to the inch. 

The three floor plans drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

A sufficient number of exterior details drawn at a scale of one-half inch to the foot to completely fill the remainder of 
the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the sheet. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may 
be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales are to be shown. 

Bach drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the 
nom deplume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. • 

Tin- drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of Til E 
BRICKBUILDER, s.5 Water street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid on or before January 6, 1913. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition must be at the owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, 
although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKIU'ILDER and the right is reserved by THE 
BRICKBUILDER to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the 
prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition will be returned direct to the contestants from the office of THE 
BRICKHriLDER. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this Competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

The Competition is open to every one. 

The manufacturers of architectural terra cotta are patrons of this Competition. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

AN ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 

Volume XXI DECEMBER 1912 Number 12 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR D. ROGERS 
President and Treasurer 



RALPH REINHOLD 
Vice-President and Business Manage. 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



RUSSELL F. WHITEHEAD 
Secretary and Managing Editor 



Copyright, 1912, by ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ..... $5.00 per year 

Single Numbers 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



AGENCIES — CLAY PRODUCTS 
ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE . 
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
BRICK 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 

III 



BRICK, ENAMELED . 
BRICK WATERPROOFING 
FIREPROOFING . 
ROOFING TILE . 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 

IV 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



GROSVENOR ATTERBURY; CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON; AYMAR EMBURY II; 

WILSON EYRE; JOHN A. TOMPKINS. 

LETTERPRESS 



CAPILLA DEL POCITO, GUADALUPE, MEXICO Photo loaned by R. Guastavino. Frontispiece 

A NANTUCKET PILGRIMAGE. — I Hubert G. Ripley 309 

RECENT AMERICAN GROUP-PLANS —III. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES Alfred Morton Gilhens 313 

FOREST HILLS GARDENS, FOREST HILLS, L. I., GROSVENOR ATTERBl'RY, ARCHITECT 517 

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AT FOREST HILLS GARDENS If. F. Anderson 319 

THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RICE INSTITUTE, HOUSTON, TEXAS Franz Winkler 321 

THE EMMET BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY, BARNEY & COLT, ARCHITECTS ... Editorial 325 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 330 




CAPILLA DHL POCITO, 

GUADALUPE, MEXICO. 

The herringbone pattern is 
composed of alternate courses of 
blue and white glazed tiles. 



*- ■* >*«*.U 




TtQ, 



HOU5rLS ON MAIN ^T£LLT 



HUBERT G. RIPLEY. 



A journey abroad is always the sanguine expectation 
of draftsman and architect alike. The reasons why 
architects and draftsmen do not take the trip oftener may 
be summed up as follows : (a) on account of the expense ; 
(/') the other reasons are immaterial. The architect or 
draftsman living in the Eastern States will not find the 
expense of a trip to Nantucket beyond the reach of a 
modest purse. 

Nantucket is an island thirty miles out to sea, off the 
Massachusetts coast, and the trip to it may, by a slight 
stretch of the imagination, be called a trip abroad. The 
water journey is delightful both going and coming, and 
may be taken by steamer from either Woods Hole or New 



Bedford. From New York a steamer connects at New Bed- 
ford with the Nantucket boat. The journey to Woods 
Hole from Boston and near-by points is by rail over the 
notorious New Haven railroad. A round-trip ticket from 
Boston during the summer season costs four dollars ; pro- 
portionate rates from other places. 

Sixty or seventy years ago Nantucket was the third 
richest town in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, being 
surpassed only by Boston and Salem. The chief occupa- 
tion at that time was whaling (the chase of the Balaena 
Mysticetus and the Physeter Macrocephalus , not flogging), 
and, as all know, during the first half of the nineteenth 
century this was one of the most important industries of 



3 IQ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




OlD NiXV- 



the world. The natu- 
ral consequence was 
that many fortunes 
were accumulated by 
its followers, and 
their material expres- 
sion is to be found in 
the building's of the 
old town of Nan- 
tucket. Up to the 
time that coal oil took 
the place of sperm oil 
for commercial pur- 
poses, and halted the 
growth of what bid 
fair to become a great and prosperous city, nothing in Nan- 
tucket had been built that was incongruous or out of 
character with the place and its surroundings. Since then 
the island has existed with very little change, and the 
hand of time has rested gently on a scene of 
peaceand quiet that has conserved its charm 
and old fashioned gentility unspoiled to the 
present daw The soft, warm sea breezes 
have swept the island each summer, kcep- 
ing fresh the flowers and foliage, and the 
tierce gales of winter have knocked off the 
crude edges and corners that might have 
disfigured the grace of the simple old-fash- 
ioned styles of its wooden buildings. 

Town and country are practically what 
they were fifty or an hundred years ago: 
plain, substantial, straightforward, and 
X'ood. The only frills that have crept in to 
disfigure the landscape are a few modern 
summer hotels and houses, and even these 
are fairly unobjectionable. Sometime ago a 
Philistine started to build a very grand place. The stable 
on the marsh was first erected, a rather villainous affair, 
with broken .class bottles embedded in plastered half timber 
.gables, perched on wabbly cobblestone pillars; then the 
foundation walls of an extensive house. Fortunately the 
work was abandoned at this Stage ; the stable lies deserted, 
choked up with weeds and tall grass, and the foundations 
of the house are overgrown with ivy and clematis. 

For the most part people who build thin.es in Nantucket 
seem to be contented with modest essentials. 'Idle weather 
is never very hot, and never very cold, ranging from an 
extreme of fifteen or twenty degrees, in the winter, to 



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eighty degrees in the 

summer at the high- 
est. Were it not fOT 
the strong winter 
winds, the climate 
would be ideal all the 
year round. This 
condition demands 
nothing unusual in 
the way of construc- 
tion, and simplicity is 
accordingly the key- 
note. 

One rule of the island is not to hurry, and, as a conse- 
quence, incidents occupy more time in happening, and 
health ami longevity are thereby promoted. People are 
not called really old until they are in their nineties. As 
an illustration of the care and deliberations with which 
work is done, a carpenter was overheard to say to his com- 
panion who was working on the same job 
with him, "Sam, I guess Idl go down to 
the lumber yard now, and when you've fin- 
ished driving that nail, you come along down 
too." '1'he native islander, as is character- 
istic of a seafaring race, is able to turn his 
hand to anything, from cooking a clam stew 
that is a dream of Paradise, to splicing the 
main brace. All winter long, people arc 
mending and repairing and slicking up town 
and country, and doing whatever is needed 
to make things neat and shipshape, and in 
the summer all their energies are devoted to 
the entertainment and recreation of a large 
and select drove of visitors. 

No attempt will be made here to give an 

exhaustive treatment or analysis of the archi- 
tectural features of the place, merely a vague outline of 
some of the quaint and pleasing things that strike the casual 
observer who possesses a love of simplicity ami an appre- 
ciation of naturalness. Taken individually, there is 
nothing surpassing or wonderful about the place : there are 
no very fine buildings which stand out by contrast as 
splendid examples, neither arc there any horrid monstrosi- 
ties. Put taken as a whole, it is unique and beautiful ; 
everything fits in its place so well, from the humblest tiny 
cottage at Sconset, to the porticoed mansions on Main 
street. Even the Congregational Church looks imposing 
and dignified when seen by moonlight as one walks down 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



3" 



the road from the Sea Cliff Inn. The haze of a mid- 
summer night spreads its veil over the outline of the town, 
erowned by the massive pile of wooden pinnacles and tur- 
rets, massive only, however, as seen in the false perspective 
of the half-light. It needs but little imagination and the 
likeness to some Cathedral town of the Old World becomes 
quite striking". 

The houses with their 
little gardens are perhaps 
the greatest delight, 
though it would be hard 
to say whether they ex- 
ceed in interest the nice 
simple town square with 
its stores, great elm trees, 
and stone paved streets, 
the whole dominated at 
the upper end by the 
Pacific Bank and the por- 
ticoed "Meth. Ep." 
Church. 

The square is a good 
place from which to start 
to see the town. The 
buildings that line it are 
mostly good and interest- 
ing and there is an air of 
quiet dignity about the 
whole that is most satis- 
fying. 

About sixty-five years 
or so ago a great fire 
swept a portion of the 
town from the water front 
to the Pacific Bank ; from 
the disastrous effects of 
which holocaust the town 
never fully recovered. 
Shortly after that time 
the whaling" industry 
went into a decline and 
the town's great and only 
occupation was gone. As 
far as external appear- 
ances go, this was fortu- 
nate, for had prosperity 
continued, the place 
would now look like many 
other busy and success- 
ful communities through- 
out the Commonwealth, 
and be either stupid and 
ugly, or startling and 
horrid. 

The Pacific Hank build- 
ing is a very good ex- 
ample of late Colonial, built of brick with good proportions 
and detail. Next adjoining- is the "Meth. Ep." Church, 
as the sign on one of its pillars informs us. This is a vast 
wooden building with an imposing portico of finely propor- 
tioned Ionic columns surmounted by a fronton. The 
plafond of the opisthodomos looks a bit shaky as many of 
the boards are loose and show wide cracks. The whole 







jS^VC 









effect, however, with great trees easting their flickering 
shadows over the retreating surfaces, could not be im- 
proved upon, and in its location and environment the 
structure is just right. 

On the other side of the Pacific Bank, Main street ex- 
tends up the hill on its way out to the moors. This is the 

grand street of the town 
and on it are many of the 
town's choicest dwell- 
ings. There are two very 
beautiful and stately 
houses side by side at the 
upper end, both similar 
and mutually satisfactory 
and of pleasing propor- 
tions. One has a Creek 
portico of Corinthian col- 
umns based on the order 
of the Temple of Andron- 
icus Cyrrhestes, and the 
other a portico of Ionic 
columns with cushion 
volutes of the order of 
Nike Apteros. Both 
porticoes are two stories 
high and of noble size, 
crowning a series of small 
grass terraces and charm- 
ingly obumbrated by 
trees, shrubs, flowers, 
and vines. The detail 
and handling of the roofs, 
chimneys, and doorways 
is worthy of emulation. 
Nearly opposite these 
two fine places are three 
houses of brick with well- 
formed and well-propor- 
tioned ends. These three 
brick houses are all ex- 
actly alike, and built on 
symmetrical lines with 
good central doorways 
and nice window open- 
ings and sufficient space 
for a flower garden be- 
tween each house. There 
are in addition many 
other interesting houses 
of both brick and wood 
on this street, and bits of 
detail here an there 
worth noting as material 
for sketches. 

Center street, which 
runs from the square at 
right angles with Main Street, possesses in its way fully as 
much interest as Main street, and there is a never-ending 
succession of lanes and by-ways running out of it, the 
exploring of which brings a Hush ol pleasure to the 
venturesome. 

There are several pretty lanes and alleys in the vicinage 
of the Congregational Church, and many vine-covered 



jfliP«!P6# JfeKSifa&r 



Doo^/vS^y 



3 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







A NANTUCKET HOUSE AND GARDEN. 



doorways of late Colonial design. One of the choicest 
houses on the island is just at the rear of the church, with 
a beautiful symmetrical front, and garden leading up to a 
fine entrance porch. The side piazza is also good, and 
the hollyhocks, campanula pulcherrima, delphinium, heli- 
anthus, and funkia add just the satisfying touch needed. 
As is the case with many buildings, the rear and alley ele- 
vations of the near-by church are better than the front. 
This is v,, because the rear of the church is the old part, 
twice removed to new foundations and built some hundred 
and fifty years or more ago, while the main church looks 
best at dusk from a distance. 

Proceeding further along Center street and wandering 
off somewhat in a general outward direction, one soon 
comes to the oldest house on the island, built in L686 by 
Jethro or Bliphalet Coffin. This is also known as the 
horseshoe house, from the way the bricks in the chimney 
are laid up on the front in the form of a horseshoe. It is 
a fine old antediluvian type, though, as might be supposed, 
it is in a shocking state of repair. Like most of the real 



old houses, the builders seemed to be curiously deficient in 
the knowledge of strength of material. A common error 
being that the way to develop the full Strength of, say. a 
three by live timber was to lay it flatwise, pick out the 
longest possible span and notch and mortise it deeply in 
the center section. Where there is a short span, a nine by 
nine or a ten by ten is used, and reinforced at the angles 
with heavy ship's knees. All this must have been very 
annoying to the fiber strains and the radius of gyration. 
The ceiling was lathed with hand-made split laths nailed 
directly to the under side of the floor boards to eliminate 
any possible clinch to the plaster. The lime used was 
made from clam shells, and the stone and brick chimney 
laid Up in clay. The chimney flue is of enormous size so 
as to let all the heat escape and the rain and the cold enter. 
The floor boards are wider than the doors, and the stairs a 
most hazardous and perilous venture. Aside from a few 
little things of this nature, the house, when new, must 
have been very comfortable and the place certainly is well 
worth the modest fee of fifteen cents per visit per person. 



CENERAi. VIEW OF THE IS1.AM0 OF NANTUCKET - 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3U 



Recent American Group-Plans. 

PART III. — COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES: DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING PLANS. 

ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 



AFTER the Civil War the American College received 
a new impetus. Old colleges expanded ; new were 
founded through the growing Middle-West ; bequests 
fell thick and fast ; trustees were enabled to purchase 
broader lands and the architectural confusion began. 
A " site " was chosen for each building as required, with 
no thought of where the next would go. Then grew that 
curious desire on the part of each donor to build an indi- 
vidual memorial which 
should be architecturally 
as different as possible 
from all neighboring build- 
ings and separated from 
them by as broad a space 
as utility allowed. As 
later halls were added the 
spaces in between were 
gradually filled and in time 
the land was overcrowded. 
At first it was possible by 
judicious planting to treat 
the grounds naturalisti- 
cally, "in the English 
manner," as an extended 
park, so that the buildings 
or small groups might each 
retain its individual char- 
acter without reproach, separated from its dissimilar 
neighbors by masses of trees and shrubs. Such an ar- 
rangement a recent writer calls "the segregation and 
seclusion of each of the 




PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PLAN OF PRESENT BUILDINGS. 

Buildings for instruction and administration in center; dormitories at 
right and left extremes, acting in part as enclosure walls ; residence 
and dining clubs beyond dormitories to the right; gymnasium and 
athletic field separated ; an example of the defects of indiscriminate 
crowding. 



shape and formally treated. 



who unwittingly placed a king over the University of 
Virginia in his great library, Pantheonlike with its spread- 
ing dome. 

Lately the colleges have sickened of their hap-hazard 
buildings and trustees have come to architectural advisers, 
" landscape " and otherwise, and each received something 
in the nature of a comprehensive plan, ingeniously con- 
trived so that by moving a building here, tearing down a 

building there, building 
anew yonder, taking up 
the old meandering drives 
and paths and setting out 
straight ones, and so forth, 
their predecessors' sins 
might no longer be in 
evidence and that future 
buildings might be erected 
without mortification to 
their successors. Ingen- 
ious many of these plans 
certainly are and a distinct 
improvement on existing 
groupings ; some of them 
are admirable. Generally 
an open space is sought as 
the great motif, and almost 
always of a clearly defined 
Hampton Institute is devel- 
oping its great "horseshoe," the winding paths banished 
to the side ; Guilford College destroys its park-like irregu- 
larity to gain a great T- 



possibly belligerent ele- 
ments," which he de- 
scribes as ' ' not the same 
thing as conformity, 
though tending to the 
same result of peace and 
quietness." 

So far, well and good ; 
but in many colleges t he- 
group expanded, and as 
buildings approached each 
other the confusion began. 
There was absolutely no 
group-plan because no do- 
nor wished to be subser- 
vient ; such a plan as that 
of the University of Vir- 
ginia was avoided, for each 
building there, the library 
excepted, was a mere unit 
in a row. This was the 
age of true architectural 
democracy; democracy 
carried to a degree un- 
imagined by that would- 
be democrat and born aris- 
tocrat Thomas Jefferson, 



* • «A «•»•».. 



*"-»»" 




PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 
PROPOSED FUTURE DEVELOPMENT. 

Present buildings light, future buildings dark ; showing development of 

original central axis as a somewhat irregular Campus, and the unification 
and development of individual groups and quadrangles to right and left. 
Present lines of circulation retained ; important communication with Car- 
negie Lake, which lies below the portion shown. 

Ralph Adams Cram, Consulting Architect. 



shaped court ; Lake Forest 
does likewise for its paral- 
lelogram . 

These open spaces are 
characteristic of the Amer- 
ican college. They are 
generally as large as the 
existing buildings or the 
property itself will allow. 
Guilford's is bounded only 
by the edge of its plateau, 
Lake Forest's only by the 
encircling valley, if such a 
small depression can be 
called a valley ; Hamil- 
ton's by existing buildings 
which could not be de- 
stroyed. The open space 
has nothing in common 
with an Oxford quad- 
rangle, both on account of 
its great size and latitude 
in shape and because there 
is no attempt at a complete 
enclosure. Spaces are left 

by preference between the 
buildings. More likely, 



3 H 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 




PLAN OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

A. 



PROPOSED ALTERATION. 



A— Those in solid hiack to remain ; those hatched to be moved or destroyed. Axis lines of future arrangement superimposed. Partial segregation 
of sexes, boys to the southeast, girls to the west. B — Buildings in solid black to remain ; those hatched proposed for the future. New horse-sboe- 

Shaped open court; cross avenues at head; advantage taken of all accidental possibilities, such as coincidence of form between laboratory and 
science group at head of boys' playground, which determined its new axis. Charles S. Peabody, Architect. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE. GEORGIA. 



perhaps, it is a development of the New England Village 
Green, rechristened academically the Campus. Shaded by 
great trees, perhaps, cut with winding paths as in the older 
colleges, dignified by two small temples as at Princeton, 
nevertheless it is the hallowed " field, " the Campus, the 
center of the college, glorified in drinking-song and class- 
day oratory, the one thing traditional in the American 
college plan and therefore perhaps worthy to be preserved. 
Then, too, it is economical of space by its very prodi- 
gality. Tlie new plan of Lake Forest — selected only as 



one of a type -gives the greatest open space and the most 
building area without overcrowding. Later buildings 
might be added at the head of the entrance court, or divi- 
ding the east court from the campus proper, or even along 
the central avenue dividing the campus into east and west ; 
so, as the college grows, the composition may be modified, 
but without the confusion and crowding of the average 
college of to-day. 

Oxford and Cambridge have grown by adding college to 
college and quadrangle to quadrangle. With such an 




A ion the left). Plan of ex- 
isting buildings ; site treated 
as informal park with scattered 
groups; excellent now but de- 
fective if many more buildings 
should be added, as at Prince- 
ton. 



B (on the right). Plan pro- 
posed by Warren II. Manning. 
Existing buildings in solid 
black; Campus as large as 
ci mid be formally treated under 
conditions of site; possible 
future buildings along avenue 
of approach or dividing ('am- 
pus into several quadrangles. 



GUILFORD COLLEGE 

NORTH CAROLINA. 




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B. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



315 




PLAN OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. PLAN PROPOSED BY BENJ. MORRIS AND WARREN II. MANNING. 

A. B. 

A — Informal park type, shown bounded by an encircling valley. B — Existing buildings shown in solid black; future buildings shown at the 
extreme edge of the plateau, recalling position of Blair and Stafford Little Halls at Princeton University. 

LAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY, ILLINOIS. 



Wewl&rK-City 1-rtlle- 



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11 Ci_ymr7d/ium. 
K.Libwry 

]5Te m ,;C„„, 
14 Tower- 
1 15. Coloring 



21.Dora.Wy 
Z£r23.rW«A>rlA«i«/ 

24-25-26-27- Fwfer^JW,. 

28. OUCwGaU IWtf. 

29; AIA.Roi i-/i< i-c/ii^! 

51. "37 

32. dG.TT Fr. 

33. X.Y F,, 

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O5"3o. Grand'^ \tm6j I 

37 u... 1.1 

3fl"59. f ^i<i Hyuus/. 

40. ^ v ■ 

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DEVELOPED PLAN, STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, HOBOKEN, N. J. 

ileal laboratory, athletic ground, 
itory lower and cottages at the rca 

Ludlow and Peabody, Architi 1 ts 



Block to left of principal entrance, part of chemical laboratory, athletic ground, the wooded avenue to "The Castle" in 
existence ; instructional buildings at the front, dormitory tower and cottages at the rear, separated by athletic grounds. 



3 1 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



arrangement there is no need of a preconceived group- 
plan, for each element, or quadrangle, is complete in itself 
and the approach to it quite an indifferent matter. But 
we have chosen a more 



Phjrttcaf 
lnsfcitb'oH 



J 



fyirmifones 



difficult partie, anil recti- 
fying the old mistakes is 
must difficult of all. 

Princeton's irregular 
centra] buildings are joined 
and combined in the newly 
adopted plan, so that a 
long, rather formal, but 
irregular campus extends 
from Nassau Hall, open at 
the foot toward Carnegie 
Lake in the distance. < >ne 
looks eagerly forward to its 
eoiisummation ; the plan 
seems a solution of an 
otherwise almost impos- 
sible problem. Princeton 
was one of the earlier 
colleges to adopt the Col- 
legiate Tudor style, and 
Cope and Stewardson used 
it in rather an un-English 
and interesting way. In- 
stead of adding small build- 
ings and quadrangles to 
an already rather con- 
gested group, they built 
along' the edge of the deep 
railroad cutting, so that in 
Blair Hall at the north to 
the gymnasium at the south, Princeton is girt by some 
twelve hundred feet of city wall. Here, perhaps, was 
first used that eireumferal arrangement, followed later by 
Lake Forest, as just described. 




3cf>oo/i CliQf>r/-£i&n rx . J/i/tfVni. £eh<io/t.) 
.Veni*/ Jr?t7rbFf7oa^ 



Diagrammatic plan of Northwestern University, explaining functional 
divisions of the group. 




Revised plan of one element in dormitory group. 
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY. 



Stevens Institute, too, was difficult in the extreme. In 
a close-built city its evident development was as an inner 
collegiate city with streets and open places. Here the 

laboratories, shops, and 
buildings for instruction 
and administration are at 
the front with the dormi- 
tory-tower and cottages be- 
yond, separated by the 
athletic fields and wooded 
gardens overlooking the 
Hudson toward New York. 
These seem the natural 
divisions of a college, and 
the three are clearly shown 
in the new North western 
University: first, the 
schools proper with library, 
chapel, and museum as a 
dominant; second, the 
gymnasium and athletic 
buildings ; third, the dor- 
mitories and refectory. 
The plan is remarkable in 
its simplicity, an analysis 
in itself of the college prob 
lem : extraordinary, ton, 
since the design was handi- 
capped by several existing 
buildings to be reckoned 
with and included. One 
might, perhaps, question 
whether the com posh ion of 
the several groupings will 
be as distinct in execution as in the published plan, for 
grass depicted dark between the buildings and light in the 
quadrangles has little counterpart in reality : such, how- 
ever, seem the dangers of brilliant drawing. 





H.rf % 



-C 3 M if 

:eul» iiui jf 1 a 





NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY ON SHORE OF LAKE MICHIGAN. 

issful competitive plan for future development ; existing buildings distinguished by fine white marginal line, including many instructional build- 
id the gymnasium ; central library, chapel, museum group, and dormitory group are new. 

Palmer. Hornbostle & Jones, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island. 

AN EXAMPLE OF COLLECTIVE PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT, AND CONTROL. 

GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT. 



3 T 7 




It is unfortunate that the 
somewhat misleading- word 
' model ' must be applied to 
such an eminently practical 
scheme as this development of 
the Russell Sage Foundation, 
for the reason that there is a 
kind of subtle odium which 
attaches to ' model ' things of 
almost any kind, even when 
they are neither charitable nor 
philanthropic— a slightly sanc- 
timonious atmosphere that is 
debilitating rather than stimulative of success," says Mr. 
Atterbury in The Survey. Continuing, he points out that 
the above is a handicap to be reckoned with, and those 
who are responsible for Forest Hills Gardens are seeking 
to avoid the "holier than thou" attitude of people, who 
claim to know how those who live in suburbs should regu- 
late their lives. Yet this rare opportunity for practical 
study and demonstration, however appalling the responsi- 
bility that comes with it, and however subject to mis- 
understanding, is cer- 
tainly rich in possibili- 
ties, despite the failure /j:='-: 
of ' ' Pullman ' ' and 
other undertakings of 
its kind, — or perhaps 
in a measure because of 
them. Doubtless the 
most hopeful aspect of 
the case is that the de- 
signers and administra- 
tors of this demonstra- 
tion at Forest Hills 
Gardens are well enough 
aware of the difficulties 
of the problem which 
has been given to them 
to solve. 

While the Russell 
vSage Foundation is pri- 
marily seeking to make 
its housing demonstra- 
tion especially applic- 
able to dwellings of low 
cost and rentals, it is essential to 
of the enterprise that the size and 
be suited to the value of the property upon which they 
are placed. Any attempt to put up and market a type 
of building unsuited to the land would be to violate the 
first principles of successful housing development. And 
if by reason of certain rather unusual conditions, per- 
taining to operations conducted by the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation, such an attempt could be successfully started, its 
educational value, as in all probability also its ultimate 
financial value as an investment for the individual pur- 




THIC STATION AND FOUNTAIN 



the financial success 
quality of the houses 



chaser, would inevitably suffer. The equation is funda- 
mentally an economic one, however esthetically it may 
be put upon the slate, and its solution must be found in 
the terms of dollars and cents. 

It should be remembered, also, that transit conditions, 
both as regard time and cost, in a suburban development 
of this kind, constitute an even more powerful factor in 
determining the type of prospective tenant or purchaser, 
and consequently both the size and quality of the dwellings 
that should be erected. We can alter neither of these 
conditions. Anything we may accomplish in the line of 
progress in suburban housing at Forest Hills Gardens 
must be in spite of them and with full recognition of their 
influence, however regrettable it may be. 

This much is said in explanation, because many people 
will doubtless be disappointed to find that the first hous- 
ing demonstration to be made by the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation will not reach the so-called laboring man, or even 
the lower paid mechanic, which is possible in this instance 
by reason of the cost and location of the land. The fact 
seems the more surprising when it is realized that the 
larger number of the houses erected in this first operation 

are contiguous or block 
houses, and on plots 
.^ oftentimes smaller than 

\ our usual city ones. Of 

I ■-:. course, in a larger meas- 

ure the reduction in the 
individual lot area is 
purposely made, and 
carefully counter-bal- 
anced by larger public 
open spaces from which 
in various ways it bene- 
fits. And the word 
" block " is not here to 
be taken in its ordinary 
dreary and hopeless 
sense. ".Small groups" 
might be a better phrase 
to use. 

Vet the apparent 
anomaly remains that a 
supposedly model town 
is being built largely of 
contiguous houses in 
more or less continuous rows directly adjoining plowed 
fields — a fact which is at once a good illustration of one 
of the fundamental difficulties in American eit\ planning, 
and an evidence of the consequent serious need for just 
such attempts to Study and solve its problems as the Russell 
Sage foundation is undertaking in the present instance. 

While it is measurably true of all cities that suburban 
land values reflect far in advance the coming transportation 
facilities, and the consequent accessibility to the metro 
politan center from which their original agricultural value 
receives practically its entire enhancement, its disturbing 



3i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



c^ 




influence could be met here as it is met in other countries, 
except for the fact that the increase of values in America 
is si i incredibly rapid. 

Heretofore in this country our " unearned increment" 

has fairly run riot ; and 
while it has meant tre- 
mendous profits to many 
small investors, as well 
as to real estate specula- 
tors, and stimulated su- 
burban development gen- 
erally, it lias served 
equally to create and per- 
petuate the most uneco- 
nomic methods in de- 
velopment, design, and 
C( instruction, practices 
such as are totally incon- 
sistent with really eco 
nomic and scientific housing development. 

But the time is here, or must shortly come, when the 
owner cannot safely assume that no matter how short-sight- 
edly he plans, the further rise in the price of the land will 
more than cover the depreciation, upkeep, and sinking 
fund charges which should properly be figured in any 
building operation, not to mention any errors and extrav- 
agances in design, construction, and handling of the prop- 
erty, together with the almost total loss which time and 
again occurs in the demolition of the original building Long 
before its normal life has expired, in order to provide for 
increased housing capacity in consequence of increased 
land values, due to our abnormally rapid increase of urban 
and suburban population. 

For the Russell Sage Foundation to take advantage of 
any such fortuitous conditions would be practically unfor- 
tunate. Rather is it incumbent 
upon it to tend to the oppo- 
site extreme in discounting the 
uncertainties of the future, and 
establishing sound practices. 

Just a--' obviously, too, it 
must market its property from 
the point of view of selling, for 
the ultimate benefit of the pur- 
chaser, at the same time that 
it makes a profit on the trans 
action sufficiently attractive to 
induce others to follow its ex- 
ample — instead of buildiiv. 6 >r 
a quick sale and a safe 
away" like the majority of 
the present-day development 

companies. 

This point of view can 
scarcely be over- emphasized to 
a public which undoubtedly ex- 
pects to find the Russell Sage 
Foundation offering even more 
glittering bargains than the 
usual suburban development. 
And the fact that it thus pro- 
!S to offer only what it 
believes to be a .good invest- 



GENERAL PLAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT. 




TOWER AND FLECHE OF Till-: HOTEL 



ment, instead of a speculation, for the small purchaser 
must never be lost sight of in judging its work at Forest 
Hills Gardens. 

While a very large proportion of the land area to 

b e developed will 

undoubtedly be sold with- 
out building improve- 
ments, the Sage Founda- 
tion Homes Company, in 
order to set a standard 
and control more surely 
the architectural charac- 
ter of the future town, 
has planned to erect and 
hold, certainly for a time, 
a large number of dwell- 
ings. 

To this end plans have 
been prepared for an 
initial operation contemplating ten different groups of 
buildings. The majority of those erected in this first opera- 
tion, which are largely confined to the more expensive and 
central property, are in the form of contiguous or block- 
houses ; the detached and semi-detached types of dwell- 
ings of various grades and sizes being necessarily possible 
only on the less central and lower priced portions of the 
property. 

The different types of buildings included in these groups 
cover as wide a range as is permitted by the economic con- 
ditions, — which necessarily determine also their distribu- 
tion and location of the property. Adjoining the railroad 
station are three- or four-story buildings containing stores, 
offices, and restaurants. from this center out towards 
Forest l'ark. which bounds the property on the southeast, 
the houses are planned to correspond to the varying 

values of the lots, as deter- 
mined by their size, location, 
and prospect, the larger single- 
family dwelling containing ten 
or twelve rooms, and the 
smaller, four or five. Follow- 
ing the land and road contours 
these are combined in smaller 
and more detached groups, as 
the property becomes more 
hilly. While these vary greatly 
in size, arrangement, cost, and 
architectural treatment, the at- 
tempt was made to make them 
all alike in their domestic and 
livable character. 

From an architectural point 
of view our greatest opportun- 
ity — apart from certain novel 
uses of material and methods 
of construction — is in that 
general harmony of design, 
which is possible only where 
the entire scheme of develop- 
ment is laid out and executed 
under such a system of co op 
eration by the various experts 
as at Forest Hills Gardens. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 319 

Forest Hills Gardens — Building Construction. 



\V. F. ANDERSON. 



A considerable por- 
tion of the building's 
already planned are so 
nearly completed that a 
distinctive character has 
been given to the de- 
velopment, in so far as 
the village center is con- 
cerned ; it is therefore 
proper that a few words 
should be said, descrip- 
tive of the buildings in 
this portion of the prop- 
erty which are illus- 
trated herewith and 
given fuller presentation in the Plate Section following. 

The buildings surrounding the village center may prop- 
erly be divided into units and described as : Two apart- 
ment houses flanking a row of three two-family houses. 
The hotel group, subdivided into five units by the arrange- 
ment of interior partitions and connected by bridges with 
each other and with the station platform, itself a com- 
plete unit. The house groups on either side of Greenway 
Terraces, which are rows of individual houses ; with the 
exception of one arranged for two 
families. 






steel skeleton complete, 
including floor beams 
and roof rafters, was 
used for the hotel tower; 
hollow terra cotta block 
reinforced with rods and 
concrete poured in si In, 
and also concrete pier 
and girder construction, 
with curtain walls, were 
used in the other build- 
ings. 

In the hotels proper 
the entire construction 
is fireproof; and in the 

house group known as VI. A a fireproof floor and par- 
tition type of construction was employed with wooden 
rafters. The type of floor construction adopted in general 
was that of terra cotta block and concrete beam. 

For the roofs, except in the two house groups, steel 
framing supported a continuous cement roof slab in which 
metal lath reinforcement was buried. 

In the upper cement surface of the roof slab nailing 
strips were buried to receive the tile. 

The general color tone of the exte- 
rior of all the buildings is restful and 





ORNAMENTAL IRON LAMPS, STATION SQUARE. 



In detail of construction and convenience of plan the 
work is eminently practical and designed to meet the re- 
quirements of its time; artistically it is European of an 
earlier style. Yet into the construction no new elements 
entered. It was simply a new method of combination 
which has brought out the general effect. 

Before the general plans were prepared the trustees 
had decided that the buildings should be constructed of 
concrete, brick, or other permanent material even at some- 
what greater initial cost, in view of greater durability and 
lesser repair bills. With this idea in mind a careful com- 
parison was made of the cost of different materials on a 
unit price basis and actual tests were made for durability. 

The foundation walls of all the buildings are of cast 
concrete, poured in the usual wood forms, with reinfor 
cing rods where necessary. 

In the construction of exterior walls above the first floor 
level different types of construction were employed. A 



pleasing, but does not lack for variety. Brick predom- 
inates in the facing of the exterior wall surfaces. To 
avoid monotony the bricks were purchased from various 
dealers, although all were of either the common or the 
Lammie grade. These bricks were laid in general on 
edge, presenting the irregular broken surface of the arch 
brick. The natural variation in color and contrast wit li 
a wide and dark color mortar joint is interesting. 
Where a decorative spot was wanted the bricks were 
laid in pattern, with a panel border of headers laid dentil 
fashion. 

The cornice is of solid cast concrete, but the dentil course 
is formed of light red common brick set in as headers, 
darker colored brick being used for the recessed members. 

The color and texture of the exterior stucco is unusual 
and attractive. The possibility of using waste from the 
roof tile as an aggregate presented itself, with the result 
that experiments were made and the following formula 



3 2 ° 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



adopted for the plain surfaces below 
second-floor belt course : 



the 




1 cu. ft. cement 1 cu l't. sand 

i. it. % in. -ravel ! i cu. ft. ' 4 in. tile 

l ■ . by wt. of black oxide 

In the stucco bands and cornice where a 
more pronounced color was desired, the 
formula was changed to 



1 cu. 


ft. 


cement 


1 CU. 


ft. 


■ + in. 


tile 


1 cu. 


ft. 


sand 


1 cu. 


ft. 


'.- in. 


tile 


1 cu. 


ft 


% in. gravel 


1 cu 


ft. 


'; in 


gravel 



ORNAMENTAL IRON I.AM1 
POST. 



3', by wt. black oxide 

In some cases small per cent of Medusa Com- 
pound added. 

In some of the panels cast concrete grilles 
are inserted. These are made in wood forms 
of special design. By adopting a uniform 
size of unit and using- Idler pieces it has been 
found practicable to use the same form for 
many different sizes of grilles. 

On completion of the stucco, and all cast 
concrete generally, the surface was washed 
with a weak solution of acid, using an 
ordinary scrubbing brush. This treatment 
removed surplus cement and brought out the 
colors in the aggregate. 

The owners had. on the property, a factory containing 
a crusher anil mixer, as well as other machinery for han- 
dling concrete ; allot" which simplified the preparation of 
this special material. 

Among interesting features found in the exterior are 
the wall panels in balconies of the hotel tower. These 
are laid up in cast cement brick, each cast separately and 
finished with a surface of broken vitrified floor tile, either 
green or blue. 

From beneath the projecting balconies the necessary 
floor drains, transformed into Gargoyle heads, look down 
on the busy street beneath. 

Flat shingle tile, in shades of red and brown laid at 
random, have been used on all the roofs. The hip rolls 
and ridge pieces have all been kept as simple as possible 
in order that the roof lines may not be destroyed. 

The general 
color tones of 
the roof blend 

with, rather 
than contrast 
with, the color 
of the w a 1 1 
surfaces. 

In the interior 
finish of the 
buildings every- 
thing has been 
kept simple and 
yet attractive 
and practical. 

The apart- 
ment houses are 
arranged for full 
housekeepi n g 
facilities, and 
compare favora- along the village green 





bly with apartments of the same class in 

the city. 

An attractive feature of the hotel plan is 
the tea garden. This is an enclosed court 
surrounded by stone walls, supporting a 
trellis over which vines will be grown. At 
one end is a fountain. Direct access is had 
from this garden to the culinary depart- 
ment, and hotel guests can be served at 
tables out of doors, yet entirely screened 
from the street. 

The plumbing is of the usual standard of 
modern custom. The hot water is gen- 
erated in a central plant, located in the 
basement of the tower building', and is piped 
to all fixtures in the hotels and also the 
apartment houses. 

A central heating- plant in the same build- 
ing- supplies heat for all of these buildings 
and furnishes the live steam required in the 
kitchen. 

The cooking- ranges and bakers' ovens, 
however, are operated by gas. 

The individual houses in the two groups, 
known as VI A and VI B, are planned in 
the same general way as a city house of 
equal floor area. The amount of open land reserved to 
each group, however, gives a sense of openness and free- 
dom seldom found in the city. 

Tlic interior finish in these groups is of hard wood in 
the principal rooms of the first floor and of white wood 
painted in the bedrooms. 

Bach house is supplied with gas and electricity. The 
heat is supplied by individual low-pressure steam boilers 
operating on a one-pipe system. 

A new form of concrete construction was adopted in 
these buildings in the window jambs, lintels, and sills, and 
also the cornices and gable trimmings. 

These were cast in sections in wood forms moulded 
to detail. The usual Portland cement concrete was 
used in the body with a facing- of crushed tile and 
gravel mixed to match the other stucco. The easting in 

each case was 
complete and 
the surface 
brushed as be- 
fore described. 
Weight was re- 
el need by in- 
terior cores in 
the form. 

\V it fa this 
m c t h o d of 
procedure the 
factory work 
could be done 
d u r i n g t h e 
winter months 
a n d t h e fin- 
ished product 
laid in t h e 
same manner as 
FOREST HILLS GARDENS. ashlar. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 12. PLATE 155. 




THE STATION. 





stores and apartments, station square. 
Grosvenor Attersury, Architect. 

FOREST HILLS GARDENS. FOREST HILLS, L. I. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 12. PLATE 156. 




LOOKING DOWN THE VILLAGE GREEN. 






THE STATION SQUARE. 
GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT. 

FOREST HILLS GARDENS, FOREST HILLS, L. I. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PLATE 157. 



VOL. 21. NO. 12. 




tea garden, hotel. 
Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 
FOREST HILLS GARDENS. FOREST HILLS. L. I. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 12. PLATE 158. 



{ 



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IP 




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rzr** 



• +-1-1 35 _! 

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tf 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 12. PLATE 159. 







5 -J 



rs w CO 

W t LJ 

Q X „ 

-u CJ -X. 

I a O 

o < y 

h > 

w a: 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 12. PLATE 160. 




FOREST HILLS GARDENS, 
FOREST HILLS, L. I. 



- r»sT - ruooc-PLAn - • 



-3ecoMO-rLooa-Pi>n- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 12. PLATE 161. 




Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 
FOREST HILLS GARDENS, FOREST HILLS, L. I. 



THE RRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 12. PLATE 16Z 







Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 
FOREST HILLS GARDENS, FOREST HILLS, L. 1. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 12. PLATE 164. 





j -j — 


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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PLATE 165. 
VOL. 21, NO. 12. 




THE 



„,"" xhTr.CE ,NST,TUTE, HOUSTON. TEXAS. 
AD „, NI STRATIOH BmLDmOO^THE^ ^^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 21, NO. 12. 



PLATE 166. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21, NO. 12. p LATE 167 . 




r Ce^TfcM, Motive of &ld _>I£_ailqj_s — Action 



[ KEY TO MA1XR1AL5 I 

J-/1HDLC in I , , ; I fflMWNQ 31011 1 ' '■'■"] 

_■_■>? r/«r * ■- • ■ *■ incuinnon !■__. _, 
/i'.vjc /y V':y//v'l WM.11W snie W,i)!/!A 

Jlff/CH. .7/ ' , E72^g3 >»W{ UHtStmt f • •! 

■' .-. __■ V 'IF.ViftM L___J 

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secr/jn I. ■■■Ill , /.yjicr/ai \ 
TLtrrex m _____ WJBM «*W I 1 



-v^CTLOTi — £l£VATlOJiCF BPLOAL JSrV 

*__tf^Ij_&_ £g_ML <S_ 



THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 

THE RICE INSTITUTE, HOUSTON, TEXAS. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 21. NO. 12. PLATE 168. 




= 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



321 




>ITE, FROM 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDIN 



The Administration Building Of The Rice Institute, 

Houston, Texas. 



FRANZ WINKLER. 



THE Rice Institute, established by Mr. William H. 
Rice as a college for higher education and research, 
has already considerably transcended the plans and inten- 
tions of its founder. In the long- interval since his death, 
the fund he set apart for it has greatly accumulated, not 
only by the natural accretion of the income, but also by 
the unexpected appreciation of the securities in which the 
principal had been invested at the time of the death of 
the testator. Their charge thus grew on the hands of 
the trustees. They found themselves in control of a sum 
adequate not only to the comparatively modest purposes of 
the originally projected " institute," but really equal to 
the realization of the modern and American notion of an 
"university." There is, in fact, a " State University " 
of Texas " in posse," and its authorities have invoked excel- 
lent architectural advice as to its lodgment, though it does 
not appear that its actual buildings are worthy of any 
architectural consideration. Nevertheless, the charter of 
the university has the respectable antiquity, for a South- 
western institution, of twenty-seven years, having been 
issued in 1883. According to the latest available statistics, 
it has the more than respectable undergraduate member 
ship of 2,758, and there are about 80,000 volumes in its 
library. It is true that Texas is a large state, large and 
"sparse," and that Austin, its capital, and by the charter 
of the State University the seat thereof, is a jealous city 
by right of its political preeminence, as well as by right of 
its aspirations as a Southwestern "boom-town." ISut 
when one considers how neighborly Austin and Houston 
are, according to any computation of vicinage, and how 
specially neighborly they are in view of the magnificent 
distances of well-railroaded Texas, it does look highly 
absurd that there should be one institution of university 
pretensions at Austin and another at Houston. It is not 
as it was in Colonial times, when every nuance of Biblical 



Christianity had to have its separate and peculiar propa- 
ganda in the shape of a college. There can be no sectari- 
anism in the project of the State University of Texas. We 
know that there is none in the project of the Rice Institute, 
which is as disinterested and uncommitted a benefaction in 
the interest of higher education an any project could be. 
All to which the trustees of the Rice Institute are appar- 
ently bound is to sec that the intentions of the founder are 
carried out and that his memory is duly preserved and 
honored in the institution or " institute " of his founda- 
tion. All to which the legislators of Texas arc bound is 
to see that the ingenuous youth of Texas, " at which," in 
the language of the Portuguese grammar, "they have'' 
dedicated particularly " the State University " should have 

the opportunity of the best possible education on the most 

reasonable possible terms. So that the usual question 
recurs with peculiar cogency, Why should the State of 
Texas and the trustees of the Rice Institute not "get 
together"? It would not be fair to say that as things 
are now, each party is endowing a "lame duck." The 
resources on cither hand are too ample to allow of that 
interpretation. But it is not at all unfair to say that an 
opportunity is offered to establish a single institution which 
would be of far more educational weight and instance than 
the two unconnected institutions which, as things are now, 
are to compete for the higher education of the " ingenuous 

youth " of Texas, instead of CO operating in it. It would he 
accessary to that desirable end, no doubt, for the moun- 
tain, meaning the state, to come to Mahomet, meaning the 
Rice Institute, since " Mahomet " has already made more 
important architectural committals in the bigger city than 
"the mountain," in the smaller, though the smaller hap- 
pens to be the capital. 

All this, to be sure, is not architecture, and perhaps we 
ht to apologize for inflicting it on the readers of a tech- 



3 22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



nical periodical. It appears that there have been divided 
counsels about the architecture itself of the Rice Institute. 
Although that architecture was committed from the first 
to excellent architectural hands, in fact, to the same firm 
from which emanated the actual construction of the admin- 



on which there was no architectural precedent, exec] a 
haply one of Spanish origin. The design referred to for 
the auditorium reverted to the Moorish architecture of 
Spain, and even behind that to its Saracenic original. It 

was frankly Asiatic, with its big cupola, its cloistered 



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istrative building, of which we present a series of illus- 
trations, we recall a published design for the auditorium 
of the proposed institute which would scarcely be congru- 
ous with the design of the building which has been exe- 
cuted. What the two designs had in common appears to 
have been the conviction on the part of each of the 
designers, unless, as is with difficulty conceivable, they 
were the same designer, that the conventional "colle- 
giate " architecture, in which, at Princeton and elsewhere, 
the architects have had their own successes, was not at 
all the thing for so exceptional an endowment as that 
which Mr. Rice had proposed for his " institute " ; that 
what would do for the succession to Nassau Hall, on what 
Holmes has so inaccurately described as "Princeton's 
sands," would not do on the interminable plains of Texas, 



and umbrageous arcades, its plain surfaces, evidently 
intended to receive a decoration of encaustic tiling. 

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan 

A stately pleasure- dome decree. 

With its Asiatic connotations, this design for the cul- 
minating and central building of the group carried also a 
"sub-tropical" suggestion. And this sub-tropical sug- 
gestion was repeated in the design of the same period 
(1909) for the administration building, in which one 
detects the germ anil "leit-motif" of the administration 
building now realized in actual bricks and mortar and 
inlay of " semi-precious, " regarded as building material 
of (piite precious, stones. 

All beholders will promptly agree upon two points in the 







CLOISTER FROM DORMITORY To REFECTORY. 



CLOISTER, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3 2 3 




DETAILS ni WES1 AND BAST FRONTS 



THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, THE RICK INSTITUTE, HOUSTON, TEXAS. 
Cram, Goodhue K- Ferguson, An hiti 



3 2 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



design of the one distinctly " architecturesque " building 

thus far erected in pursuance of the scheme for the Rice 
Institute. One is, that it is a highly interesting building. 
The other is, that it is not at all " the regular thin-- " in 
collegiate architecture. One notes with pleasure on each 

of the fronts that the architecture is first of all expressive, 
that there is no concealment of the actual facts and real 
requirements in deference to a preconceived "elevation," 
but, contrariwise, an ' ex 
position of these, and after- 
wards a successful attempt 
to bring them into an or- 
derly relation which shall 
give the two sides by no 
means necessarily an exact 
and formal symmetry, but 
an effective balance, ami 
enable the composition of 
the " features " into a 
countenance, and the 
bringing of the variety into 
unity by means of a pre 
dominant feature. This 
predominating and unify.- 
ing feature is, of course, 
the central four-square 

mass, which .cives ample abutment to the great arch of 
entrance. But observe on the west front, in which the 
arcaded cloister of the basement appears, the difference of 
the treatment of the two wings, no doubt corresponding 
to "differences of administration" in the apartments 
which they front, and note how the differences give life 
and variety to the architecture of the facade without impair- 
ing its unity. The two wings are effectively correspond- 
ent as masses, but compare the differences in the bays 
on either hand. The classical column, with the broken 
entablature above, will excite your interest, perhaps your 
antagonistic interest, when you come to look at it ; but, 
in the meanwhile, remark how effective it is as a 
divisor of the bays, and how effectively it is continued 
downward in the column of the arcade. 

It is, perhaps, this classic feature which gives us 
the key to the "style" of the work, if anybody 
insists on having it classified. The general effect 
of this front one might dismiss as of the Renais- 
sance, even, more specifically, as "Jacobean." Hut 
Study of the detail, and especially of this detail, 
takes him hack to Imperial Rome, or rather to the 
Eastern Empire. Its origin is Byzantine. Truly 
the city of Cbnstantine was where East and West 




DEDICATION DAY, RICE INSTITUTE, HOUSTON, TEXAS. 



met in architecture, or rather whence they diverged, the 
Western departure to become "Romanesque" and the 
Eastern "Saracenic." The "style" of this administra- 
tion building is not, like that of the yet unbuilt auditorium 
of which the design was contemporaneous with it. Oriental 
" of the most Eastern East"; but it has its Orientalism 
all the same. It is Oriental of the near East, Levantine, 
Byzantine. And this character is emphasized by the carv- 
ing of the capitals, of 
which the foliage is of 
that spinose kind which 
was introduced into our 
architecture by Richard- 
son, and the disappearance 
of which, with Richard- 
son's vogue, was regretted 
by many, including, as one 
is glad to note, the archi- 
tects of the present 
building. 

The Oriental impression 
is promoted, also, by the 
use of variegated marbles, 
in conjunction with the 
local rose gray brick, and 
an ivory-tinted marble 
from the Ozark mountains, which arc the principal ma- 
terials. The Ozark marble, of which the ivory tint is 
flushed with rose, is used here for the first time. In the 
shafts or the capitals of the column, and in panels or 
medallions, are also employed green and white Broccadillo 
from Vermont, purple Negallo, red Verona, verd antique, 
Istrian stone, purple, green, and white Cippolino, violet 
Brecca, and tiles of turquoise blue and malachite green. 
The large columns of the west cloister are of pink Texas 
granite. All exterior metal work is of green bronze. 

The architectural scheme of the institute comprises 
thirty-six principal buildings, arranged 
about quadrangles, the principal court 
being 1,500 feet Ion- and 500 feet 
wide. Of those thus far erected the 
administration building, herewith illus- 
trated, is by far the most costly and 
pretentious, and will remain so until 
the construction of the auditorium or 
"Commencement Hall." The other 
buildings thus far in being are the 
power plant, used also for all labora- 
tory purposes, and a part of one of the 
residential quadrangles. 





Tin: POWEK PLANT. 
Cram, Goodhue &.- Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Emmet Building, New York City. 

MADISON AVENUE AND TWENTY NINTH STREET. 

J. STEWART BARNEY AND STOCKTON B. COLT, ARCHITECTS. 



3 2 S 



THE architects of the Emmet Building were presented 
with a rather curious problem which arose from the 
sentimental attachment of the owner to the site. He had 
lived on Madison avenue for most of his life, and while 
realizing- that the character of the street had changed from 
a residential to a business one, and that it was impossible 
longer to continue the occupancy of the old-fashioned 
brownstone house, either with comfort or with profit, he 
did not desire to move from the location. He therefore 
erected an office and loft building, not as a speculative 
procedure, but as a permanent investment, and made the 
upper story of it into a housekeeping apartment. Inas- 
much as the building was to be not only an investment 
but his own permanent residence, he thought it desirable 
to erect something of good architectural character, which, 
although it should be a practical loft or office building, 
should at the same time have the distinction which every 
one wants in his own private house. The architects, 
by a somewhat different treatment of the upper story, 
have made plain the line of demarcation between the 
business portion of the building and the residence, and 
have successfully solved a very interesting problem, as 
will be seen by the accompanying illustrations. 

In the design of the building emphasis was laid as 
strongly as possible on the vertical lines, in a manner 
not dissimilar to those in the Times Building, the West 
Street Building and the Woolworth Building, three of the 
most excellent tall buildings in New York. The stories 
intermediate between the base and the large arches at the 
twelfth story are perhaps the most agreeable that have yet 
been designed in this type, which although in its vertical 
treatment is suggestive of Gothic, is far from being derived 
from Gothic ; the base in fact rather resembling the early 
French Renaissance combination of classic forms. 

One of the most interesting features in the whole struc- 
ture are the columns of the lower two stories, which are of 
green marble inlaid with vertical lines of limestone, — a 
scheme which in form has perhaps had prototypes in early 
Gothic, but which in such a combination of material is a 
unique, beautiful, and clever piece of work. The first 
three stories are faced with limestone, and those above 
are of architectural terra cotta with metal panels between 
the sills of the windows and the heads of the windows 
below them, through the shaft of the building, with an 
attic of brick and terra cotta. 

The use of the terra cotta in this building requires par- 
ticular and favorable comment, in that no attempt has 
been made to disguise the nature of the material, which is 
frankly a fire proofing for the steel work within. The 
accuracy with which the vertical lines have been main- 
tained with no feeling whatever of motion acids to the 
reputation of the material. The terra cotta is of a warm 
gray limestone color with dark olive green tor the back- 
ground of the band below the third story, in the arches at 
the twelfth, and in the cornice, but this color has not been 
made to serve the place of form, but rather to emphasize 
and decorate form ; a method much more satisfactory in 
the lone; run than any attempt to replace form by color. 
We have become accustomed to the construction of 



elaborate and beautiful detail in this material, but it is 
interesting to learn that even the statues and grotesques 
are east terra cotta, a most unusual procedure in such 
large pieces, and which opens up further fields to its 
already extensive possibilities. The modeling of these 
pieces is of an unusual character. 

Perhaps the greatest element in the success of the treat- 
ment of this building is the fact that the architects have 
scaled their detail down to that of the material employed, 
without losing character and distinction to the building as 
a whole. They have not found it necessary to employ 
enormous overhanging cornices, which are not only bad as 
reducing the light on already too narrow streets, but are, 
of course, when constructed in the usual way merely elab- 
orate shams. They have managed to terminate the 
shaft firmly and distinctly by multiplying the small 
members, which even in their multiplicity are neither con- 
fused nor involved, but clear and logical both as to their 
architectural fitness in the design and as to explicit reve- 
lation of the material employed. It is refreshing to find 
this material, which is so useful and satisfactory both in 
appearance and price, frankly expressed, with an impres- 
sion of great richness which in any other material would be 
almost prohibitive. The small pieces in which terra cotta 
can be properly manufactured, and the plastic quality of the 
detail as opposed to the large pieces and carved detail of 
stonework, can be used to quite as good effect as stone for 
certain positions ; and to endeavor to conceal the material 
as if it were something to be ashamed of, is not the highest 
form of art. The Greeks very frequently employed terra 
cotta in decorating their stone architecture ; but they did not 
use it like stone ; and this is one of the many lessons of 
the classic school we have left unlearned. 

The same thoughtfulness in regard to the genuine 
structure of the building as a steel framework overlaid 
with a fireproof covering is observed throughout. Every 
one knows that none of the great marble or granite col- 
umns in the lower stories of tall buildings arc anything 
but veneers ; here the architects have obtained a firmness 
of design resulting from an order in the lower story with- 
out attempting to force it to express a structural function ; 
they have simply mosaiced the various members which 
make up an order, into an agreeable composition used as 
a decorative motive only. The same thing is true of the 
shaft, where the terra cotta is treated purely as a fire- 
proof, weather-proof, and decorative covering for a steel 
frame. 

It may be said of this building without lack of apprecia- 
tion of other tall building work, that it is one of the \\-\v 
structures which approximate the true line of development 

of tall building architecture, both in its design and in its 

selection and use of material. The classic order is neither 
neglected as useless nor employed as a fundamental, C( I 
tain motives of Gothic and Renaissance work have been, 

if not embodied entire, at least suggestively useful in the 
design, and the whole building hangs together in a man 
ikt which might be totally unexpected if its elements were 
named, although when seen the exquisite propriety of their 
relation is at once evident . 



326 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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ELEVATION 





VECTICN* THROUGH-CANOPY- 



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Terra Cotta Details. 



J. Stewart Barney and Stockton B. Colt, Architects 
THE EMMET BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3 2 7 




THE EMMET BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY 
|. Stewart Barney and Stockton I'.. Colt, Archit 



•oeroi/r 



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328 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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J. Stewart Barney ami Stockton B. Colt, Architects. 
THE EMMET BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBU1LDER 



329 




ENTRANCE DETAILS. SHAFT 

THE EMMET BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 
J. Stewart Barney and Stockton B. Colt, Architects. 



33° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



DIRECTOR LORD ON THE TEACHING OF 
ARCHITECTURE. 

AT a dinner recently given by the alumni architects of 
Columbia University, Mr. Austin Willard Lord, the 
new director of the Architectural School, delivered an ad- 
dress which was in the nature of an inaugural. The address 
from which we quote is interesting as an expression of 
Mr. Lord's ideas of how architecture should be taught. 

1 suppose, after all, there are only 
two things to consider, viz., what to 
teach and how to teach it. You arc- 
aware of the fact that there has been 
a wide difference of Opinion as to 
what to teach. We are all struggling 
to find out how to teach it. I look 
upon an architectural school as a 
place to teach architecture. In the 
term "architecture" there is a 
double meaning — first, " design ": 
second "construction." In other 
words, a man to be an architect 
should have a trained sense of pro- 
portion which should enable him to 
combine beautifully materials to be 
used in construction. 

As to method, from time immemo 
rial architecture has been produced, 
each nation or people producing it in 
its own way. How the majority of 
these nations have produced their 
architecture, what their ideals have 
been, how they arrived at their con- 
clusions, how they actually made 
their designs, no one can tell. We 
only know that results were pro 
duced. Out of the wisdom of the 
ages and other conditions brought 
about by innumerable causes, unde- 
finable, a system has gradually 
been evolved which has resulted in 
the formation of a school to teach the 
art of architecture. The French 
have developed this system and over- 
developed it. The Italian makes 
little progress in these days and is 
satisfied with his past glory. The 
German has loved his archaeology 
but to-day is wandering far afield 
and is pursuing new methods and 
developing a new style. The Briton 
is satisfied with his own architecture, 
and we, with our gods in Paris, are 
trying to compass the whole earth. 

_ Contrary to general opinion, the French do not teach 
Classic Architecture or Gothic Architecture, Romanesque, 
or any other kind of architecture. On the contrary, their 
whole method is based on a system of first finding out the 
conditions and then proceeding in a logical way to develop 
structures and lit these conditions. If we are not follow- 
ing this method in America, the most of us think we 
should follow it and, in my opinion, we are fast approach- 
ing the time when we shall follow it unreservedly to the 
end. This, indeed, is the " ideal " system which we are 
striving to follow in Columbia. 

I do not believe that the best results can be obtained 
where an architectural department is an adjunct to a uni- 
versity, for the simple reason that the methods which must 
neces 'lied in the teaching of an art arc so abso- 

lutely different from the methods employed in teaching any 
other subject. But we are only beginning in this country 




TOWER OF GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 
BUILDING, BUFFALO. 

Built entirely of Allan tic white matt terra COtta, 
made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

lvisenwein & Johnson, Architects. 



we cannot do everything in a hundred years. Time is 
the solution of the problem, and I believe we are on the 
right track. When our present schools are organized into 
one central school of art we shall then have an organiza- 
tion calculated to develop the student under the most 
favorable conditions. We arc criticized for our method of 
teaching architecture through the medium of the elements 
of so-called Classic Architecture and the application of 
these elements. I think I am right in saying that this has 
come down to us as a tradition. It is simply a method of 
teaching " Proportion " through the 
medium of certain forms. If any 
one will propose better, more logical, 
more interesting, more inspiring 
forms, there is no doubt of their 
adoption. One suggests that we 
teach Gothic, another that we teach 
Byzantine or Romanesque, and so 
on. In the absence of anything 
better in the way of form, we are 
proceeding on the basis as at present 
established after hundreds of years 
of experience. 

As to the method I am trying per- 
sonally to follow, a few words will 
suffice. I believe that we should 
start with the Creek orders, as in 
them are exemplified the purest art 
we know and the simplest forms 
with which to deal. It is along the 
line of least resistance to take the 
student. Starting with the Creek 
orders, I do not mean that a man 
shall draw out the various orders as 
well as he may, using unlimited time 
in the operation. I believe the stu- 
dent should start with the building 
of which the order may form a part 
and that it should be made clear that 
there are other elements in the be- 
ginning of this operation that are 
vastly more important to teach him 
than the mere order. He should 
know the value of a wall, of the 
openings in that wall ami the spaces 
between those openings, of the ele- 
ments that go fo enrich those open- 
ings, to emphasize them, to give 
them character, to make that wall do 
its work artistically and construc- 
tionally — in other words, to make 
it architectural ; to learn that that 
building has a base, a certain height, 
a crowning member called the cor- 
nice, a roof, either Hat or pitched ; 
and by degrees he learns that it has a certain length in 
relation to its breadth and that these two proportions 
should have a certain relation to its height. In other 
words, we are teaching him " form." 

Now we might go on analyzing and philosophizing and 
we come back to the original proposition that it is all a 
matter of proportion. < >nce the student knows proportion 
he can apply it to any style, to any structure, to any object 
intended to be useful or beautiful in the world. 

As the student becomes possessed of a general knowledge 
of the elements, we take up with the plan and develop it 
the same lines and in the same way. Accompanying 
this instruction he must study the value of color, the use 
of materials, and the application of modern scientific appli- 
ances in the development of his building. The men in 
my department are compelled to draw every day of their 
school course, great stress bcin.e; laid upon free-hand draw- 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



'&& 



33 1 






~/j 




- 

t ■ v J -'. J7 

DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 
Hazzard, Erskine & Blagden, Architects. 

ing in the various mediums. Cultivating the bent of the 
student is the paramount idea. If the students wish to 
specialize in architectural engineering they have that privi- 
lege in the engineering department; but, as my depart- 
ment is not an engineering school, only such teaching on 
constructional lines as will enable him to construct reason- 
ably and well is attempted. Prescribed courses in history 
have been reduced to the minimum with a view to encour- 
aging the student to work out his own 
salvation by reading and thinking and 
by observation. We are conserving 
their strength and their time for things 
architectural and artistic, that they 
shall acquaint themselves as far as pos- 
sible with things that are lying at our 
very doors. They shall know what the 
museum has in store for them, and shall 
use its resources as far as possible to 
their advantage. 

The architect's training should em- 
brace instruction in all the arts, and he 
should work in closer relation with 
other artists — the sculptor and the 
painter. He should work in much 
closer relation with the engineer, and 
we are all satisfied that the engineer 
shoidd work more in harmony with the 
architect, or at least be possessed of 
certain architectural knowledge which 
would aid him in designing the various 
structures that it is a part of his work- 
to build. 

We overdo in a measure the work of 
specializing in the various branches 
of our work. This specializing is, of 
course, brought about by the requirements of the times, 
but we should not forget the great periods of the Renais- 
sance and how the artists of those times — architects, 
painters, and sculptors — were in many cases masters of 
the three arts and were constructing engineers at the same 
time. We know that the fortifications of the old Italian 
cities were in most cases built by these artists, and their 
varied qualifications led them to other fields of intellectual 
endeavor. The architect's training should embrace a 
knowledge of city planning and of the planning of land- 
scape, and must necessarily cover all problems, both artistic 
and scientific, which affect in any way the existence of the 




DETAIL BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA COTTA CO. 
Grossman & Proskener, Architects. 

people. This whole operation of teaching architecture is 

practically a business undertaking on an artistic basis. It 
is a bread and butter proposition. 



TICK R A 



COTTA FOR THE EMMET 
NEW YORK CITY. 



BUILDING, 




THE architectural terra cotta for the Emmet Building, 
described and illustrated in detail in this issue, was 
furnished by the Federal Terra Cotta 
Company. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR 

NOVEMBER AND PAST 

ELEVEN MONTHS. 



v y so 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW YORK 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA CO. 

Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones, Architects. 



Atlanta, 199 per 
Kansas City, 153 ; 



ICIAL building reports from 
ome fifty building centers 
throughout the country, as compiled 
by The American Contractor, New 
York, show an aggregate gain of eighth 
and one-third per cent for November 
as compared with November, 1911 ; 
and the past eleven months show a 
gain of five and one-fifth per cent as 
compared with the same months of 
the past year. The building indus- 
tries enjoyed prosperity last year, and 
it is gratifying to know that tins year 
promises to be still better. Over one 
hundred per cent increase for Novem- 
ber was scored in the following cities: 
cent; Duluth, 251; Indianapolis, 183; 
Nashville, 309 ; St. Joseph, L05 ; Wor 

cester, 194. The principal gains during the eleven months 

were made at: Atlanta, 53; Buffalo, 40; Detroit, 35; 

Los Angeles, 34; Fort Wayne. 32; Manchester, 86; 

Rochester, 32 ; Toledo, 44. 



The University < 
Research, l'ittsbur 



IX GENERAL, 
if Pittsburgh, Department of industrial 
:h. Pa., is conducting an investigation 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY AMERICAN TERRA COTTA & 
CERAMIC CO. 

Louis II. Sullivan, Architect. 




DETAIL BY O. W. KETCHAW TERRA COTTA WORKS. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 



33 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

Built of Mosaic Brick-laid Flemish Bond. Made by Western Brick 

Company. 

Poltz & Parker, Architects. 



of the effects of smoke on building materials. Informa- 
tion is asked from dealers and manufacturers as to the 




STABLE AND GARAGE BUILDING, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Roof of Imperial Spanish Red Tile. Made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Abram Garfield, Architect. 

effect smoke has on the various materials which are used 
in the exteriors of buildings. 







: I I I 



S* #^« 






A WALL OF ROOKWOOD FAIENCE TILES. 

Edgar I. Williams, holder of the " Roman Prize" in 
architecture, has accepted a position as instructor in archi- 
tecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

The Medal of Honor of the New York Chapter. A. I. A., 
has been awarded for L912 to Charles A. Piatt, for country 

houses. 

Mr. John S. Siebert, architect, formerly of Cumberland, 
Md., has opened offices in the Spreckels Building, San 
Diego, Cal. 




HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Built of Ironclay Roman Brick. 

C. S. Hopkinson, Architect. 



APARTMENT, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Built of Steel Gray Brick. Made by Hydraulic Press Brick Company. 
Diboll, Owens & Goldstein, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



333 



The Twenty-eighth Annual Exhibition of 
the Architectural League of New York 
will be held in the building of the Ameri- 
can Fine Arts Society. 215 West 57th 
street, from Sunday, February 2d, to 
Saturday, February 22d, inclusive. Ex- 
hibits discharged Monday, February 24th. 

Leslie X. Iredell, architect, has removed 
his offices to the Littlefield Building, Aus- 
tin, Texas. Manufacturers' samples and 
catalogues requested. 

At the annual meeting of The Association 
of the Alumni of the American Academv in 




BUILDING AT 33lJ STREET AND BROADWAY, 

NEW YORK CITY. 
Entire facades of Gray Terra Cotta made by South 

Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

Rouge & Goldstone, Architects. 

Harry E. Warren, 37 Liberty street, New 
York City. 

Reid Brothers, architects, San Francisco, 
have opened a branch office in the Van- 
couver Block, Vancouver, B. ('., with W. E. 
Reid in charge. 

Edward F. Maher and Charles A. Win- 
chester have formed a copartnership for 
the practice of architecture with offices 
at X Beacon street, Boston. 

The Fred A. Jones Building Company, 
of Dallas and Houston, Tex., announce 
the removal of their Birmingham office to 







■T«i ft 


-. a 




pear- • ■■WpV* m&lji 



CHURCH OK ST. JOSEPH, BABYLON, L. I. 

The brick and tile used in the exterior and interior, were furnished by (). W. KeUhain, 

Philadelphia and New York. 

Reiley & Steinback, Architects. 



Rome, held 
November 
2 0, 1912, 
the follow- 
ing officers 
were elected 
for the en- 
suing year : 
President, 
H . Van 
Buren Ma- 
g O n i g 1 e ; 
vice-presi - 
dents, H. 
A. McNeil 
and Barry 
Faulkner ; 
s e cretary- 
treasurer, 



the new American Trust and Savings Bank Building, 
with Mr. Carroll Blake in charge. 

The Western Brick Company, Danville, 111., will place 
two new lines of brick on the market in 1913. Samples 
may be had now. 

The members of the Master Builders' Association of 
Boston at a meeting held recently voted to make a separate 
and speci fie charge for compensation insurance rather than 
to make an increase in charge for labor per hour. In tin's 
way the owner's attention is forcibly drawn to the matter 
and he will learn that compensation insurance is a factor 
of cost with which he must reckon. 

James B. Urquhart and J. Carroll Johnson have asso- 
ciated for the practice of architecture ; offices, National 
Loan and Exchange Bank Building, Columbia, S. C. 

Ellis D. Gates, a graduate of the Ceramic School of 
the Ohio State University, and well known for his connec- 




HOI -1. \ T EDGEWOOD, P \. 
Built of Nfatco Hollow Tiles. Charles Barton Keen, Architect. 



334 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



tion with the manufacture 
and sale of architectural 
terra cotta, has opened 
an office at 103 North 
Water street. Mobile, 
Ala., for the handling of 
building supplies and 
specialties. 

Hardin- & Upman, 
architects, Washington, 
D. C, have dissolve d 
t h e i r copartnersh i p . 



uLix -luiniJju • '""iiiiiimihi auiiuiiums uiumumu. 
IMI MIMI MMII Rill II in mm Mill 





»»Jk ESSMt ►>»:* "' . 

I l I I 1 1 1 I I f « ! 1 f 



CORNICE FOB POST OFFICE AT SHREVEPORT, I. A. 

Executed by Conkling-Armstmng Terra Cotta Company. 

James Knox Taylor, Architect. 




C. L. Harding' will carry 
on the work now under con- 
tract with offices in the 
W( >od ward B uildin g . 
Frank L'pman has opened 
offices for independent prac- 
tice in the same building. 

William L. Bell, archi- 
tect, lias opened an office 
in Atlanta, Ga. Manu- 
facturers' samples and 
catalogues requested. 



ONE HUNDRED BUNGALOWS -THE TITLE OF 
-V 120 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS ONE 
IirXURED DESIGNS FOR HOUSES OF THE 
BUNGALOW TYPE SUBMITTED IN THE COMPE- 
TITION RECENTLY CONDUCTED BY THE 
BRICKBUILDER. PRICE, 50 CENTS. ROGERS & 
MANSON, BOSTON. 



A Rare Opportunity 

Beautiful Old Colonial Brick from Breckinridge Manor 
House in Virginia. Now stored on railroad siding. For 
interesting particulars apply to Edwin West, Jr., 527 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. 



(g. Irnpa Ian iort (En. 

Importers of and Dealers in 

ARCHITECTURAL PUBLICATIONS 

20 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

"We have several positions open for good all around 
draftsmen who are not employed. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 



While none of our latest buildings have been selected for 
publication this month, we have, nevertheless, been more 
than busy on several large works requiring the best of brick. 



t3iske 6- company jnc 
Iace bricks; establish 

AIRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



THE NATCO HOUSE — the title of a new : \ page 

BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS A SELECTION OF DESIGNS 
SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE AT A COST OF 
SIX THOUSAND DOLLARS. ALSO ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HOUSES BUILT OF THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH 
ARTICLES DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



r. 



BOILERS and RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 



THE H. B 

Weitfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



SMITH CO. 

New York 
Boston 



J 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Following are examples of our work : 

Brooldine Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis. Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Boston. C. H. Blackall, Architect. 
Boston State Hospital, Boston. Messrs. Kendall, Taylor & Co., 
Architects. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 



JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years